ʻO Biohazards News Tracker: ʻO nā ʻatikala maikaʻi loa ma nā kumu SARS-CoV-2, nā biolabs a me ka loaʻa o ka noiʻi hana.

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Eia kahi papa inoa heluhelu e pili ana i ka mea i ʻike ʻia a ʻike ʻole ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, nā ulia pōpilikia a me nā kahe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me nā biowarfare, a me nā pilikia olakino o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana (GOF), kahi e hoʻonui ai ka laulā host, transmissibility, infectivity a i ʻole pathogenicity o nā pandhogens hiki ke loaʻa. ʻO US kuleana e ʻike ke alakaʻi nei i nā noiʻi e pili ana i kēia mau kumuhana a ke kau nei i nā mea i loaʻa i kā mākou Blog Biohazards.

Ke holo nei kēia papa inoa heluhelu. E hoʻohou mākou ia. E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻouna i nā heluhelu ua hala paha mākou iā Sainath Suryanarayanan ma sainath@usrtk.org.

Nā Kumuhana (hāʻule nā ​​loulou)

Nā ʻatikala hou loa

The New York Times. Kāhea aku no ka nīnau hou ʻana i nā kumu coronavirus. Colin Butler ma. ʻApelila 7, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: He hewa maikaʻi ʻole ka hōʻike covid WHO, a ʻaʻole nō e hoʻokolokolo maoli ʻia. ʻO Josh Rogin. 29 Malaki 2021.

CBS. Ua aha ʻo Wuhan? No ke aha e waiho mau nei nā nīnau ma ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO Lesley Stahl. 28 Malaki 2021.

Newsweek. Kanaka, ʻaʻole holoholona, ​​lawe paha i ka maʻi virus COVID iā Wuhan, kūʻē i nā kuleana o Kina.. Rowan Jacobsen. 25 Malaki 2021.

Nā Palapala Kemika Kūlohelohe. E hōʻemi paha mākou i ke kumu kahua o COVID-19? Rossana Segreto, Yuri Deigin, Kevin McCairn, Alejandro Sousa, Dan Sirotkin, Karl Sirotkin, Jonathan J. Couey, Adrian Jones & Daoyu Zhang. 25 Malaki 2021.

USA I kēia lā. Hiki paha i kahi ulia ke kumu iā COVID-19? No ke aha e hemo ʻole ai ke kumumanaʻo lab-leak Wuhan. ʻO Alison Young. 22 Malaki 2021.

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka leka mai ka poʻe Republican House i ka Luna Hoʻokele NIH ʻo Francis Collins e ʻimi nei e holomua i kahi hoʻokolohua kūʻokoʻa, ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kumu o ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19.. ʻO Cathy McMorris Rodgers, Brett Guthrie, H. Morgan Griffith. 18 Malaki 2021.

Undark. Lab Leak: kahi hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o nā politika - a hoʻoholo ʻole ʻia. Charles Schmidt. 17 Malaki 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: ʻAʻole i ʻike ka honua i ka pehea e hoʻoponopono ai i ka noiʻi i nā virus make. ʻO Brian Klaas. 11 Malaki 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo Manaʻo: Hoʻomaopopo ka luna ʻo Biden i kekahi akā ʻaʻole i nā koi āpau o Wuh. ʻO Josh Rogin. 9 Malaki 2021.

Politico. I ka 2018, ua aʻo ʻia nā diplomats o nā hoʻokolohua Risky Coronavirus i kahi Wuhan Lab. ʻAʻohe mea i hoʻolohe. ʻO Josh Rogin. 8 Malaki 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: Pono ka WHO e hoʻomaka hou i ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana i nā kumu o ka coronavirus. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. 6 Malaki 2021.

Wall Street Pai. ʻO nā mea noiʻi WHO e ʻokiʻoki i nā hoʻolālā no ka hōʻike wā kuʻuna ma Probe o Covid-19 kumu. ʻO Betsy McKay, Drew Hinshaw a me Jeremy ʻAoʻao. 4 Malaki 2021.

Wall Street Pai. Palapala wehe: Kāhea i kahi noiʻi forensic ākea āpau a kaohi ʻole ʻia i nā kumu o COVID-19. 4 Malaki 2021.

He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?

