ʻO Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema kahi hoʻolaha PR no ka ʻoihana Agrichemical

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ʻOiai ʻo ia ka inoa kani a me ka pilina me kahi ʻoihana Ivy League, ka ʻO Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema (CAS) kahi hoʻolaha kaiāulu i kākoʻo kālā ʻia e ka Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā poʻe a puni ka honua e hoʻolaha a pale aku i nā mea kanu i hana ʻia me nā mahiʻai i ko lākou mau home home. Ua kāhea nā loea he nui, nā loea kulekele ʻai, nā hui ʻai a me nā mahiʻai i nā hana kūpono ʻole a me nā hana hoʻopunipuni a nā CAS hoa e hoʻāʻo ai e hōʻino i nā hopohopo e pili ana a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana.

I Kepakemapa, CAS hai mai la $ 10 miliona i ke kālā hou mai ka Gates Foundation, e lawe ana i ka huina o Gates kālā i $ 22 miliona mai ka 2014. Loaʻa ke kālā hou e like me Gates Foundation ke kū nei i ka pushback mai nā hui mahiʻai ʻApelika, nā meaʻai a me nā hilinaʻi no ka hoʻolilo kālā ʻana i mau piliona kālā ma nā hoʻolālā hoʻomohala ma ʻApelika hōʻike ʻole nā ​​hōʻike i ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka pōloli a hāpai ʻana paha i nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi, ʻoiai lākou e hoʻokau nei i nā ʻano mahiʻai e pono ai nā ʻoihana ma mua o ka poʻe. 

Kākau kēia pepa palapala i nā laʻana he nui o ka misinformation mai CAS a me nā poʻe i pili me kēia hui. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona i hōʻike ʻia ma aneʻi e hōʻike nei i ka hoʻohana ʻana o CAS i ka inoa o Cornell, ka inoa a me ka mana e holomua i ka PR a me ka papahana politika o nā hui kemika a me nā hua hua nui loa o ka honua.

ʻO ka mikiona a me ka leka uila i hoʻopili ʻia me nā ʻoihana

Ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻo CAS i ka makahiki 2014 me ka hāʻawi kālā Gates Foundation he $ 5.6 miliona a hoʻohiki ʻia i "depolarize ”ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a puni GMOs. ʻO ka hui wahi a na misionari ʻo ia e "paipai i ke komo ʻana" i nā mea kanu a me nā meaʻai a GMO e ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i nā "ʻepekema" a puni ka honua e aʻo i ko lākou kaiāulu e pili ana i nā pono o ka biotechnology mahiʻai.

Paipai ka hui ʻoihana Pesticide iā CAS 

ʻO kahi ʻāpana nui o ka hoʻolālā CAS e hoʻopaʻa inoa a hoʻomaʻamaʻa Nā hoa alakaʻi alakaʻi honua i nā kamaʻilio a me nā hana hoʻolaha, e kia ana i nā wahi kahi e kūʻē ai ka lehulehu i ka ʻoihana biotech, ʻo ia hoʻi nā ʻāina ʻApelika i pale aku i nā mea kanu GMO.

He ʻano like ka mikiona CAS me ka ʻAha Kūkā no ka ʻikepili Biotechnology (CBI), kahi ʻoihana pesticide-fund i kālā kālā i ka pilina pilina i loaʻa hana pū ʻia me CAS. Hana ka hui ʻoihana i kūkulu i nā kuʻikahi ma ʻō aku o ke kaulahao meaʻai a hoʻomaʻamaʻa nā kolu-ʻaoʻao, ʻo ia hoʻi nā kālaiʻike a me nā mahiʻai, e hoʻohuli i ka lehulehu e ʻae iā GMOs.

Hoʻohālikelike ka leka uila CAS me PR pesticide ʻoihana PR: kahi myopic e nānā nei i ka hiki ke loaʻa nā pōmaikaʻi o nā meaʻai genetically engineered ʻoiai e hoʻoliʻiliʻi ana, nānā ʻole a hōʻole paha i nā pilikia a me nā pilikia. E like me ka hoʻoikaika ʻana o ka ʻoihana PR, nānā nui ʻo CAS i ka hoʻouka kaua ʻana a me ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hōʻino i nā mea hōʻino no nā huahana mahiʻai, e like me nā ʻepekema a me nā mea nūpepa nāna e hāpai i nā olakino a i ʻole nā ​​pili kaiapuni.

Hoʻohalahala ākea

Ua huki ʻo CAS a me kāna mau mea kākau i nā loiloi mai nā kālaihana, nā mahiʻai, nā haumāna, nā hui kaiāulu a me ka neʻe ʻana o ka mana o ka meaʻai e ʻōlelo nei e hoʻolaha ana ka hui i nā leka kūpono ʻole a hoʻopunipuni ʻole a hoʻohana i nā hana unethical. E ʻike ma kahi laʻana:

Nā laʻana o ka hoʻopunipuni leka ʻana

Ua kākau nā loea i ka ʻenekinia, ka biology, agroecology a me nā kulekele meaʻai i nā hiʻohiʻona he nui o nā koi pololei ʻole a Mark Lynas i ʻōlelo ai, he hoa kipa ma Cornell nāna i kākau he mau ʻatikala e pale ana i nā huahana mahiʻai ma ka inoa o CAS; ʻike e like me kāna hāpai ʻia nā ʻatikala he nui e ka Genetic Literacy Project, he hui PR kēlā hana pū me Monsanto. Kūkā ʻo Lynas 'puke 2018 no nā ʻāina ʻApelika e ʻae i nā GMO, a hāʻawi i kahi mokuna e pale aku iā Monsanto.

Nā koi kūpono ʻole e pili ana i nā GMO

Ua hoʻohewa ka poʻe ʻepekema he nui iā Lynas no ka hana ʻana nā ʻōlelo hoʻopunipuni, “ʻAʻole ʻepekema, kūpono ʻole a lapuwale”Nā paio, paipai dogma ma luna o ka ʻikepili a me ka noiʻi ma nā GMO, ke kuhi nei i nā mea kamaʻilio, a ke hana nei i nā kuleana kūpono ʻole e pili ana i nā pesticides "hōʻike i ka naʻaupō ʻepekema hohonu, a i ʻole kahi hana ikaika e hana i ka kānalua. "

"ʻO ka papa inoa holoi o nā mea i hewa ai ʻo Mark Lynas e pili ana i nā GMO a me ka ʻepekema nui, a ua hōʻole ʻia e kekahi o nā agroecologists a me nā biologists alakaʻi o ka honua." Ua kākau ʻo Eric Holt-Giménez, luna hoʻomalu o Food First, i ʻApelila 2013 (Ua hui ʻo Lynas iā Cornell ma ke ʻano he hoa kipa ma hope o kēlā makahiki).  

"Disingenuous a me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole"

Ua hoʻohewa nui nā hui ʻo ʻApelika iā Lynas i ka lōʻihi. ʻO ka Alliance for Soichness Food ma ʻApelika, kahi hui pū o 40 a me nā hui mahiʻai ma waena o ʻApelika i wehewehe ʻia ʻo Lynas ma he "lele-i pundit" nona ka "hoʻowahāwahā i ka poʻe ʻApelika, hiki ʻole ke kuhihewa ʻia ka loina a me ka moʻomeheu." ʻO Million Belay, ka luna o AFSA, i wehewehe ʻia ʻo Lynas ma ke ʻano he "racist e hoʻokau nei i kahi moʻolelo e hiki ai i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana ke hoʻopakele iā ʻApelika."

I kahi hoʻokuʻu paʻi 2018, ka South Africa-based Africa Center for Biodiversity i ho'ākāka ʻia nā hana kūʻē ʻole a Lynas i hoʻohana ai e hoʻolaulaha i ka papa hana lobby biotech ma Tanzania. "Aia kekahi pilikia e pili ana i ka kuleana a me [pono no] ka nohoaliʻi ʻana i ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema, no ka hewa o ka ʻike hewa a me ke ʻano o kā lākou disingenuous a me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole," ʻo Mariam Mayet, ka luna hoʻomalu o ka Center Africa no Biodiversity, i ʻōlelo i ka a Iulaiinar webinar webinar.

No nā loiloi piha o kā Lynas hana, e ʻike i nā ʻatikala ma ka hopena o kēia wahi a me kā mākou ʻO Mark Lynas pepa maoli.

Ke hoʻouka nei i ka agroecology

ʻO kahi laʻana o ka leka uila kūpono ʻole kahi ʻatikala panned ākea ma ka CAS paena e Lynas e koi ana, "agro-ecology e hōʻeha i ka poʻe hune." ?? Ua wehewehe ka poʻe ʻatikala i ka ʻatikala ma ke ʻano he “ka wehewehe demagogic a me ka ʻole ʻepekema o kahi pepa ʻepekema, ""hohonu unserious, ""kumumanaʻo kūlohelohe "a" kahi hilahila no ka mea makemake e koi ʻepekema, ”a“kālailai hewa maoli“?? hana “kahili laulaha“?? a “nā hopena hihiu.”Kekahi poʻe loiloi Kāheaʻia a hoʻihoʻi ʻana.

2019 kikokikona na CAS hoa Nassib Mugwanya i hāʻawi i kahi hiʻohiʻona ʻē aʻe o nā ʻike kuhihewa e pili ana i ke kumuhana agroecology. ʻO ka ʻatikala, "No ke aha e hiki ʻole ai i nā hana mahiʻai kuʻuna ke hoʻololi i ka mahiʻai ʻApelika," e hōʻike ana i ke ʻano leka maʻamau i nā mea CAS. 'kumu ʻole a hoʻopōʻino hoʻi, ” mamuli o ke kaanaki e ka Alakaʻi kaiāulu i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Seattle no Global Justice.

"Kaulike nui ʻia i ka ʻatikala nā hoʻohana ikaika o nā metaphors (e laʻa me ka agroecology i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā kūpeʻe lima), nā laulaha ʻana, ka haʻalele ʻana i ka ʻike a me ka nui o nā pololei ʻole maoli," wahi a ka hui.

Ke hoʻohana nei i ka puke pāʻani Monsanto e pale aku i nā pesticides

ʻO kekahi laʻana o ka hoʻopunipuni CAS leka uila ʻoihana hiki ke loaʻa i ka pale o ka hui o Roundly glyphosate. ʻO nā lāʻau herbicides kahi kī nui o nā hua GMO me 90% o ka kulina a me ka soy i ulu i ka United States ʻenekini genetically e hoʻomanawanui iā Roundup. I ka makahiki 2015, ma hope o ka panel noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai o ka World Health Organization i ʻōlelo ai ʻo glyphosate kahi kino kanaka paha, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Monsanto i nā mea kōkua e "orchestrate outcry" e kūʻē i ka ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa kūʻokoʻa e "pale i ka inoa maikaʻi" o Roundup, e like me nā palapala Monsanto kūloko.