Nā papahana o ka National Academy of Sciences. I mea e hōʻoki ai i ka maʻi ahulau e hiki mai ana, pono mākou e wehe i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO David A. Relman. Nowemapa 3, 2020.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Ua ala mai ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi papahana noiʻi bat coronavirus ma kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua Kina? Maliʻa paha. Milton Leitenberg. Iune 4, 2020.

The Telegraph. Ua pakele maoli ka maʻi Covid-19 mai kahi hale hana ʻo Wuhan? ʻO Matt Ridley lāua ʻo Alina Chan. Pepeluali 6, 2021.

Ka Wall Street Journal. Pono ka honua i kahi noiʻi maoli i nā kumu o Covid-19. ʻO Alina Chan lāua ʻo Matt Ridley. Ianuali 15, 2021.

New York Magazine. ʻO ke kuhiakau-leak-kuhiakau. ʻO Nicholson Baker. Ianuali 4, 2021.

Ka Washington Post. Manaʻo: Pono ka US e hōʻike i kāna ʻike e pili ana i ka hale hana ʻo Wuhan. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 22, 2021.

Newsweek. Pono ʻo Beijing e hoʻomaʻemaʻe e pili ana i nā kumu ʻo COVID-19 | Manaʻo Manaʻo. Jamie Metzl. Ianuali 22, 2021

Wall Street Pai. ʻO wai nā mea ʻimi noiʻi ʻo Covid? Loaʻa nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i nā lālā o kahi ʻimi ʻimi no WHO. Ka Papa Hoʻoponopono. Pepeluali 15, 2021.

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists.ʻO wai: ʻaʻole i liu ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi hale hana. Eia pū me WHO: Ua hana paha ia. Filipa Lentzos. Pepeluali 11, 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Ma hope o kā Wuhan mikiona ma nā kumu pandemi, ua hoʻokuʻu ka kime WHO i ka manaʻo leak lab. ʻO Gerry Shih lāua ʻo Emily Rauhala. Pepeluali 9, 2021.

Bloomberg. ʻAʻole maopopo iā mākou ma hea mai ʻo Covid-19. ʻO Faye Flam. Ianuali 12, 2021.

Lapaʻau Kūlohelohe. Ma ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Angela Rasmussen. Ianuali 13, 2021.

ʻO ka Washington Post. Ua aʻo aku nā moku ʻoihana mokuʻāina no nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hōʻikeʻike ʻo Wuhan e hoʻopaʻa haʻawina nei i nā coronavirus. ʻO Josh Rogin. ʻApelila 14, 2020.

BBC. ʻO Covid: ʻoluʻolu 'ʻepekema Wuhan e kipa i ke kuhi naʻau leaking lab. ʻO John Sudworth. Kekemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO Houston Chronicle. Hoʻomaopopo ka ʻepekema UTMB i nā pilikia palekana ma ka hale hana Kina e hana nei i ka noiʻi coronavirus. ʻO Nick Powell. ʻApelila 23, 2020. 

Ka Wall Street Pai. Kāomi ʻo NIH i ka pono ʻole o US no ka ʻike ma Wuhan virology lab. ʻO Betsy McKay. ʻAukake 19, 2020.  

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. No laila no hea mai ka maʻi? ʻO Matt Ridley Mei 29, 2020. 

Ka Hale Waihona ʻEpekema Palani (CNRS). Ke nīnau nui ʻia nei ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yaroslav Pigenet. Nowemapa 9, 2020.

The Times. Pehea i hoʻomaka ai ʻo Covid-19? ʻO Hunt no ka mea hoʻomanawanui ʻole ua lilo i ka hakakā o nā mana nui. ʻO Tom Whipple. Kekemapa 31, 2020.

CNET. ʻO ka ʻimi huli hihi a huehue no ke kumu o COVID-19 a me ke kumumanaʻo o ka leakī. ʻO Jackson Ryan. Ianuali 19, 2021.

Pukahi Pepa. Ua pakele paha ʻo COVID-19 mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua? Rowan Jacobsen. Kepakemapa 9, 2020. 

Nature. ʻO ka mea pohihihi nui loa: he aha ka mea e nānā ai i ke kumu o ka coronavirus. ʻO David Cyranoski. 5 Iune 2020.

Ka Washington Post. Hoʻokuʻu ka 'Oihana Moku'āina i ke kaula uila i hoʻokumu i nā koi i pakele ka coronavirus mai ka hale hana Kina. ʻO John Hudson lāua ʻo Nate Jones. Lulai 17, 2020. 