ʻO ka puke pāʻani PR a Monsanto: e hoʻouka nei i ka poʻe loea i ke kanesa ma ke ʻano he 'activists'

Ua hoʻohana ʻo Mark Lynas i ka Anuu CAS e hoʻonui i ka leka ʻana o Monsanto, e wehewehe ana i ka hōʻike maʻi ʻaʻai e like me ke "kilokilo kilokilo" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e "anti-Monsanto activists" nāna i "hana ʻino i ka ʻepekema" a ua hana "kahi ʻike maopopo ʻole ʻia o ka ʻepekema ʻelua a me ka hoʻopono kūlohelohe" e ka hōʻike ʻana i kahi maʻi ʻaʻai no ka glyphosate. Ua hoʻohana ʻo Lynas i ka mea like nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa kīnā ʻole a me nā kumu waiwai ʻoihana ma ke ʻano he ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻEpekema a me ke olakino, a uku ka hui mua o Monsanto e kōkua i ka wili i ka hōʻike maʻi ʻaʻai.

ʻOiai e koi ana aia ma ka ʻaoʻao o ka ʻepekema, ʻaʻole nānā ʻo Lynas i nā hōʻike he nui mai nā palapala a Monsanto, i hoʻolaha nui i ka nūpepa, kēlā Hoʻopilikia ʻo Monsanto me ʻike'enekema, hoʻoponopono i nā keʻena hoʻokele a hoʻohana i nā mea ʻē aʻe nā hana lima kaumaha e hoʻoponopono i ke kaʻina ʻepekema i mea e pale aku ai iā Roundup. I ka 2018, ua loaʻa i kahi jure ka Monsanto “hana me ka hana ʻino, hoʻoluhi a hoʻopunipuni paha"I ka uhi ʻana i ka maka maʻi ʻaʻai o Roundup.

Lobbying no nā pesticides a me GMO

ʻOiai ʻo ʻApelika ka nānā nui ʻana i ka ʻāina, kōkua pū kekahi ʻo CAS i nā hana pesticide e pale aku i nā pesticides a hōʻino i nā mea kōkua olakino lehulehu ma Hawaii. He ʻāina hoʻokolohua koʻikoʻi ko Hawaiʻi Paeʻāina no nā mea kanu GMO a me kahi e hōʻike ai i ke kiʻekiʻe hōʻike i nā pesticides a hopohopo e pili ana i nā pilikia olakino pili pesticide, me nā kīnā hānau, ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me ka hānō. Ua alakaʻi ʻia kēia mau pilikia nā kamaʻāina e hoʻonohonoho i kahi hakakā he mau makahiki e hoʻoholo i nā kānāwai ʻoi aku ka ikaika e hōʻemi i nā hōʻike pesticide a hoʻomaikaʻi i ka hōʻike ʻana o nā kemika i hoʻohana ʻia ma nā māla mahiʻai.

"Hoʻouka kaua hōʻino"

I ka loaʻa ʻana o kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana, ua komo ʻo CAS i loko o kahi "hōʻike ākea e pili ana i ka pilina lehulehu i hoʻolālā ʻia e hūnā i nā hopohopo kaiāulu" e pili ana i nā pilikia olakino o nā pesticides, e like me ka haʻi a Fern Anuenue Holland, kahi mea hoʻonohonoho kaiāulu no ka Hawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. I ka Cornell Daily Sun, Ua wehewehe ʻo Holland pehea ka "uku ʻana iā Cornell Alliance no nā hoa ʻepekema - ma lalo o ke ʻano o ka ʻepekema loea - ua hoʻouka i nā hōʻeha hōʻino. Ua hoʻohana lākou i nā pāpili kaiaulu a kākau i nā hanana blog he nui e hoʻohewa ana i nā lālā kaiāulu a me nā alakaʻi ʻē aʻe i loaʻa ka wiwo ʻole e ʻōlelo ai. "

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Holland ua hoʻokau ʻia ʻo ia a me nā lālā ʻē aʻe o kāna hui i "ka pepehi kanaka ʻana, nā kuhi hewa ʻana a me nā hōʻeha ʻana i ka hilinaʻi pilikino a me ka ʻoihana" e nā lālā CAS. "Ua ʻike maka wau i nā ʻohana a me nā aloha aloha i wāwahi ʻia," i kākau ai ʻo ia.

Kūʻē i ka pono o ka lehulehu e ʻike     

Luna Hoʻokele CAS ʻO Sarah Evanega, PhD, 'ōlelo kāna hui kūʻokoʻa i ka ʻoihana: "ʻAʻole mākou e kākau no ka ʻoihana, a ʻaʻole mākou e kākoʻo a paipai paha i nā huahana o ka ʻoihana. E like me kā mākou pūnaewele e hōʻike nei me ka maopopo a hōʻike piha hoʻi, ʻaʻole loaʻa iā mākou nā kumuwaiwai mai ka ʻoihana. " Eia nō naʻe, loaʻa nā kakini o nā leka uila e US Right to Know, i kau ʻia i kēia manawa i loko o ka Waihona palapala ʻoihana hana ʻino UCSF, hōʻike iā CAS a me Evanega e launa pū me ka ʻoihana pesticide a me nā hui o mua e pili ana i nā hana pili lehulehu. ʻO nā laʻana me:

Hōʻike ʻia nā laʻana hou aʻe o ka launa pū CAS me nā hui ʻoihana ma lalo o kēia pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo.  

Ke hoʻokiʻekiʻe nei i nā pūʻulu o mua, nā ʻelele hilinaʻi ʻole

I kāna mau hana e hoʻolaha i nā GMO ma ke ʻano he "ʻepekema" hopena no ka mahiʻai, ua hāʻawi ʻo Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema i kāna papa i nā hui mua o ka ʻoihana a me kahi skeptic ʻepekema kaulana.

ʻO Trevor Butterworth a me ka manaʻo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema / STATS: Nā CAS hoa me Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema / STATS e hāʻawi iā “ke kūkā kamaʻilio helu no nā mea nūpepa”A hāʻawi aku he launa i ka luna o ka hui ʻo Trevor Butterworth, nāna i kūkulu kāna ʻoihana pale i nā huahana nui i ka Nine Inch, fracking, meaʻai maikaʻi 'ole i ke kino a nā ʻoihana lāʻau. ʻO Butterworth ke alakaʻi o Sense About Science USA, kahi āna i hoʻohui ai me kāna paepae mua, ʻo Statistics Analysis Service (STATS).

Ua wehewehe nā mea kākau moʻolelo i nā STAT a me Butterworth ma ke ʻano he mea pāʻani nui i nā pāʻina pale pale huahana ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā mea lapaʻau (e nānā Hōʻike nūhou, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, ʻO ke kuʻina a ʻO ʻAkelanika). Hoʻomaopopo nā palapala Monsanto ʻO Sense About Science i waena o ka "hoa hana" ua hilinaʻi ia e pale aku iā Roundup e kūʻē i nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai.

ʻO skeptic ʻepekema ʻepekema ʻOwen Paterson: I ka 2015, ua hoʻokipa ʻo CAS iā Owen Paterson, he kālaiʻāina Pelekane Pelekane Conservative a kaulana kaulana skeptic ʻepekema aniau ka mea hōʻemi i ke kālā no nā hana hoʻoliʻiliʻi hoʻomehana honua i kona manawa ma ke ʻano he Kuhina Kaiapuni ʻo UK. Ua hoʻohana ʻo Paterson i ka pae Cornell e koi i nā hui kaiapuni e hāpai nei i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā GMOʻae i nā miliona e make.”Ua hoʻohana nā hui ʻoihana Pesticide i ka leka uila like 50 mau makahiki i hala aku nei e hoʻāʻo hōʻino iā Rachel Carson no ka hāpai ʻana i nā hopohopo e pili ana iā DDT.

ʻO Lynas a me ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema: Pili pū ʻo Lynas o CAS me Sense About Science ma ke ʻano he lālā aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo lōʻihi. I ka 2015, ua hui pū ʻo Lynas me ka skeptic ʻepekema ʻepekema ʻo Owen Paterson Paterson ʻo Sense e pili ana i ka luna ʻepekema ʻo Tracey Brown i hoʻolana i kāna mea i kāhea ai ka "neʻe ʻana o ka ecomodernism," kahi hui like, ʻāpana anti-rula o ka "environmentism."

Pale hana ma Hawaii

Ma 2016, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻo CAS i kahi ka hui hui i kapa ʻia ʻo Hawaii Alliance for Science, ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻo kāna kumu e "kākoʻo i ka hoʻoholo ʻana i ka hoʻoholo a me nā hana hou o ka mahiʻai i nā mokupuni." Loaʻa i kāna mau ʻelele:

ʻO Sarah Thompson, a ka limahana o Dow AgroSciences, hoʻohui ʻia ka Hawaii Alliance no ka ʻepekema, ka mea i hōʻike iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he "hui i pili i nā kamaʻilio kumu waiwai ʻole pili pili i ka Cornell Alliance for Science." (ʻAʻole ʻike hou ʻia ka pūnaewele, akā mālama ka hui a Facebook palapala.)

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā hoʻolaha pāʻoihana kaiaulu mai ka Hawaii Alliance no ʻEpekema a me kāna mea hoʻonohonoho ʻo Thompson i wehewehe i nā loiloi o ka ʻoihana mahiʻai e like me poʻe haʻaheo a naʻaupō, hoʻolauleʻa nā mea kanu kulina a me nā soya a pale i nā pesticides neonicotinoid ka mea ʻike nui a ʻ saylelo mai nā ʻepekema he mau meli hōʻino.

ʻO Joan Conrow, Luna Hoʻoponopono o CAS, kākau ʻatikala ma luna ona pūnaewele pūnaewele, kela mea Pūnaewele “Kauai Eclectic” a no ka hui o mua ʻoihana Hoʻopuka Haʻawina Genetic e hoʻāʻo nei e hōʻino nā kānaka olakino, nā hui kaiaulu a nā kālaiʻāina ma Hawaii nāna e kākoʻo i ka pale ʻana i nā pesticide ikaika, a me nā mea nūpepa nāna e kākau e pili ana i nā hopohopo pesticide. Loaʻa iā Conrow hoʻopiʻi ʻia nā hui kaiapuni o ka pale ʻauhau a me hoʻohālikelike i kahi hui palekana meaʻai i ka KKK.

ʻAʻole hōʻike ʻo Conrow i kāna pili ma waena o Cornell. Ua hoʻohalahala ka nūpepa ʻo Beat Beat o Hawaiʻi iā Conrow nona nele i ka transparency a ʻōlelo iā ia i 2016 ma ke ʻano he kumu no ke kumu e hoʻololi nei ka pepa i kāna mau manaʻo hoʻopuka. ʻO Conrow "hoʻopaʻapaʻa pinepine i ka kuanaʻike pro-GMO me ka ʻōlelo ʻole ʻana i kāna hana ma ke ʻano he mea aloha i ka GMO," i kākau ʻo Polopeka journalism Brett Oppegaard. "Ua nalowale ʻo Conrow i kāna kūʻokoʻa nūhou (a me ka hilinaʻi) e hōʻike kūpono e pili ana i nā pilikia GMO, no ka leo o kāna hana i kēia mau pilikia."

ʻO Joni Kamiya, he 2015 CAS ʻO ka hoa alakaʻi alakaʻi honua hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā rula pesticide ma kāna pūnaewele Ke kaikamahine a ka mahiai o Hawaii, i ka Media a no ka hui o mua ʻoihana Hoʻopuka Haʻawina Genetic. ^ E Ha yM. Aia ʻo ia "Luna ʻelele" no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai i hoʻolako kālā ʻia pūnaewele pāʻoihana GMO Nā Pane. E like me Conrow, ʻōlelo ʻo Kamiya i nā hōʻike pesticide ma Hawaii ʻaʻole pilikia, a e hoʻāʻo nei e hōʻino i nā luna i koho ʻia a "Nā mea hana kaiapuni" ka poʻe makemake e hoʻoponopono i nā pesticides.

Nā limahana, nā kākāʻōlelo

Ua wehewehe ʻo CAS iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he "papahana i hoʻokumu ʻia ma ke Kulanui ʻo Cornell, kahi ʻoihana loaʻa kālā ʻole." ʻAʻole hōʻike ka hui i kāna moʻohelu kālā, nā hoʻolilo a me nā uku o nā limahana, a ʻaʻole hōʻike ʻo Cornell University i kekahi ʻike e pili ana iā CAS i kāna faila ʻauhau.

Papa inoa ka pūnaewele Nā lālā o ka 20, me Luna Hoʻokele ʻO Sarah Evanega, PhD, a me Luna Hooponopono ʻO Joan Conrow (ʻaʻole papa inoa ʻo Mark Lynas a i ʻole kekahi mau hoa e loaʻa pū ka uku). ʻO nā lālā limahana ʻē aʻe i helu ʻia ma ka pūnaewele me:

Aia i ka papa aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo CAS nā kālaiʻike e kōkua mau i ka ʻoihana mahiʻai me kā lākou mau hana PR.

ʻO nā loiloi Gates Foundation  

Mai ka 2016, ua hoʻolilo ka Gates Foundation ma kahi o $ 4 biliona no nā hoʻolālā hoʻomohala mahiʻai, ʻo ka hapa nui o ia mea i kau ʻia ma ʻApelika. ʻO nā hoʻolālā hoʻolālā mahiʻai o ke kahua alakaʻi ʻia e Rob Horsch (ua hoʻomaha loa), a ʻO Monsanto veteran o 25 makahiki. Ua huki ka hoʻolālā i ka hoʻopiʻi no ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā GMO a me nā mahiʻai ma ʻApelika ma luna o ka ke kūʻē ʻana i nā pūʻulu hoʻokumu ʻApelika a me ka neʻe ʻana o ka nohona, a me nā hopohopo a me nā kānalua e pili ana i nā mea kanu ʻenekene a puni ʻApelika.

ʻO nā loiloi a ka Gates Foundation e hoʻokokoke nei i ka hoʻomohala mahiʻai a me ke kālā.

ʻO nā hui like ʻoihana CAS hou aku 

Loaʻa nā leka uila ma o FOIA e US Right to Know, a ua kau ʻia i kēia manawa i ka Waihona palapala ʻoihana hana ʻino UCSF, hōʻike iā CAS e launa pū ana me ka ʻoihana mahiʻai a me nā hui pili lehulehu e hoʻonohonoho i nā hanana a me ka leka ʻana:

ʻO nā loiloi hou aʻe a Mark Lynas 

Paipai ka Science Media Center i nā ʻike ʻoihana o ka ʻepekema

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ʻO ka Science Media Center (SMC) kahi hui PR nonprofit PR i hoʻomaka ʻia ma UK i loaʻa i kāna poloka nui loa o kālā mai ka ʻoihana nā hui. ʻO nā mea kālā o kēia wā a me nā wā i hala e hui pū me Bayer, DuPont, Monsanto, Coca-Cola a me nā hui kālepa ʻoihana mea ʻai a me nā mea hana kemika, a me nā hui media, nā keʻena aupuni, nā hoʻokumu a me nā kula nui. Ke hoʻolaha nei ka hiʻohiʻona SMC a puni ka honua a ua nui ka mana i ke kālai ʻana i ka pāpāho o ka ʻepekema, i kekahi manawa i nā ala e hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā makaʻi o nā huahana kontroversial a ʻenehana paha. Hōʻike kēia pepa pono i ka mōʻaukala SMC, ke akeakamai, ke ana hoʻohālike kālā, nā hana a me nā hōʻike mai ka poʻe loiloi i ʻōlelo ʻo SMC ke hāʻawi nei i nā ʻepekema pro-ʻoihana, hōʻole kahi ʻano SMC.

e pili pū ana:

Mea nui nui

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka Science Media Center ma 2002 i ka pane ʻana i ka "frenzies media ma luna o MMR, nā mea kanu GM a me nā noiʻi holoholona" e kōkua i nā nūhou e hōʻike pono i ka ʻepekema mainstream, e like me ka pepa pono o ka hui.

i kona hōʻike hoʻokumu, Wehewehe ʻo Science Media Center i ka pehea i haku ʻia ai e kamaʻilio:

  • e ulu ana ka "pilikia o ka hilinaʻi" i ka manaʻo o ka ʻepekema i ka lehulehu
  • kahi hāʻule o ka mahalo i ka luna a me ka loea
  • kahi kaiāulu kūpilikiʻi kūwaho a me ka uhi pāpāho alarmist a
  • ʻo nā "papa hana pāpāho ʻoi loa" i hoʻohana ʻia e nā kaiaulu NGO e like me Greenpeace a me nā Hoa o ka Honua.

SMC kūʻokoʻa i kaʻana like i ka palapala hoʻohui like ʻoiai ke hana mua ʻia nei ma Kanada, Australia, New Zealand, Kelemania a me Iapana, a ke hoʻolālā ʻia nei ʻo SMCs ma Palukela a me ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa.

ʻO ka hiʻohiʻona SMC ka mea nui i ke kālai ʻana i ka pāpāho e pili ana i ka ʻepekema. A nāʻike media o nā nūpepa UK ma 2011 a me 2012 i ʻike ka hapanui o nā mea nūpepa nāna i hoʻohana i nā lawelawe SMC ʻaʻole ʻimi i nā kuanaʻike hou aku no kā lākou mau moʻolelo. Hāpai ka hui i ka mana politika. I ka makahiki 2007, ua hoʻōki ʻo SMC i kahi pāpā i hāpai ʻia no nā embryo hybrid kanaka / holoholona me kāna pāʻoihana media e hoʻohuli i ka uhi ʻana mai nā hopohopo pili i nā pono o nā embryos ma ke ʻano he mea noiʻi. 'atikala ma Kūlohelohe.

Ua hoʻohewa kekahi mau kālaiʻike a me nā mea noiʻi iā SMC no ka hoʻokikina ʻana nā ʻike ʻoihana o ka ʻepekema, a no ka pāʻani ʻana i nā pilikia o ke kaiapuni a me ke olakino kanaka o nā huahana a me nā ʻenehana loea. Ua hōʻike nā hōʻike i ka hana a SMC e pahu i ka leka uila ʻoihana kākoʻo a kāpae i nā manaʻo kūʻē i nā kumuhana e like me kūpilikiʻi, palekana kelepona paʻalima, Maʻi ka luhi Syndrome a Nā GMO.

I loko o kahi leka uila, ua haʻi ʻo ka Luna Hoʻokele SMC ʻo Fiona Fox ʻaʻole kūlike kāna hui no ka ʻoihana: mai kēia mau mea kuleana. Hoʻowahāwahā mākou i ka uku no ka ʻohana ʻoihana pro a hōʻike kā mākou hana i ka hōʻike a me ka ʻike o nā mea noiʻi ʻepekema koʻikoʻi 3000 ma kā mākou waihona. Ma ke ʻano he keʻena paʻi kūʻokoʻa e kia ana i kekahi o nā moʻolelo ʻepekema loa kontroversial manaʻo nui mākou i ka hoʻohewa mai nā hui ma waho o ka ʻepekema mainstream. "

Nā ʻōlelo e pili ana i ka Pūnaewele ʻApekema ʻEpekema

ʻO nā mea kākau moʻolelo a me nā mea noiʻi e pili ana i ka mana a me ka laha ʻole o ka Pūnaewele ʻAilana ʻEpekema (hoʻohui ʻia i hoʻonui ʻia i nā huaʻōlelo ma lalo):

  • "Nā Pūnaewele Pāhana ʻEpekema ... ua lilo mea koʻikoʻi, akā nā mea pāʻani kontroversial i ka honua o ka journalism. ʻOiai manaʻo kekahi mau mea nūhou he mea kōkua lākou, manaʻo kekahi poʻe he līkū lākou i ke aupuni a me nā ʻepekema ʻoihana. " Hōʻikeʻike ʻatikala ʻo Columbia
  • "Ke hilinaʻi nei i ka mea āu e noi ai, (Luna Hoʻokele SMC) Ke mālama nei paha ʻo Fiona Fox i ka puke pai ʻepekema a i ʻole ke luku ʻana iā ia." ʻO Ewen Callway, Nature
  • "ʻO kahi hōʻemi hōʻemi o nā mea nūpepa ʻepekema UK i kaomi manawa ʻole e hele hou i ke kula a ʻeli no nā moʻolelo. Hele lākou i nā haʻi ʻōlelo i hoʻonohonoho mua ʻia ma ka SMC… ʻO ka ua ʻeha ka maikaʻi o ka hōʻike ʻepekema a me ka pololei o ka ʻike i loaʻa i ka lehulehu, e hoʻohuli i ka hiki i ka lehulehu ke hoʻoholo i nā pilikia. ” ʻO Connie St. Louis, Ke Kulanui o Lādana ma Lādana, ma CJR
  • "ʻAʻole ka pilikia e hoʻolaha lākou i ka ʻepekema, e like me kā lākou e ʻōlelo nei, akā ʻo lākou paipai i ka ʻepekema kākoʻo pāʻoihana. " ʻO David Miller, Ke Kulanui o Bath, ma SciDev
  • "No ka poʻe i makapō ʻole ʻia e ka SMA's aura makaʻu, ʻike ʻia ʻo kāna hana hūnā e hōʻoia i ka poʻe nūpepa a me ka pāpāho e hōʻike i nā mea ʻepekema a me nā lāʻau lapaʻau wale nō i kahi ala kūlike i ke 'kulekele' a ke aupuni a me ka ʻoihana e pili ana i nā pilikia i nīnau ʻia. " Malcolm Hooper, Kulanui o Sunderland, pepa ma CFS / ME
  • «Maopopo lea ka ʻO ke kumumanaʻo o SIRC, SMC a me nā hui kōkua e kākoʻo i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni UK e hoʻolaulaha i ka ʻenehana Biotec a me ke kelepona ʻana. ” ʻO ka pepa Don Maisch ma nā kelepona paʻalima
  • "The ke waiho nei ka hana a ka SMC i kahi nānā haiki o, ma ka hapanui o nā hihia maikaʻi, nā manaʻo o ka palekana o ka fracking. " Paul Mobbs, Nā ʻimi noiʻi kaiāulu ʻo Mobbs
  • "ʻO ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema, naif politika mau, ʻike ʻole ʻole ʻia e ʻae ʻia i kāna mau kuleana e hōʻike ʻia i ka lehulehu e nā lālā o kahi kāhuna politika ʻano ʻē a kolohe hoʻi. " ʻO George Monbiot, ke kahu

ʻO ke kālā kālā ʻepekema Pūnaewele ʻo Science

ʻO kā SMC hapa nui o ke kālā, ma kahi o 30%, hele mai nā hui a me nā hui kālepa. ʻO nā mea kālā e like me ʻAukake 2016 i hui pū ʻia me ka laulā o ke kemika, biotechnology, nukelea, ʻai, lāʻau lapaʻau, kelekaʻaʻike a me nā pono hana hoʻonaninani. ʻO nā mea kālā ʻoihana Agrichemical i hui pū me Bayer, DuPont, BASF, CropLife International, BioIndustry Association a me ka Chemical Industries Association. Mea kālā mua ua hoʻokomo iā Monsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola a me Kraft. Loaʻa iā SMC ke kālā kālā mai kekahi mau pūʻulu, aupuni a me nā hui aʻo.