NBC News. Hōʻike ka hōʻike i ka ʻikepili o ke kelepila e hōʻike nei i ka pau ʻana o ʻOkakopa ma Wuhan lab, akā kānalua nā poʻe loea. ʻO Ken Dilanian, Ruaridh Arrow, Courtney Kube, Carol E. Lee, Louise Jones lāua ʻo Lorand Bodo. Mei 9, 2020. 

The Times. Hōʻike ʻia: ʻEhiku makahiki ke ala coronavirus mai kaʻu make ʻana i kahi keʻena ʻo Wuhan. ʻO George Arbuthnott, Jonathan Calvert, a me Philip Sherwell. Lulai 4, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Nānā nā mākaʻikaʻi coronavirus a WHO i ka mākeke ʻo Wuhan ma ke ʻano he palapala ʻāina i hōʻike ʻole ʻia. ʻO John Power lāua ʻo Simone McCarthy. Kekemapa 15, 2020.

BBC. Wuhan: Ke kūlanakauhale noho mālie; Ke ʻimi nei i nā pane ma kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka coronavirus. ʻO John Sudworth. Iulai 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times, 8 mau nīnau mai kahi mākaʻikaʻi maʻi ma nā kumu kumu o ka pandemia. ʻO William J. Broad. Lulai 8, 2020.

The New York Times. I Hunt no Source Virus, ʻo wai e hoʻokuʻu iā Kina. Selam Gebrekidan, ʻO Matt Apuzzo, ʻO Amy Qin a . Nowemapa 2, 2020.

Ka Wall Street Pai. I ka neʻe ʻole ʻana, ua hōʻoia nā keʻena ʻike ʻike US inā ua kū mai ka coronavirus mai kahi ulia lab. ʻO Warren P. Strobel lāua ʻo Dustin Volz. ʻApelila 30, 2020.

ke Kahu. Hoʻowahāwahā i nā kumumanaʻo kipi: ʻike ka poʻe ʻepekema ʻaʻole i hana ʻia ʻo Covid-19 i kahi lab. ʻO Peter Daszak. Iune 9, 2020. 

Na kela la i keia Telegraph. ʻ saylelo nā kānaka ʻepekema ua kuke ʻia ʻo COVID-19 i ka hale hana. ʻO Sharri Markson. Iune 1, 2020.

ʻEpekema. ʻO Trump 'aie iā mākou i kahi noi kala.' ʻ .lelo ʻia nā ʻepekema Kina ma waenakonu o COVID-19. ʻO Jon Cohen. Lulai 24, 2020.

ʻEpekema. Pane i ka makasina ʻepekema: Shi Zhengli Q&A. Shi Zhengli. Lulai 15, 2020.

Minerva. Kūkulu nā ʻōlelo kūpale i ka kānalua i ka ʻike maka Kina. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm. Kepakemapa 10, 2020. 

Minerva. ʻO ka wehewehe kūpono loa ia mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua. ʻO Aksel Fridstrøm lāua ʻo Nils August Andresen. Lulai 2, 2020. 

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ke kūkulu nei ka hihia i loaʻa iā COVID-19 kahi kumu lab. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. 5 Iune 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. ʻO kahi kumu i manaʻo ʻia no ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2 a me ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19. ʻO Jonathan Latham lāua ʻo Allison Wilson. Lulai 15, 2020.

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke nīnau nei i ka CDC: He kuhi kūpono piha loa kā kā Kina BSL4 wale nō ma Wuhan? Audio a me ke wikiō. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 17, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻohana nā ʻepekema ʻo Wuhan a me US i nā ʻano undetectable o ka hana ʻenekinia ma nā cor coronavirus. ʻO Jonathan Matthews lāua ʻo Claire Robinson. Mei 20, 2020. 

ʻO ka mea kākau moʻolelo hana hewa. Andrew Kailrell ma ke kumu o COVID-19. Russell Mokhiber. ʻAukake 11, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. Ua hoʻolālā ʻenekini ʻia ka maʻi COVID-19? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. No ke aha e hoʻopakele ai nā labialial denialists i kēlā mau wahaheʻe kolohe ʻole? ʻO Jonathan Matthews. Iune 17, 2020. 