SMC wahi a ia nā makana pāpale mai kēlā me kēia hui a i ʻole ke kula i 5% o ka loaʻa kālā makahiki i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e "pale mai ka mana kūpono ʻole" - hana ʻia nā hoʻokoe no nā makana nui aʻe mai ka Wellcome Trust a me ke aupuni UK. Keʻena no ka ʻoihana, ikaika a me nā ʻoihana papahana.

Mōʻaukala SMC: “Ke Kuhina Nui ʻoiaʻiʻo o Pelekane”

Ma ka hopena o 1990, ua pili ka pilina ma waena o ka ʻepekema a me ka media i kahi wāwahi, wehewehe i ka SMC kiʻi wikiō. "Ma kahi o ka manawa o ka BSE, MMR, nā mea kanu GM, aia he manaʻo maoli o kēia awawa ma waena o nā ʻepekema a me ka pāpāho," i ʻōlelo ʻo Fox i loko o ka wikiō. Ua hana ʻia ʻo SMC "e kōkua i ka hoʻohou hou ʻana i ka hilinaʻi o ka lehulehu i ka ʻepekema e ka hana ʻana e paipai i ke kaʻina kaulike, pololei a kūpono hoʻi o nā moʻolelo ʻepekema hoʻopaʻapaʻa," e like me kāna kūkākūkā kūkākūkā.

Aia nā palapala hoʻokumu SMC i:

  • Pepeluali 2000 Hoike komite o na Haku Haku ho'ākāka i kahi "pilikia o ka hilinaʻi" i ka pilina o ke kaiāulu me ka ʻepekema, a paipai i kahi hana hou i ka ʻepekema a me ka pāpāho.
  • Kepakemapa 2000 “Code o ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa / alakaʻi ma ka ʻepekema a me ke kamaʻilio olakino, "Na ka Royal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) e paipai i nā alakaʻi no ka poʻe nūpepa a me nā ʻepekema e kūʻē i" ka hopena maikaʻi ʻole o nā mea i ʻike ʻia he "moʻolelo hoʻoweliweli" kūpono ʻole a me nā mea e hāʻawi nei i nā manaʻolana wahaheʻe i nā maʻi nui. "
  • 2002 Hōʻike Kūkākūkā SMC wehewehe i ke kaʻina ninaninau me nā mea kuleana mai ke aupuni, ʻoihana a me nā pāpāho nāna i hoʻomaopopo pehea e "lawe ai ʻo SMC i ke ala i kiola ʻia e nā Haku… o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻepekema i ka nūhou."

Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa koke ka hana SMC. Ua wānana ka mea kākau ʻo Tom Wakeford i ka makahiki 2001 e lilo ʻo SMC i “Kuhina ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Britain no ka ʻoiaʻiʻo e haʻaheo ai ko George Orwell mau aliʻi hana wahaheʻe.” Ua kākau ʻo ia i loko Ka Luna, "Ua hoʻoholo ka poʻe kiʻekiʻe o ke Aupuni, Royal Society a me Royal Institution i ko lākou waiwai waiwai nui e pono ai ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo kūʻokoʻa." Ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ke Kaʻina Hana: "Kuhi ka Code i nā mea nūpepa e kūkākūkā me nā loea i ʻae ʻia, kahi papa kuhikuhi malū e hāʻawi ʻia i nā" mea kākau inoa i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia me nā palapala hōʻoiaʻiʻo. "

ʻO kā SMC papahana mua - kahi hoʻāʻo e hōʻino i kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni BBC i hōʻike ʻia i nā hua i hana ʻia i loko o kahi kukui maikaʻi ʻole. Ua wehewehe nā ʻatikala iā SMC ma ke ʻano he “pūʻulu ʻepekema ʻepekema kākoʻo ʻia e nā ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā hui kemika nui ”e hana nei "Kahi ʻano o ka hui rebuttal wikiwiki a Mandelsonian"A hoʻohana" kekahi o nā ʻenehana wili clumsiest o New Labor i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hōʻino (ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni) ma mua. ”

ʻO Dick Taverne a me Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema

ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema - kahi hana lobby e hoʻololi hou i nā ʻike o ka ʻepekema - i hoʻokumu ʻia ma UK ma 2002 me ka SMC ma lalo o ke alakaʻi ʻana a Lord Dick Taverne a me nā mea e pili ana i ka SMC. ʻO Lord Taverne kahi SMC Lālā lālā aʻoaʻo a me ia hana pū ʻia ke Kaʻina Hoʻohana SIRC.

He moʻolelo 2016 i Ka-puni na Liza Gross i wehewehe iā Sense About Science a me kāna mau alakaʻi ma ke ʻano he “kahu ponoʻī no ka 'epekema kani'” nāna e kuhikuhi i nā unahi i ka ʻoihana. Ua wehewehe ʻo Gross i kā Taverne mau ʻoihana paka a me nā hana PR ʻoihana.

Wahi a nā palapala kūloko i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana e nā mea hana paka, ua kōkua ka hui kūkā o Taverne, PRIMA Europe, i ka British American Tobacco. hoʻomaikaʻi i nā pilina me kāna mea hoʻopukapuka a hahau i nā lula ʻEulopa ma ka uahi i nā makahiki 1990. Ua hana ʻo Taverne iā ia iho i ka papahana hoʻopukapuka: I kahi memo pili ʻole, PRIMA i hōʻoia i ka ʻoihana paka e "hana pono ʻia ka hana e Dick Taverne," no ka mea ua hoʻonohonoho maikaʻi ʻia ʻo ia e ninaninau i nā alakaʻi o nā ʻoihana a "e ʻimi e hōʻoia i ka pono o nā ʻoihana i nā manaʻo o ka poʻe." I loko o nā makahiki he XNUMX, ua noho ʻo Taverne ma ka papa o ka lālā Pelekania o ka hale pili pilina lehulehu ʻo Burson-Marsteller, ka mea i koi iā Philip Morris ma ke ʻano he mea kūʻai aku. ʻO ka manaʻo no kahi hui "ʻepekema kani", i hoʻokumu ʻia i kahi pūnaewele o nā ʻepekema nāna e ʻōlelo kūʻē i nā lula i nele i ka mea haʻi waha ʻole ʻoihana i ka hilinaʻi e ʻaʻa ai, he pitch ʻo Burson-Marsteller i hana iā Philip Morris i kahi Memo 1994.

Ma waena o kāna papahana mua, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Sense About Science i kahi leka mai 114 ʻepekema lobbying the British government to "contradict false claims" e pili ana i nā GMO, a ua hana i kahi noiʻi e hōʻike ana i ka pilikia o ka hōʻino kūʻē i nā mea kanu GMO.

Ua wehe ʻo Sense About Science USA ma 2014 ma lalo o ke alakaʻi ʻana o ka wā lōʻihi hui hana kemika ʻo Trevor Butterworth, a me nā hoapili me ka Cornates Alliance i uku kālā ʻia e Gates, a Pūʻulu hoʻolaha GMO.

Nā aʻa Komunista Revolutionary

ʻO nā luna hoʻokumu a me nā luna o ka Science Media Center a me ka manaʻo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema - Luna Hoʻokele SMC Fiona Fox a me SAS Luna Hoʻokele ʻO Tracey Brown - a me nā mea ʻē aʻe e pili ana i kēlā mau pūʻulu, ua pili pili ʻia ma o ka Revolutionary Communist Party, kahi hui splinter Trotskyist i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka hopena o 1970s ma lalo o ke alakaʻi a ka sociologist. ʻO Frank Ferudi, e like me ka mea kākau ʻO George Monbiot, ʻO Jonathan Matthews, ʻO Zac Goldsmith a ʻO Don Maisch.

ʻO ka hui splinter o Ferudi RCP i komo i loko Noho Marxism, Mākeke LM, Nūpepa Spiked a me ka Ke Kulanui o nā Manaʻo, ka mea i ʻapo i ke kapitalism, individualism a hoʻolahalaha i kahi ʻike kūpono o ka ʻenehana a hoʻowahāwahā ʻia i ka poʻe kaiāulu. e like me kā Monbiot. (Ferudi pane i kēia ʻāpana.) A Ka'ōlelo hoʻopuka e pili ana i kahi hanana LM i ka makahiki 1999 i wehewehe ʻia i ka pūnaewele me he "kūʻē kūʻē i ka hema" (i nā huaʻōlelo a Furedi) me ka manaʻo honua e manaʻo ana ka ʻaoʻao hema "ʻaʻole ia he kumu politika" a ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe i ka mākeke.

"ʻO kekahi o nā ʻāpana ʻē o ka politika kā kēia au ka mana o nā ʻēheu hema hema i holo aku i ka ʻākau," kākau ʻo Monbiot i loko o kahi 2003 kikokikona e wehewehe nei i nā pilina ma waena o Sense About Science a me ka Science Media Center, nā poʻe i pili me kēlā mau hana a me nā loulou i ka pūnaewele LM:

"He kuhi wale paha kēia a pau? Manaʻo wau ʻaʻole pēlā. Akā ʻaʻole maʻalahi e hoʻomaopopo i ke kumu o kēia hanana. Ke nānā nei mākou i kahi hui e makemake ana i ka mana nona iho, a i ʻole kekahi ma hope o kahi hoʻolālā politika, kahi o kēia keʻehi waena. ʻO ka mea e hiki ai iaʻu ke ʻōlelo aʻe, ʻo ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema, he naif politika mau ia, me ka ʻike ʻole ʻole e ʻae ʻia i kona mau pono e hōʻike ʻia i ka lehulehu e nā lālā o kahi pūnaewele politika ʻano ʻē a moʻomeheu hoʻi. Ma mua loa o ke kūkulu hou ʻana i ka hilinaʻi o ka lehulehu i ka ʻepekema a me ka lāʻau lapaʻau, hiki i ka ʻepekema hoʻopunipuni o kēia hui ke hoʻopau hope loa iā ia. ”

Tactics

ʻO ka SMC ma UK wahi āna kahi waihona pūnaewele me 2700 mau loea a ʻoi aku ma mua o 1200 mau luna paʻi, a me nā papa inoa leka me nā mea kākau moʻolelo he 300 e kū ana i kēlā me kēia puka nūhou nui o UK. Hoʻohana ʻo SMC i ʻekolu mau hana nui e hoʻohuli i ka uhi ʻepekema, e like me kāna kiʻi wikiō:

  1. ʻO ka pane wikiwiki i ka wāwahi ʻana i nā nūhou me nā ʻōlelo manaʻo: Ke haki ka moʻolelo ʻepekema, "i loko o nā minuke he mau leka uila SMC i loko o nā pahu leta o kēlā me kēia mea kamaʻilio aupuni e hāʻawi nei i ka poʻe loea," wahi a Fox.
  2. Ke kiʻi mua ʻana i nā mea kūkala nūhou me ka noiʻi hou. Ua loaʻa iā SMC "ke kuleana kūpono e pili ana i 10-15 mau puke pai ʻepekema ma mua o ka hāpai ʻana o ka embargo" i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻomākaukau i nā ʻōlelo mua mai nā poʻe loea ʻaoʻao ʻekolu e hōʻailona ana inā he kūpono nā noi hou a pehea lākou e pono ai.
  3. Ke hoʻonohonoho nei ma kahi o 100 kaomi puʻupuʻu kahi makahiki i "hoʻonohonoho hoʻonohonoho i ka papa kuhikuhi" ma ka nui o nā kumuhana ʻepekema hoʻopaʻapaʻa e like me ka nukelea neoneo, biotechnology a me nā maʻi e kū nei.