ʻO ke kuʻina. I loko o kāna Zeal e hōʻino aku iā Kina no Coronavirus, ke hoʻomake nei ke Keʻena Hoʻokele i nā noiʻi i nā kumu kumu o ka Pandemi. ʻO Mara Hvistendahl. Mei 19, 2020.

Ka Wailele Kepena Kina o Kina. Kapa inoa ʻo WHO i ka laina no nā kime o ka honua e nānā nei i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Simone McCarthy. Nowemapa 25, 2020.

Kūpono ʻole a me ke kāohi ʻana i nā hōʻike e pili ana iā COVID-19

hui pu Press. Kūleʻa ʻo Kina i ka huli huna no nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Dake Kang, ʻo Maria Cheng lāua ʻo Sam McNeil. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. Ma ka honua ma Wuhan, nā hōʻailona o Kina e kū nei i ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu coronavirus. ʻO Jeremy ʻAoʻao a me Natasha Khan. Mei 12, 2020.

The New York Times. 25 mau lā i hoʻololi i ka honua: Pehea ʻo Covid-19 i hemo ai i kā China hopu. ʻO Chris Buckley, ʻo David D. Kirkpatrick, ʻo Amy Qin lāua ʻo Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

ʻO ka New York Times. Ua hoʻopaʻi ʻia ka mea kākau moʻolelo kamaʻāina Kina no 4 mau makahiki no ka hōʻike ʻana o Covid. ʻO Vivian Wang. Kekemapa 28, 2020.

ʻO ProPublica. Hōʻike i nā Palapala Pūʻali Pehea ka Kōkua o ko Kina Pūʻali Pūnaewele Pūnaewele i Censor ka Coronavirus. Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur, Aaron Krolik lāua ʻo Jeff Kao. Kekemapa 19, 2020.

The New York Times. Hoʻowalewale ʻo Kina i nā mea wahaheʻe e pahu i ka manaʻo i hele mai ka maʻi mai kahi ʻē aʻe. ʻO Javier C. Hernández. Kekemapa 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. Ke paʻakikī nei ʻo Kina e hoʻonā i ka mea pohihihi o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o Covid. Kekemapa 30, 2020.

waiwai Times. Hoʻonui ka pāpāho Kina i ka hoʻouka e ʻimi probe i loko o nā kumu Covid. Kahuhipa Karistiano. Nowemapa 26, 2020.

Nūhou Sky Australia. Hōʻike nā leka uila i hōʻike ʻia 'ʻaʻohe ʻoiaʻiʻo a transparency' i ka leka e pili ana i ke kumu o COVID-19. ʻO Sharri Markson. Nowemapa 22, 2020.

ʻO nā ulia pōpilikia, nā liu, nā paʻa paʻa ʻole, nā ʻole transparency i nā pono biosafety

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. ʻO nā makaʻu o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā labina bio he nui loa. ʻO Elisabeta Eaves. 18 Malaki 2020. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Hewa o kānaka ma nā labs biocontainment kiʻekiʻe: kahi hoʻoweliweli paha i ka maʻi pandemia. ʻO Lynn Klotz. Pepeluali 25, 2019. 

ʻO James Martin Center no ka Nonproliferation Nā haʻawina. Kahi alakaʻi no ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu kumu kumu: kūlohelohe i ka Laboratory. ʻO Richard Pilch, Miles Pomper, Jill Lustre, a me Filippa Lentzos. ʻOkakopa 2020.

ProPublica. Eia ʻeono mau pōʻino i loaʻa i nā mea noiʻi a UNC me nā coronavirus i hana ʻia e ka lab. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Jessica Blake. ʻAukake 17, 2020. 

CBC. Ua hoʻouna ka ʻepekema Kanada i nā maʻi ʻino i Wuhan hale hana ma mua o ka noi ʻana o RCMP e noiʻi. Iune 16, 2020.

Ka Nūhou Ka Nūhou. Hōʻike nā hōʻike loiloi CDC e pili hou ana e pili ana i ka kāohi noiʻi USAMRIID. Heather Mongilio. Nowemapa 23, 2019. 

Nā kikowaena no ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi a me ka pale ʻana (CDC) a me ka US ʻoihana mahiʻai. Ke Keʻena ʻImi ʻImi ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o nā Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID): ka wehewehe o nā wehewehe ʻana i nā ʻike loiloi. ʻAukake 2019.