Nā laʻana o ka hoʻohuli a me ka hoʻokalakiko

Ua hōʻike kekahi mau mea noiʻi a me nā kālaiʻike i ka mea a lākou e ʻōlelo nei ʻo ka hoʻokūkū pro-ʻoihana o SMC i nā kumuhana hoʻopaʻapaʻa, a me ka nui o ka hilinaʻi ʻana o ka poʻe nūpepa i ka manaʻo loea o SMC e hoʻopaʻa i nā moʻolelo ʻepekema.

Ka nele i nā kuanaʻike like ʻole

Ua loiloi ʻo Professor Connie St. Louis o ke Kulanui o City, Lākana, i ka hopena o SMC i ka hōʻike ʻepekema ma nā nūpepa ʻāina he 12 ma 2011 a me 2012, a loaʻa:

  • ʻAʻole hoʻohana ʻo 60% o nā ʻatikala e uhi ana i nā haʻi ʻōlelo SMC i kahi kumu kūʻokoʻa
  • 54% o nā "hōʻike manaʻo loea" i hāʻawi ʻia e SMC i ka haʻihaʻi nūhou i loko o ka manawa i uhi ʻia i loko o ka nūhou
    • I kēia mau moʻolelo, ʻaʻole hoʻohana ʻo 23% i kahi kumu kūʻokoʻa
    • ʻO kēlā mau mea i hana, 32% wale nō o nā kumuwaiwai kūwahi i hāʻawi i kahi manaʻo kūʻē i ka mea i hāʻawi ʻia e ka loea i ka hopena SMC.

"He nui aku nā mea nūpepa ma mua o ka pono e hoʻohana wale nei i nā loea mai ka SMC a ʻaʻole e nīnau i nā kumuwaiwai kūʻokoʻa," hoʻopau ʻo St.

ʻAʻole ʻepekema mau ka poʻe loea

Ua kālailai ʻo David Miller, polopeka o ka sociology mai ke Kulanui o Bath, UK, i ka ʻikepili SMC ma ka pūnaewele a ma o ke noi Freedom of Information Act, a hōʻike ʻia:

  • ʻAʻole kekahi o ka 20 o ka poʻe akamai he nui loa i haʻi ʻia ma SMC ʻaʻole he ʻepekema, e like me ka wehewehe ʻana ma ka loaʻa ʻana i kahi PhD a me ka hana ʻana ma kahi keʻena noiʻi a i ʻole kahi kaiāulu ʻike kiʻekiʻe, akā he poʻe lobbyist no a me nā CEO o nā hui ʻoihana.
  • ʻAʻole i hōʻike piha loa ʻia nā kumuwaiwai kālā ma ka pūnaewele.
  • ʻAʻohe mea i hōʻike ʻia no ka makemake o SMC i kahi mea leʻaleʻa, akā ua makemake ia i nā ʻāpana ʻoihana a me nā kumuhana i uhi ʻia "e hōʻike i nā mea nui a kā lākou mea kālā."

"Inā ʻōlelo ʻoe e ʻōlelo i nā ʻepekema a hoʻopau i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā lobbyist a me nā NGO, eia ka nīnau: pehea ʻoe e koho ai i nā lobbyists a i ʻole nā ​​NGO e loaʻa? No ke aha ʻoe i loaʻa ʻole ai i nā lobbyist e kūʻē nei i ka hoʻokolohua kūlohelohe a i ʻole nā ​​lālā o Greenpeace e hōʻike nei i ko lākou manaʻo ma mua o ke kūlana bioindustry? Hōʻike maoli kēlā i nā ʻano bias e hana nei, "wahi a Miller.

Lanakila ka wili rautaki ma luna o nā embryos hybrid kanaka / holoholona

I ka 2006, i ka wā a ke aupuni UK i manaʻo ai e pāpā ana i nā ʻepekema mai ka hoʻokumu ʻana i nā embryos hybrid kanaka-holoholona, ​​ua hoʻohui like ka SMC i nā hana e hoʻohuli i ka nānā ʻana o ka pāpāho mai nā hopohopo a me ka mea nui o nā embryos hybrid ma ke ʻano he mea noiʻi. 'atikala ma Kūlohelohe.

ʻO ka hoʻokūkū SMC "he lanakila lanakila ma nā pilina pāpāho" a "kuleana nui no ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ke kai eʻe o nā embryo hybrid kanaka," e like me kā Andy Williams, he mea noiʻi nūhou ma ke Kulanui o Cardiff, UK, nāna i alakaʻi i kālailai ma ka ʻaoʻao o SMC a me nā mea kākoʻo kaiāulu.

Ua loaʻa ʻo Williams:

  • Ma mua o 60% o nā kumuwaiwai i kākau ʻia e ka ʻepekema a me nā mea kūkala olakino - nā mea i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka SMC - i kākoʻo i ka noiʻi, a hoʻokahi hapahā wale nō o nā kumuwaiwai i kūʻē iā ia.
  • Ma ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, ua kamaʻilio ka poʻe nūpepa ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka SMC i nā ʻepekema kākoʻo ʻemi a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā mea kūʻē.

"Ua hopohopo ʻo Williams i kēia manawa no ka hana a SMC i alakaʻi ai i ka poʻe kūkala nūhou e hāʻawi i ka mahalo nui i nā ʻepekema, a na ia mea i kāohi i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa," Ua hōʻike ʻia ka ʻatikala kūlohelohe. He nīnauele me Williams i ʻO SciDevNet hōʻike pūʻulu:

"ʻO ka hapa nui o ka ʻōlelo i hoʻohana ʻia e wehewehe ai i nā ʻōlelo pōkole [SMC media briefing] koʻikoʻi he manawa kūpono ia na ka ʻepekema e wehewehe i ka ʻepekema i kā lākou ʻōlelo ponoʻī, akā - koʻikoʻi - ma ke ala kūlike ʻole a waiwai ʻole hoʻi," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. Akā nānā kēia i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o kēia mau hanana i mālama nui ʻia e hoʻokau nei i nā moʻolelo persuasive, ua hoʻohui ʻo ia, a ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia lākou e hoʻopaʻa i ka hopena o ka pāpāho no nā ʻepekema e pili ana. Ua hānai ʻia nā mea nūpepa ʻepekema loea i ka "kōkua kālā ʻike" e ka SMC a ʻoi aku paha ka nui o ka manaʻo ma mua o nā mea nūpepa ʻē aʻe e ʻōlelo i nā kumu pro-hybridisation, i ʻōlelo ʻo Williams.

Paipai i ka ʻike ʻoihana ma fracking

E like me ka Pepeluali 2015 ka nānā ʻana pāpāho alakaʻi ʻia e Paul Mobbs o Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, ua hāʻawi ʻo SMC i nā ʻōlelo loea he nui e pili ana i ka fracking ma waena o 2012-2015, akā ʻo ka lima o nā ʻepekema i hoʻomalu i ka ʻōlelo hoʻopuka mai nā kula me nā pilina kālā me ka ʻoihana wahie fossil a i ʻole nā ​​papahana noiʻi i kākoʻo ʻia e ka ʻoihana.

"Ke waiho nei ka hana a ka SMC i kahi nānā ʻololī o, i ka hapanui o nā hihia maikaʻi, nā manaʻo o ka palekana o ka fracking. Hoʻokumu ʻia kēia mau manaʻo i ke kūlana ʻoihana o ka poʻe e pili ana, a ʻaʻole i kākoʻo ʻia me nā kūmole i nā hōʻike e hōʻoia i ko lākou pono. A ʻo kēia, ua ʻōlelo pinepine ʻia kēia mau manaʻo i ka pāpāho me ka nīnau ʻole. ”

"I ka hihia o ka shale gas, ʻaʻole hāʻawi ka SMC i kahi ʻike kaulike o nā hōʻike i loaʻa, a me nā kānalua ʻole, i nā hopena o ka aila a me ka ʻaila kū ʻole. Ke hāʻawi nei ia i nā ʻōlelo mai nā mea ʻepekema e hōʻike nui ana i kahi manaʻo o 'UK hoʻokumu', e nānā ʻole i ke kino holoʻokoʻa o nā hōʻike i loaʻa i kēia pilikia mai USA, ʻAukekulia a me Kanada. "

Ke hōʻino nei i ka maʻi luhi maʻi maʻi 

A Kōpana 2013 na Malcolm Hooper, Polofesa Emeritus o Medicinal Chemistry, University of Sunderland, UK, i hoʻopiʻi iā SMC no ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā manaʻo o kekahi mau kauka lapaʻau, me ka hōʻole ʻole e hōʻike e pili ana i ka ʻepekema biomedical a me ke kaomi ʻana i ka "ideology a me ka propaganda o nā hui hoihoi" i loko o kāna pāpāho. hana i ka maʻi luhi mau loa / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Hōʻike ka pepa a Hooper e pili ana i nā loulou ma waena o ka SMC a me nā mea pāʻani nui i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa CFS / ME me nā pilina i ka ʻoihana ʻinikua, a hāʻawi i nā hōʻike o ka mea a Hooper i hōʻike ai e like me ka hoʻouka kaua a SMC e hoʻowahāwahā i ka poʻe me CFS / ME, a me kāna mau hana e hōʻike hewa ʻole i ka PACE nā hopena hoʻokolokolo i ka pāpāho. Pau ʻo ia, "ʻO kahi hui e hana i nā ʻano ʻepekema ākea loa ʻaʻole hiki ke loaʻa i kahi kuleana kūpono e hōʻike i ka ʻepekema."

No nā ʻike SMC, ʻike Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo 2018 ma CFS / ME "ka maʻi a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa."

ʻO ka palekana kelepona paʻalima a me nā mea kōkua telecom

A Kōpana 2006 na Don Maisch, PhD, "hāpai i nā hopohopo koʻikoʻi no ke kūlike ʻole o ke kuhi SMC i ke kamaʻilio ʻepekema ke hāʻawi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe loea e pili ana i nā pilikia hakakā inā he kuleana kekahi o ka SMC." Nānā ka pepa Maisch i nā kamaʻilio SMC e pili ana i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka uila uila a me ka palekana kelepona paʻalima, a hāʻawi i ka mea āna i kapa ai he "moʻolelo uncensored o ke ʻano SMC o ke kamaʻilio ʻepekema."

"ʻIke ʻia ka papahana o ka SIRC, SMC a me nā hui kōkua e kākoʻo i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni UK e paipai i ka ʻenehana ʻo Biotec a me nā telecommunications. Hōʻike paha kēia i ke kumu e hiki ai i ka poʻe me ka ʻole o ka māka maoli i ka kamaʻilio ʻepekema e kiʻi i nā kūlana i lilo i maka lehulehu o ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema Pelekane. Hoʻomaopopo pū ia ke kumu o ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema a me ka hoʻokumu olakino o UK, e ʻike nei i kahi ʻāpana nui o ke kālā ʻepekema e loaʻa mai nā kumuwaiwai ʻoihana, he mau hoa makemake e ʻae i nā ʻoihana PR me kahi papahana i hoʻoholo mua ʻia e kamaʻilio no lākou a lanakila i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni no ka pono o ka lehulehu. . ”

Ke pale nei iā GMO

E like me ka mea i iho mai ma luna, ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā ʻaoʻao ʻepekema ʻelua a me kāna hui kaikuahine ʻo Sense About Science me nā papahana e pale ana i nā meaʻai ʻenekini. Hāʻawi pinepine ʻo SMC i ka poʻe loea e loiloi i nā noiʻi e hāpai i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā GMO. ʻO nā laʻana me:

I ka 2016, ua hoʻoneʻe ka ʻepekema i nā kūʻē loea o SMC a lākou i kuhi hewa ai i kā lākou hana ma GMO ʻO ke aʻo ʻana i alakaʻi ʻia e Michael Antoniou, PhD, poʻo o ka Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King's College London School of Medicine, a paʻi ʻia ma Hōʻike Pūnaewele, hoʻohana 'ana i ka pelekikena mole e hoʻohālikelike i ka mānoanoa o GMO i kona ʻaoʻao non-GM a hōʻike ʻia ʻo ka huaʻōla GM a me GM ʻole "ʻaʻole like iki." Ua hoʻopuka ʻo SMC i kahi nā hopena loea hoʻowahāwahā i ke aʻo ʻana, a ʻaʻole e ʻae i nā mea kākau e pane a hoʻoponopono paha i ka ʻike kūpono ʻole i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o SMC, e like me nā mea kākau noiʻi.

"ʻAʻole pololei kēia mau manaʻo [i ʻōlelo ʻia ma ka hoʻokuʻu SMC] a no laila hoʻolaha i nā hewa e pili ana i kā mākou pepa. Ua hoʻomaopopo ʻia mākou ʻaʻole ia ka kulekele o ka Science Media Center e kau ai i nā pane, e like me kā mākou, i nā ʻōlelo a ke komisina / kau ma kā lākou pūnaewele, "wahi a Antoniou. Nā mea kākau hoʻopaʻa haʻawina Kau ʻia kā lākou pane ma aneʻi.

Ua hōʻike ʻo Rebeka Wilce ka mea kākau moʻolelo i PR Nānā i ka 2014 ma kekahi mau laʻana o ka pro-GMO bias ma nā kamaʻilio SMC. Ua kākau ʻo ia:

Kāhea ʻo SMC iā ia iho i wahi kikowaena haʻiʻōlelo kūʻokoʻa no nā pilikia ʻepekema. Eia nō naʻe, nīnau ka poʻe loiloi i kona kūʻokoʻa mai ka ʻoihana GMO - me ka ʻōlelo a ka hui e hāʻawi wale ana kēlā me kēia hui a i ʻole nā ​​mea lawelawe ʻē aʻe i ʻelima pākēneka o ka loaʻa kālā o ka hui. e hoʻolako i nā wili GMO hou aʻe ma aneʻi.

ʻO SMC alakaʻi ʻia ka pane i kahi noi 2012 e hōʻike nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā tumors i nā holoholona lab i hānai ʻia nā GMO i kahi noiʻi hānai wā lōʻihi. Ua hōʻino ākea ʻia ke aʻo ʻana ma ka nūpepa, ua unuhi ʻia e ka puke pai mua a hoʻopuka hou ʻia i loko o kahi puke pai ʻē aʻe.

ʻO Media Coverage

ʻO Columbia Journalism Review ʻekolu ʻāpana moʻo, Iune 2013, "Nā Pūnaewele ʻApekema Pūnaewele a me ka Press"

Nature, na Ewen Callaway, Iulai 2013, "Pūnaewele ʻepekema: Ke kikowaena o ka nānā; Hoʻoholo ʻo Fiona Fox a me kāna Science Media Center e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka paʻi paʻi o Britain. Ke hoʻolaha nei ke k aroundkohu a puni ka honua ”

Nature, na Colin Macilwain, "ʻElua mau lāhui i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e kahi kumu maʻamau: ʻO nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohālikelike i ko Britain Media Science Center ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopiha ʻia me ka makaʻu"

Maikaʻi, na Stacy Malkan, Iulai 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Aia paha nā pilina paʻa i ka ʻepekema ʻikepili?"

ʻO SciDevNet, na Mićo Tatalović, Mei 2014, "ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka UK Media Science Center no ka hoʻokuke ʻana i ka ʻepekema ʻoihana" Center lamb

Nānā PR, na Rebekah Wilke, ʻApelila 2014, "Hoʻolaha ka Science Media Center Pro-GMO Line"

Ma ka hui pili Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema:

ʻO ke kuʻina, na Liza Gross, Nowemapa 2016, "Kanalua kanalua: Pehea nā kiaʻi ponoʻī o ka 'epekema kani' e kuhikuhi i nā unahi i ka ʻoihana."

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo USRTK: ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema-USA Luna Hoʻokele ʻo Trevor Butterworth Spins ʻEpekema no ka ʻOihana

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo USRTK: Ua hilinaʻi ʻo Monsanto i kēia mau 'hoa' e hoʻouka aku i nā ʻepekema maʻi ʻaʻai ʻoi loa

ʻO ka ʻepekema ʻepekema hōʻole hōʻaiʻē kālā e hoʻolaha nei i nā Propaganda Nine Toxic

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Paipai lākou i nā GMO a me nā pesticides, pale aku i nā kemikonaʻawahia a me nā meaʻai maikaʻi ʻole, a hoʻouka kaua i ka poʻe e hāpai nei i ka hopohopo e pili ana i kēlā huahana me he "anti-science." Akā ʻo Jon Entine, Trevor Butterworth a me Henry Miller i kālā kālā ʻia e nā hui like e kālā kālā hōʻole ʻana i ke aniau.

Na Stacy Malkan

He ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo kā ka mea kākau Pelekane ʻo George Monbiot no kā mākou e hoʻāʻo nei e hopu i nā ʻoihana politika hou i ka US a me ke UK: "ʻAʻohe o mākou manaʻolana i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā mea e hiki mai ana a hiki i ka manawa e hoʻomaopopo ai mākou i ka hana ʻana o ka pūnaewele kālā ʻeleʻele," kākau ʻo ia i ka Guardian.

Ua lohi paha ʻo Corporate America e hoʻomehana iā Donald Trump, akā i ka manawa i hoʻopaʻa ai ʻo Trump i ke koho ʻana, "ua hoʻomaka ke kālā nui e ʻike i kahi manawa kūpono ʻole ma mua," i kākau ʻo Monbiot. "ʻAʻole kuleana kāna incoherence, akā he wehe: hiki ke hoʻonohonoho ʻia kāna papa kuhikuhi. A ʻo ka pūnaewele kālā ʻeleʻele i hoʻomohala ʻia e kekahi mau hui ʻo ʻAmelika ua hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia e hana ia. ”

ʻO kēia pūnaewele, a i ʻole kālāʻeleʻele ATM e like me kā Mother Jones i wehewehe ai, pili i ka nui o ke kālā paʻakikī e loaʻa mai nā piliona piliona, e like me Charles a me David Koch a me nā mea kōkua, a me nā hui i nā hui i mua e hāpai ana i nā manaʻo mākeke manuahi loa - no ka laʻana, hakakā i nā kula lehulehu, nā ʻuniona, ka pale ʻana i ke kaiapuni, nā kulekele hoʻololi i ke aniau a me ka ʻepekema e hoʻoweliweli i nā loaʻa ʻoihana.

"ʻAʻohe o mākou manaʻolana o ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka mea e hiki mai ana a hiki i ka wā e hoʻomaopopo ai mākou i ka holo ʻana o ka pūnaewele kālā ʻeleʻele."

Nā mea kākau noiʻi ʻO Jane Mayer, ʻO Naomi Oreskes, ʻo Erik Conway a me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i hōʻike pehea "ka moʻolelo o ke kālā ʻeleʻele a me ka moʻolelo o ka hōʻole ʻana i ke aniau i ka moʻolelo like: ʻelua ʻaoʻao o ke kālā like," e like me kā Senatoa US Sheldon Whitehouse i hōʻike ai i ka makahiki i hala. he'ōlelo.

ʻO nā kumumanaʻo o ka "alakaʻi ʻia e Koch, alakaʻi-kūʻai hana" - me nā hana propaganda e wili nei i ka ʻepekema me ka nānā ʻole i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo - "ʻo ia nō paha ke kumu nui i loaʻa ʻole ai iā mākou kahi bila aniani piha ma ka ʻAhaʻolelo," wahi a Whitehouse.

ʻOiai ua mākaukau maikaʻi ʻia kēia mau papa hana i loko o ke aniau, i hōʻike iki ʻole ʻia ʻo ka mea kālā ma hope o ka ʻepekema ʻepekema i hōʻole pū kekahi i kahi pūnaewele o nā limahana PR i kūkulu i nā ʻoihana e wili nei i ka ʻepekema e hōʻole i nā pilikia olakino o nā lāʻau ʻona i loko o ka meaʻai a mākou ʻai a me nā huahana a mākou e hoʻohana ai i kēlā me kēia lā.

He kiʻekiʻe nā pili no ke olakino o ko mākou lāhui. Uku o maʻi wā maʻi i kēia manawa 50% ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke "kaua i ka maʻi ʻaʻai" i mau makahiki i hala aku nei, a ʻo ka mea kaua maikaʻi loa kahi mea a mākou e paʻakikī nei e hoʻohana nei:

"Inā makemake mākou e lanakila i ke kaua ma ka maʻi ʻaʻai, pono mākou e hoʻomaka me nā kaukani kino a me nā ʻākena kemika i loiloi ʻia e like me ka hiki, a i ʻole ʻike ʻia nā kānaka make kino kanaka e ka International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization" i kākau ʻia e ka ʻepekema a me ka mea kākau ʻo Devra. ʻO Lee Davis, PhD, MPH, i The Hill.

ʻO ka hōʻemi ʻana i nā ʻelele o ka ʻino i ʻike ʻia ua "ʻaʻole pili iki me ka ʻepekema, a me nā mea e pili ana i ka mana o nā ʻoihana waiwai nui e hilinaʻi nei i nā pilina lehulehu e pale aku i nā hōʻike ʻepekema o nā pilikia," wahi a Davis.

Ke pale nei i nā kemikona ʻino a me nā meaʻai maikaʻi ʻole 

Ke pilikia nā ʻepekema a me nā mea ʻai nui i nā pilikia me ka ʻepekema, ʻike ʻia kahi mea i kuhi ʻia o nā huapalapala a me nā hui ma ke kahua, e hoʻohana ana i nā hoʻolālā media i hoʻoluhi ʻia e hoʻopakele i nā ʻoihana e pono ai kahi PR hoʻonui.

ʻO ko lākou mau inoa a me nā hana a lākou e hoʻohana ai - nā ʻatikala lōʻihi lōʻihi, i hana pinepine ʻia e nā hōʻeha pilikino - e kamaʻāina i nā ʻepekema he nui, nā mea nūpepa a me nā mea kākoʻo mea kūʻai aku i hāpai i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā huahana ʻawahia i nā makahiki he 15 i hala.