Keʻena Luna Wae Aupuni o US. Nā keʻena hoʻokolohua paʻa kiʻekiʻe: nā kulekele piha a me nā loina hou a me nā ʻano ʻoi aku ka ikaika e pono ai e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka palekana. ʻApelila 19, 2016. GAO-16-305. 

USA I kēia lā. 10 hanana i loaʻa ma biolabs a ka lāhui. ʻO Alison Young lāua ʻo Nick Penzenstadler. Mei 29, 2015. 

Ka Pilapala o nā Atomic Scientists. Pakele nā ​​pandemics hoʻoweliweli a me nā keʻena hoʻokolohua: nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. ʻO Martin Furmanski. 31 Malaki 2014.

Ke kikowaena no ka Mākau ʻAilima a me ka Nonproliferation. Nā ʻĀkena Laboratory a me nā "wānana hoʻokō ponoʻī" Epidemics. ʻO Martin Furmanski. Pepeluali 17, 2014.

ʻĀnaka ʻImi Nū Aupuni. Nā pahuhopu biosecurity o ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka honua i nā keʻena hoʻokolohuaolaola paʻa paʻa: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2012. Wakinekona, DC: ʻO ka National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. ʻO ka hoʻolohe ʻana i nā mikamina, nā mea ʻino, a me nā mea huna: ka hoʻolaha nui ʻana o nā bio-laboratories ma United States, 110th Ka Ahaolelo. ʻOkakopa 4, 2007.

Hale Ahaolelo o US. Komite no ka Ikehu a me ke Kalepa. Ke hoʻolohe nei i ka Federal Overversment of High-Containment Biolaboratories, hoʻokahi haneli ʻumikūmākahi kaukanaʻōlelo. Kepakemapa 22, 2009.

BMJ. ʻO nā uhaʻi ʻana o nā kānāwai palekana ka kumu o ke kū ʻana o ka maʻi SARS i kēia manawa, i ʻōlelo ʻo WHO. ʻO Jane Parry. Mei 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Nūhou ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa. ʻO ka mōʻaukala lōʻihi o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua pōʻino i hoʻokuʻu ʻia o nā pathogens pandemia hiki ke nānā ʻia ʻole i ka COVID-19 pāpāho. Sam Husseini. 5 Mei 2020.

ʻO GMWatch. COVID-19: He ala ala no ka biosafety. ʻO Jonathan Matthews. ʻApelila 24, 2020. 

USA I kēia lā. ʻAʻole hiki iā CDC ke hōʻike i nā hanana lab me nā pathogens bioterror i ka ʻAhaʻolelo. ʻO Alison Young. 24 Iune 2016.

Global Times. Hoʻopuka ʻia ke kulekele biosafety e hoʻoponopono i nā loopholes hoʻokele mau ma nā labs virus. ʻO Liu Caiyu lāua ʻo Leng Shumei. Pepeluali 16, 2020.

CBS News. Nānā: Hoʻololi ka hui ʻo US i ka pane a Ebola. Ka Nupepa Hui. 7 Malaki 2016. 

ʻO GMWatch. ʻO ke kumumanaʻo censor labens theory no SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Claire Robinson. Lulai 16, 2020. 

Pūnaewele o ka biodefense a me ka biowarfare 

ʻO Salon. Ua hele mai kēia maʻi ma kahi hale hōʻikeʻike? ʻAʻole paha - akā hōʻike ia i ka hoʻoweliweli o ka heihei kaua biowarfare. Sam Husseini. ʻApelila 24, 2020.

Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua hūnā ʻo Peter Daszak's EcoHealth Alliance ma kahi o $ 40 Miliona i ka Pentagon Funding a me Militarized Pandemic Science.. Sam Husseini. Kekemapa 16, 2020.

ʻO Sam Husseini Blog. Ke hoʻohuli nei i kā mākou maka mai ka biowarfare: pandemics a me nā wanana hoʻokō ponoʻī. Sam Husseini. Mei 2020. 

Ka Poepoe honua o Bosetona. ʻO ka maunu o nā meaola lāʻau. ʻO Bernard Lown lāua ʻo Prasannan Parthasarathi. Pepeluali 23, 2005. 

ʻO Monterey Institute of Studies International. Pekina ma nā biohazards: ʻO ka loea Kina i nā pilikia nonproliferation biowe armas. ʻO Amy E. Smithson, Luna Hoʻoponopono. ʻAukake 2007. Ke Keʻena ʻo James Martin No ka Haʻawina Nonproliferation.