Noi nā moʻolelo lehulehu e Pono ʻo US e ʻike i ʻākoakoa i nā palapala he mau kaukani, me nā hōʻike hou o ka Uliuli malu,'O Ke kuʻi a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, e hoʻomālamalama nei i kēia pūnaewele hoʻolaha.

ʻO nā mea pāʻani pū kekahi me Jon Entine, Trevor Butterworth, Henry I. Miller a me nā hui e pili pū ana me lākou: STATS, Center for Media and Public Affairs, Genetic Literacy Project, Sense About Science and the Hoover Institute.

ʻOiai nā moʻolelo i kākau maikaʻi ʻia e like me nā hana a PR, Entine, Butterworth a me Miller i hōʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he ʻepekema koʻikoʻi ma nā paepae pāpaho he nui, e ʻike ʻia ma ka Wall Street Pai, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, ʻO Philadelphia Enquirer, ʻO Harvard Pakihi Pūʻai a, loa pinepine, Forbes - me ka hōʻike ʻole ʻia o kā lākou kumuwaiwai kālā a i ʻole ka papahana e hoʻopau ai i nā ʻoihana hoʻohaumia e paipai iā lākou.

Kūlana kiʻekiʻe kā lākou mau ʻatikala ma Google e ʻimi nei i nā mea nui o ka ʻenehana kemika a me nā mea maikaʻi ʻole i nā mea maikaʻi ʻole - ka hoʻokuʻi ʻana i nā moʻolelo e palekana nā GMO, nā pesticides, nā kemikolo ea, kō a me nā mea kō i kō, a ʻo kēlā me kēia mea ʻē aʻe he "anti-science."

I kekahi mau hihia, ke loaʻa nei ka mana i ke kūlike me nā hui hoʻokumu e like me ka Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Cornell University a me ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, Davis.

Eia nō naʻe ke hoʻi nei kā lākou kumuwaiwai kālā i nā ideologues "ultra free market" like mai ka aila, lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā waiwai kemika e hōʻaiʻē nei i ka ʻepekema ʻepekema - Hilinaʻi Searle Freedom, Nā kumu kumu Scaife, John Templeton Foundation a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ʻike ʻia ma waena o nā mea hoʻolako kālā nui a kūpaʻa mau o nā hui hōʻole ʻepekema kaiāulu, e like me a 2013 like na Drexel University sociologist Robert Brulle, PhD.

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻimi nei e hoʻomaopopo i nā pahuhopu kulekele o ka ʻeleʻele kālā no ka hōʻoki ʻana i nā pale olakino no kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai e nānā pono i kēia mau mea. nā mea hoʻolaha hou a me kā lākou leka uila ʻana.

ʻO Jon Entine - Polokalamu Heluhelu Genetic / STATS

ʻO Jon Entine, he mea kākau moʻolelo ma mua, hōʻike iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he mana koʻikoʻi i ka ʻepekema. Eia naʻe manaʻo nui He loea pili lehulehu ʻo ia me nā pilina hohonu i nā ʻoihana kemika i hoʻopiʻi ʻia me nā nīnau e pili ana i nā pilikia olakino.

I nā makahiki i hala, loaʻa iā Entine ua hooukaʻia ʻepekema, nā kauka, ka poʻe kālā, lawmakers a nā kānaka moʻolelo nāna i hāpai aʻe nā hopohopo e pili ana kūpilikiʻi, ka mana kīkī, pesticidesNine Inch hoʻohanaʻia ʻōmole pēpē a mea pāʻani a nā keiki. A 2012 Mother Jones moʻolelo by Tom Philpott describes Entine as a “apologist hana agribusiness, "A me Greenpeace mau kikoʻī i kāna moʻolelo ma kā lākou Pūnaewele Polluter Watch.

ʻO Entine ka luna o ka Hoʻopuka Haʻawina Genetic, kahi hui e hoʻolaha i nā meaʻai a me nā pesticides i hana ʻenekini. Wahi a ka pūnaewele he kūlike ʻole, akā "ua hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia e hāpai i kahi kūlana pro-ʻoihana a ʻaʻole e hoʻāʻo e nānā kūleʻa i nā pilikia," i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Michael Hansen, PhD, he ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe ma Consumers Union.

"ʻO ka leka ka maikaʻi o ka hana ʻenekini a ʻo nā mea e kūʻē iā ia he ideologue weliweli ia, akā ʻaʻole ia he hōʻailona no kahi o ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema maoli."

Hoʻohui kuleana, ʻo kahi laʻana, ʻo ka "ʻepekema ʻikepili i ka palekana o GMO ʻoi aku ka ikaika ma mua o ka hoʻomehana honua" - kahi hoʻopiʻi i kūʻē ʻia e ka World Health Organization, e ʻōlelo nei ʻaʻole hiki ke hana i nā ʻōlelo ākea e pili ana i ka palekana GMO, a na nā ʻepekema he haneli i ʻōlelo ʻaʻohe ʻae ʻae ʻepekema ma ka palekana GMO.

ʻAʻole maopopo ka papahana Genetic Literacy e pili ana i kāna pili iā Monsanto. Ma ke ʻano he laʻana hoʻokahi, ua paʻi ka pūnaewele i kekahi mau pepa kula kākoʻo pro-GMO i hōʻike ʻia ma hope nā leka uila hāʻawi ʻia i nā polopeka e kahi luna Monsanto nāna i hāʻawi i nā helu kamaʻilio no nā pepa a hoʻohiki ʻia e pauma iā lākou a puni ka Pūnaewele.

ʻO kekahi laʻana: ʻO nā hoa hana papahana Genetic Literacy Project me ka Academics Review ma ka Papahana Heluhelu Biotechnology, ʻaha kūkā kamaʻilio-ʻoihana e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā ʻepekema a me nā mea nūpepa e pili ana pehea e "hana maikaʻi i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa GMO me ka lehulehu kānalua."

"E mālama ana ke kī iā Monsanto i hope e ʻole e hōʻino i ka hilinaʻi o ka ʻike."

Nānā Kālā, nāna i paʻi a hoike i ka 2014 e hoʻouka nei i ka ʻoihana ʻokanika, hōʻike iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he hui kūʻokoʻa, akā hōʻike ʻia nā leka uila ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia me ke kōkua o kahi luna o Monsanto nāna i hoʻohiki e loaʻa kālā "ʻoiai e mālama ana iā Monsanto i hope e ʻole e hōʻino i ka hilinaʻi o ka ʻike." Nā Leka Uila ua hōʻike pūʻia e loaʻa ana i ka mea hoʻokumu hoʻokumu loiloi o Academics Review ʻo Bruce Chassy kālā i hōʻike ʻole ʻia mai Monsanto ma o ke Kulanui o ʻImioka Foundation.

No laila ʻo wai e hāʻawi kālā i ka papahana Genetic Literacy Project a me Entine?

E like me ko lakou paena, ka hapa nui o ke kālā mai nā kumu ʻelua - Searle lāua ʻo Templeton - ʻike ʻia i ka Drexel hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma ke ʻano he alakaʻi kālā o ka ʻepekema ʻepekema hōʻole. Ua helu pū ka pūnaewele i ka waihona kālā mai ka Winkler Family Foundation a "hele i ke kākoʻo no ke Kulanui o Kaleponi-Davis Biotech Literacy Bootcamp" mai ka Academics Review Charities Association.

Hoʻopili pū kekahi nā kumuwaiwai kālā mua i nā mea kākoʻo hōʻole ʻepekema o ke aniau a me ka loaʻa kālā ʻole i hōʻike ʻia.

ʻO ka Genetic Literacy Project a me Entine i hana mua ma lalo o ka malu o nā Heluhelu ʻImi Heluhelu (STATS), kahi hui ma Ke Kula Nui ʻo George Mason, kahi i hui pū ʻia ʻo Entine ma ke kikowaena no ka Health and Risk Communication mai 2011-2014.

Ua kākoʻo kālā nui ʻia ʻo STATS e ka Scaife Foundation a me Searle Freedom Trust ma waena o 2005 a me 2014, e like me kahi noiʻi Greenpeace o Kālā kālā STATS.

ʻO Kimberly Dennis, ka pelekikena a me CEO o Searle Freedom Trust, ʻo ia nō ka luna o ka papa o Donors Trust, ka mea kaulana loa. Kālā kālā ʻeleʻele pili Koch ʻaʻole hiki ke huli i nā mea hāʻawi. Ma lalo o ke alakaʻi ʻana a Dennis, ua hoʻouna ʻo Searle a me Donors Trust i kahi hui $ 290,000 i STATS i ka makahiki 2010, ua hōʻike ʻo Greenpeace.

In 2012 a 2013, STATS i loaʻa nā hōʻaiʻē mai kāna hui kaikuahine, ka Center for Media and Public Affairs, kahi loaa donations i loko o kēlā mau makahiki mai ka George Mason University Foundation, ka mea ʻaʻole hōʻike i nā kumuwaiwai kālā.

Ua hoʻāʻo ʻo Entine i kekahi manawa e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia iho a me GLP mai kēia mau hui; akā naʻe, nā moʻolelo ʻauhau hōʻike Ua uku ʻia ʻo Entine i $ 173,100 e ka Center for Media and Public Affairs no ka makahiki e pau ana iā Iune 30, 2015.

Na 2014, Hōʻike nā leka uila, Ke hoʻāʻo nei ʻo Entine e loaʻa kahi home hou no ka Papahana Heluhelu Genetic, a makemake e hoʻokumu i kahi "pilina kūpono" me ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, Davis, World Food Center. Ua lilo ʻo ia i Fellow Senior ma ke kula ʻo Ke Kula no ka Meaʻai a me ka Mahiai Mahiai a ua kuhikuhi ʻia ma ke ʻano he hoa mua. Aia ʻo GLP ma lalo o ka malu o kahi hui i kapa ʻia ʻo Science Literacy Project.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Entine ʻaʻole ia e pane i nā nīnau no kēia moʻolelo.

ʻO Trevor Butterworth - ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema USA / STATS

He hilinaʻi ʻo Trevor Butterworth ʻelele ʻenehana no nā makahiki he nui, ke pale aku nei i ka palekana o nā huahana pilikia āpau i mea nui i nā ʻoihana kemika a me nā mea ʻai, e like me nā phthalates, ʻO BPA, vinyl ea, huapalapala, nā soka sugary a nā mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni. He mea hāʻawi ma mua ʻo ia ma Newsweek a ua kākau i nā loiloi puke no ka Wall Street Pai.

Mai ka 2003 a i ka 2014, he luna hoʻoponopono ʻo Butterworth ma STATS, i kālā nui ʻia e Scaife Foundation a me Searle Freedom Trust. I ka 2014, lilo ʻo ia i alakaʻi hoʻokumu o ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema USA a pelu ʻia nā STAT i loko o kēlā hui.

He hōʻike hou na Liza Gross ma ʻO ke kuʻina i wehewehe ʻia ʻo Sense About Science, kona alakaʻi ʻo Tracey Brown, Butterworth, STATS a me nā mea nāna i hoʻokumu i kēlā mau hui ma ke ʻano he "kahu ponoʻī no ka ʻepekema kani" nāna e kuhikuhi i nā unahi i ka ʻoihana.