Nā moʻomeheu make: mau mea kaua biological mai 1945. ʻO Mark Wheelis, ʻo Lajos Rózsa, a ʻo Malcolm Dando (Luna hoʻoponopono). Hale Paʻi Kula ʻo Harvard University, 2006.

ʻO Biowarfare a me ka hoʻoweliweli. Francis Boyle. 2005. Clarity Press, Inc.

Ka pale ʻana i ka heihei lima biological. ʻO Susan Wright (Luna Hooponopono). ʻO ka MIT Press, 1990. 

ʻO Biohazard. ʻO Ken Alibek me Stephen Handelman. Hale Random: Nu Ioka, 1999. 

Nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila

ʻO ka National Academies Press. Nā pilikia kūpono a me nā pōmaikaʻi o ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana: hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o kahi papa hana. 2015. 

Forbes. E ʻae mākou i nā ʻepekema e hana i nā virus-weliweli weliweli? ʻO Steven Salzberg. ʻOkakopa 20, 2014. 

ʻO ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge. ʻO ka ʻōlelo kūkā a ka Pūʻulu Hana ʻo Cambridge e pili ana i ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o nā pathogens pandemic (PPP). Iulai 14, 2014. 

mBio. Hiki i ka palena ʻepekema waiwai o nā hoʻokolohua pathogen pandomy kūpono ke hōʻoia i nā pilikia? ʻO Marc Lipsitch. ʻOkakopa 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. ʻImi e pili ana i ka H5N1 Influenza Virus Kino Pathogenic: Ke Ala i mua. Anthony S. Fauci. Kepakemapa-ʻOkakopa 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. hana: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

Hoʻolapa ʻo PLoS. Nā koho ʻē aʻe i nā hoʻokolohua me nā pathogens pandemic hiki. ʻO Marc Lipsitch lāua ʻo Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. hana: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Nā pepa ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

Nā Palapala Kemika Kūlohelohe. Ke ʻimi nei i nā kumu o SARS-COV-2 i nā maʻi maʻi coronavirus: he loiloi. ʻO Erwan Sallard, ʻo José Halloy, ʻo Didier Casane, ʻo Etienne Decroly a ʻo Jacques van Helden. Pepeluali 4, 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-020-01151-1

ʻO ka Lancet. Nā hiʻohiʻona maʻi o nā maʻi i loaʻa i ka 2019 coronavirus novel ma Wuhan, Kina. Chaolin Huang et al. Ianuali 30, 2020. Volume 395: 497-506. 

ʻAno. Hoʻopuka kahi maʻi pneumonia e pili ana i kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Pepeluali 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. hana: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

ʻAno. Pākuʻi: kahi maʻi pneumonia i pili me kahi coronavirus hou o ke kumu ʻōpeʻapeʻa paha. Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… a me Zheng-Li Shi. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

ʻO ke kino Medicine. ʻO ke kumu kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes, Robert F. Garry. ʻApelila 2020. Volume 26, ʻaoʻao 450-455. 

Ka Nupepa o Virology Lapaʻau. Nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kumu kokoke o SARS-CoV-2. Murat Seyran, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi… a me Adam M. Brufsky. Kepakemapa 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

ʻO BioEssays. Hiki paha i kahi SARS-CoV ‐ 2 ke ala aʻe i kahi ala serial ma waena o kahi mea hoʻokipa holoholona a i ʻole ka moʻomeheu cell? ʻO Karl Sirotkin lāua ʻo Dan Sirotkin. ʻAukake 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Nā palena o ke olakino lehulehu. ʻO nā hihia pneumonia make ma nā miners ʻo Mojiang (2012) a hiki i ka mineshaft ke hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. Kepakemapa 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

ʻO BioEssays. ʻO ka ʻōnaehana genetic o ka SARS-CoV-2 ʻaʻole e kāpae i kahi kumu ʻenehana. Rossana Segreto a ʻO Yuri Deigin. Nowemapa 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRohana. Hoʻololi maikaʻi ʻo SARS-CoV-2 no nā kānaka. He aha ka manaʻo o kēia no ke ala hou? Shing Hei Zhan, Benjamin E. Deverman, Yujia Alina Chan. Mei 2, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