ʻO Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema "makemake e kōkua i ka lawehala hewa ʻana i ka lehulehu ma o nā ʻōlelo hoʻopiʻi weliweli e pili ana i ke olakino a me ke kaiapuni" akā "he moʻolelo mōʻaukala o ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka poʻe loea i huli i ka pili i nā ʻoihana i hoʻoponopono ʻia," i kākau ai ʻo Gross.

"Ke nīnau pono nā mea nūpepa i ka mea nāna e kākoʻo i ka noiʻi ʻana i nā pilikia o, e ʻōlelo, asbestos, a i ʻole kemikala synthetic, e aʻo maikaʻi ʻia lākou e nīnau i nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka ʻepekema a Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema.

ʻO Sense About Science USA i kau ʻia kēia pane i ka ʻāpana, a ua ʻōlelo ʻo Butterworth ma o ka leka uila ua "hoʻohoka ʻia ʻo ia i ka ʻatikala hoʻopunipuni a ka Intercept, ka mea i hoʻopili ʻia ka poʻe a me nā hui me ka pili ʻole o Sense About Science USA." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ʻaʻole lawe kālā kāna hui a kūʻokoʻa kūʻokoʻa ia mai ka UK Sense About Science.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia, "ʻAʻole wau i komo i loko o nā hoʻolaha leka ʻoihana - i kēlā me kēia hiki, uku ʻia a ʻaʻole."

Ua hoʻopau ʻē aʻe kekahi mau mea nūpepa. 

Ka poʻe hoʻopuka ma ka Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, ka 'Akelanika' a Ka Mea Hōʻaikaʻi Hōʻike ʻia ʻo Butterworth ma ke ʻano he mea nui i ka hana PR ikaika a ka ʻoihana kemika e pale aku i ka BPA Nine.

I ka 2009, nā mea kākau moʻolelo ʻo Susanne Rust lāua ʻo Meg Kissinger o ka Journal Sentinel i wehewehe ʻia ʻo Butterworth ma ke ʻano he pale pale ʻo BPA "mea nui loa", a he laʻana o "nā ʻoihana kemika ʻoihana pili lehulehu" ʻaʻole hōʻike i kā lākou pili.

 "ʻO ka pale ʻoi loa o ka BPA ma nā blog mai Trevor Butterworth mai ia."

KANAKA, kākau lākou, "Koi he kiaʻi kiaʻi kūʻokoʻa" akā "uku kālā ʻia e nā ʻoihana kulekele lehulehu e hāpai ana i ka hana hewa." ʻO kona hui kaikuahine, ʻo ka Center for Media and Public Affairs, "he moʻolelo no ka hana ʻana no nā ʻoihana e hoʻāʻo nei e pale i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka palekana o kā lākou huahana." Ua haʻi ʻo Butterworth i kāna hōʻike ʻana ma BPA i hōʻike ʻia ka hōʻike i kēlā manawa mai nā kumu mana, a ua kau ʻia e STATS nā pane maanei a maanei i ka hōʻike loiloi ʻana.

ʻO kahi laʻana hou loa e pili ana i ka hana a nā kākau a Butterworth i kuleana nui i ka hana lobby ʻoihana e hōʻino i nā ʻepekema pilikia hiki ke ʻike ʻia i kāna hana ma ka sucralose sweetener.

Ma 2012, ua kākau ʻo Butterworth i No ka mea Forbes ke hoʻohewa nei i kahi noiʻi e hāpai ana i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o sucralose. Ua wehewehe ʻo ia i nā kānaka noiʻi, ʻo Kauka Morando Soffritti a me ka Ramazzini Institute, "he mea hoʻomākeʻaka."

I ka 2016, kahi hui mua o ka ʻoihana meaʻai i hōʻike ʻia i ka ʻatikala a Butterworth's 2012 a me "kahi mea hoʻomākeʻaka" loiloi i a nūʻike hoʻōla ke hoʻouka nei i kahi "panic study" Soffritti hou i hāpai i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka sucralose. Nā mea hōʻike ma ke kūʻokoʻaʻO ka leka uilaThe Telegraph i ka desereta News ua huki i nā huaʻōlelo a Butterworth e hōʻino ana i nā mea noiʻi, a ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he mea haʻi moʻolelo mai Forbes.

Pēlā nō, i ka makahiki 2011, he loea akamai ʻo Butterworth ma ka ʻAha Kūkā ʻAha Sweeteners International, a koi ʻia i loko o kā lākou nūʻike hoʻōla ʻaʻohe "hōʻike o kahi pilikia i ke olakino" mai ka sucralose. Ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he "mea kākau moʻolelo e kōkua mau i ka Financial Times a me ka Wall Street Journal."

ʻO nā leka uila i loaʻa e USRTK hōʻike iā Coca Cola VP Rhona Applebaum i wehewehe ʻia ʻo Butterworth i nā alakaʻi o ka Global Energy Balance Network - a ʻO ka hui mua o Coca-Cola e hana ana i ka wili i ka ʻepekema i ka momona - as “mākou hoa aloha"A me kahi mea kākau moʻolelo"mākaukau a hiki”E hana pū me lākou. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Butterworth ʻaʻole ʻo ia i hana pū me kēlā hui.

Pili ʻo Butterworth i kēia manawa me ke Kulanui ʻo Cornell ma ke ʻano he kipa hoa ma ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema, kahi hui i hoʻokumu ʻia ma 2014 me kahi $ 5.6 miliona Gates Foundation i hāʻawi ʻia iā paipai i nā GMO. Ke hui pū nei ʻo Gates-funded group me Sense About Science USA ma kahi papa hana e aʻo ai i nā ʻepekema ʻōpio i "Kū i luna no ka ʻepekema. "

ʻO Sense About Science USA holo pū kekahi i ka lehulehu nā papa hana no nā ʻepekema ma nā wahi e like me ke Kulanui o Wakinekona, Ke Kulanui o Pittsburg, Carnegie Melon, Ke Kulanui ʻo Rockefeller, Caltech a me Ke Kulanui o Massachusetts, ʻo Bosetona.

ʻO Henry I. Miller - Ke keʻena ʻo Hoover

ʻO Henry I. Miller, MD, he hoa ma ka Hoover Institution, ʻo ia kekahi o nā mea pale nui loa o nā meaʻai genetically engineered a me nā mea kūʻē ikaika o ka lepili ʻana iā lākou. Ua kākau ʻo ia i nā hōʻeha he nui i ka ʻoihana olakino, e like me "The Colossal Hoax of Organic Agriculture" (Forbes), "ʻAʻole hiki ke mahiʻai mahiʻai" (Wall Street Pai) a me "The Dirty Truth About Organic Produce" (Newsweek).

Ua kākau pū ʻo Miller i ka pale ʻana iā nā pesticides ʻinoʻino i ka nalo meli, kemika kemika a radiation mai nā mea kanu mana nukelea, a ua paio pinepine no ka hoʻolauna hou o DDT. ʻAʻole ʻo ia i pane i nā noi e haʻi manaʻo no kēia moʻolelo.

ʻAʻole like me Butterworth a me Entine, he ʻike ʻepekema kā Miller a me nā ʻike aupuni; He kauka lapaʻau ʻo ia a ʻo ia ka luna hoʻokumu o ka keʻena biotechnology o ka FDA.

E like me Butterworth a me Entine, hele mai ke kālā a Miller mai nā hui e kālā kālā hōʻole ʻepekema - ka Hoover Institute's luna hoʻolewa ʻo ia ka Sarah Scaife Foundation, a ua lawe pū ka pūʻulu i ke kālā mai ka Searle Freedom Trust, Exxon Mobile, American Chemistry Council, Charles Koch Foundation a me Donors Trust.

E like me nā mea hoʻokumu o Nā STATS a me ka manaʻo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema, Pili pū kekahi ʻo Miller i nā pāʻina PR ʻoihana ʻāpana paka. I kahi makahiki 1994 Memo hoʻolālā PR no ka ʻoihana paka ʻo Phillip Morris, Ua kapa ʻia ʻo Miller ma ke ʻano he "kākoʻo nui" o ka hoʻoulu kaua honua e hakakā me nā kānāwai paka. I ka 2012, Ua kākau ʻo Miller ʻaʻole maikaʻi maikaʻi kēlā nikotine iā ʻoe i nā kālā i hāʻawi ʻia e nā paka a nā huahana puhipaka ʻole. "

ʻO Miller kekahi lālā o ka "papa aʻoaʻo ʻepekema" o ka Ke Kula ʻo George C. Marshall, ʻo ia ka mea i kaulana no kāna ʻoihana aila a me kinoea i kākoʻo kālā ʻia no ka hōʻole ʻana i ke aniau i hoʻololi ʻia, a he kahu mua o ka ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻepekema a me ke olakino, "hilinaʻi nui i ke kālā mai nā ʻoihana i loaʻa kahi kuleana kālā i nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e manaʻo ana e hana," e like me ʻO Jones Jones.

Maliʻa paha ke hoʻomaopopo nei ʻaʻole nā ​​kāne pontificating i kumu waiwai maikaʻi loa e hoʻohuli ai i nā wahine e kūʻai ana i ka meaʻai, ke hāʻawi nei ʻo Miller i nā byline me nā wahine protege i hui pū me kāna hoʻouka kaua i nā mea kākoʻo olakino a me nā mahiʻai meaola.

ʻO nā laʻana me kahi ʻāpana i kākau ʻia me Kavin Senapathy, ka mea hui pū o he hui e hoʻāʻo nei e hoʻohaunaele i nā hanana haʻi ʻōlelo o nā loiloi GMO, poʻo inoa ʻia “Hoʻopili i nā mea hana; ” a hoʻokahi me ʻO Julie Kelly, he kumu aʻo kuke na kāna kāne he lobbyist no ka agribusiness nunui ADM, e wehewehe nei i ka mahiʻai meaola ma ke ʻano heka manaʻino. "

ʻO nā hana hou a Kelly e hoʻokomo ai i kahi ʻāpana ʻO ka'ōiwi kūkā ke kānalua nei i nā noiʻi ʻepekema aniau, a me kahi ʻatikala i The Hill e kāhea ana i ka ʻAhaʻōlelo e hoʻopōpō i ka International Agency for Research on Cancer, ka mea āna i hoʻopiʻi ai no ka "cancer collusion" a me "ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ʻepekema shoddy e hāpai i kahi papahana politika i hoʻoikaika ʻia."

I ko mākou komo ʻana i ka ʻelima mau makahiki o ka lilo ʻana o ke kaua ma ka maʻi ʻaʻai, a ʻoiai ka hoʻoweliweli o ke aniau i nā kaiaolaola a me kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai, ua hiki i ka manawa e wehe i ka pūnaewele o nā ʻepekema hōʻole e koi i ka ʻahuʻepekema a hōʻike iā lākou no nā mea lākou: nā mea hoʻolaha e hana ka hana pelapela o ka ʻoihana.

Ua paʻi mua ʻia kēia ʻatikala ma ʻO ʻEkōlani.

ʻO Stacy Malkan ka mea hoʻokumu a me ka luna hui o ka pūʻulu kiaʻi lehulehu nonprofit ʻAmelika ʻAmelika e ʻike. ʻO ia ka mea kākau o "Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry," kahi mea hui pū o ka Campaign aupuni no Safe Cosmetics a me kahi mea paʻi nūpepa ma mua.