Zenodo. Ma hea kahi i hoʻomaka ai ka maʻi maʻi maʻi 2019 Coronavirus a pehea i hoʻolaha ai? ʻO ka haukapila ʻo ka Liberation Army ma Wuhan Kina a me ka laina 2 o ka Wuhan Metro System e pane nei i nā pane. ʻO Steven Carl Quay. ʻOkakopa 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Zenodo. Hoʻopau kahi loiloi Bayesian ma mua o kahi kānalua kūpono ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ʻAʻole ia he zoonosis kūlohelohe akā ma kahi o ke keʻena hoʻokolohua i loaʻa. ʻO Kauka Steven Quay. Ianuali 29, 2021.

Minerva. ʻO nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana ʻaʻole kēia he maʻi hoʻomaʻemaʻe kūlohelohe.. Birger Sørensen, Angus Dalgleish & Andres Susrud. Lulai 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ke noʻonoʻo nei paha i kahi kumu gen-manipulation no SARS-CoV-2 kahi kumumanaʻo kipi e pono ai e censored? ʻO Rossana Segreto lāua ʻo Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO nā hopohopo nui e pili ana i ka ʻike ʻana o ka bat coravavirus kānana RaTG13 a me ka maikaʻi o ka pepa Nature like. Xiaoxu Lin, Shizhong Chen. Iune 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

ʻPrlelo hoʻolaha. ʻO ke ʻano kūlohelohe o ka hāpana swab fecal i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻopili NGS o ke kaʻina genome RaTG13 e hoʻokau i kahi nīnau i ka pololei o ke kaʻina RaTG13. ʻO Monali Rahalkar lāua ʻo Rahul Bahulikar. ʻAukake 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Nā hoʻolaha OSF. ʻO COVID-19, SARS a me nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronaviruses genome genises RNA exogeneous i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻApelila 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

Zenodo. Hoʻolālā nā kāne i nā kūleʻa genome coronavirus i hana ʻia e ke kāne. ʻO Jean-Claude Perez lāua ʻo Luc Montagnier. ʻAukake 2, 2020. 

Nā Microbes e kū mai ana. ʻAʻole kōkua ʻo HIV-1 i ka genome 2019-nCoV. Xiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang a me Gao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. hana: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

arXiv. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka silico o ka spike protein-ACE2 e hoʻopaʻa nei i nā affinities ma waena o nā laha; ke ʻano nui no ke kumu hiki ke loaʻa i ka maʻi maʻi SARS-CoV-2. Sakshi Piplani, Puneet Kumar Singh, David A. Winkler, Nikolai Petrovsky. Mei 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ke ʻike nei i nā coronavirus pili pili iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā pangolins Malayan. Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- Fang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, Gabriel M. Leung, Edward C. Holmes, Yan-Ling Hu, Yi Guan & Wu-Chun Cao. 26 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Nā Polokalamu PLoS. ʻO pangolins ke kikowaena waena o ka coronavirus novel novel (SARS-CoV-2019) 2? Ping Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Mei 14, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia o ka coronavirus e pili ana i ka SARS-CoV-2 mai nā pangolins Malayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi She. Mei 7, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Ke lāʻo Biology. Loaʻa paha ʻo Pangolin kumu o SARS-CoV-2 i hui pū ʻia me ka maʻi COVID-19. Tao Zhang, Qunfu Wu, Zhigang Zhang. 19 Malaki 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Kahi kumu o nā panolin CoVs me kahi like o Spike RBD i SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yujia Alina Chan lāua ʻo Shing Hei Zhan. ʻOkakopa 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

ʻO ka maʻi, Genetics a me ka Evolution. COVID-19: Ka manawa e exonerate i ka pangolin mai ka lawe ʻana o SARS-CoV-2 i nā kānaka. ʻO Roger Frutos, ʻo Jordi Serra-Cobo, ʻo Tianmu Chen lāua ʻo Christian A. Devaux. Volume 84, ʻOkakopa 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRohana. ʻAʻohe hōʻike o nā coronaviruses a i ʻole nā ​​virus ʻē aʻe i hiki i ka Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) ke komo i ke kālepa holoholona hihiu ma o Malaysia.. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Iune 19, 2020. hana: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Pūnae. ʻO kahi kuanaʻike genomic e pili ana i ke kumu a me ka puka ʻana o SARS-CoV-2. ʻO Yong-Zhen Zhang, ʻo Edward C. Holmes. ʻApelila 2020 181 (2): 223-227. hana: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

ʻO Biology. Pili kekahi pili ʻōpeʻapeʻa coronavirus pili loa iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā hoʻokomo kūlohelohe ʻana ma ka pūnaewele cleavage S1 / S2 o ka pūnana spike. ʻO Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, a Weifeng Shi. Iune 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia ka bat coravavirus RmYN02 e ka holoi ʻana 6-nucleotide ma ka huina S1 / S2, a kānalua loa ka mea i hoʻokomo ʻia ʻo PAA. ʻO Yuri Deigin lāua ʻo Rossana Segreto. Kekemapa 1, 2020.

Zenodo. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona maʻamau o ka genome SARS-CoV-2 e hōʻike nei i ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka hale hana maʻalahi ma mua o ka hoʻolālā kūlohelohe a me ka wehewehe ʻana o kāna ala synthetic hiki.. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, a me Shanchang Hu. Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Center no ka palekana olakino. I ka pane: Yan et al Preprint Examinations o ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Kelsey Lane Warmbrod, Rachel M. West, Nancy D. Connell lāua ʻo Gigi Kwik Gronvall. Kepakemapa 21, 2020.

Zenodo. Kuhi ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 Spillover i ka manawa o 2019 Nānā i nā Laʻana mai kahi Mineshaft ma Mojiang, Yunnan Province, Kina. Inoa inoa ʻole Kepakemapa 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Nā ʻatikala blog ʻimi noiʻi e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

Medium. Hana-Lab? ʻO ka moʻokūʻauhau SARS-CoV-2 ma o nā aniani o ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila. ʻO Yuri Deigin. ʻApelila 22, 2020.

Medium. Nā mea hoʻomaʻi weliweli a me kahi e loaʻa ai iā lākou. Moreno Colaiacovo. Nowemapa 15, 2020.

Wahi. ʻO ka hōʻiliʻili ʻikepili hōʻeuʻeu o nā hihia Covid-19 i manaʻo ʻia ma Wuhan. Gilles Demaneuf. ʻOkakopa 15, 2020.

Ua ʻimi nā ʻepekema Kina e hoʻololi i ka inoa o ka coronavirus make e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia mai Kina

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I nā lā mua o ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19, ua hoʻāʻo kahi hui o nā ʻepekema e pili ana me ke aupuni o Kina e hoʻokaʻawale i ka coronavirus mai Kina ma o ka hoʻohuli ʻana i kāna inoa inoa. ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia ua ʻike mua ʻia ka maʻi ma Wuhan, Kina, ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema ua makaʻu lākou e ʻike ʻia ka maʻi ʻo "Wuhan coronavirus" a i ʻole "Wuhan pneumonia," nā leka uila i loaʻa na US Pono e ʻike i ka hōʻike.

Hōʻike nā leka uila i mua i ke kaua ʻike i hoʻokumu ʻia e ke aupuni Kina e hoʻokino i ka moʻolelo e pili ana i ke kumu o ka nūhou coronavirus.

ʻO ka inoa o ka maʻi "he mea nui i ka poʻe Kina" a me nā kuhikuhi e pili ana i ka maʻi i hōʻike iā Wuhan "stigmatize and insid" Wuhan mau kamaʻāina, nā leka mai nā lā ʻo Pepeluali 2020.

ʻO ka mea kikoʻī ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā ʻepekema Kina i ka inoa loea kūhelu i hāʻawi ʻia i ka maʻi - "koʻikoʻi respiratory respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" - ʻaʻole wale "paʻakikī e hoʻomanaʻo a ʻike" akā "" hoʻopunipuni maoli nō "no ka mea pili ia ka mea hoʻomaʻi hou i ka maʻi SARS-CoV 2003 i hoʻomaka ma Kina.

Ua kapa ʻia ka maʻi e ka Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) o ke Kōmike Hoʻomalu e pili ana iā Virus Taxonomy (ICTV).

ʻO Wuhan Institute of Virology ʻepekema ʻo Zhengli Shi, ka mea nāna i alakaʻi i ka inoa hou hana, i ho'ākāka ʻia i loko o kahi leka uila i ke Kulanui o North Carolina virologist ʻo Ralph Baric, "kahi kūkākūkā ikaika i waena o nā virologists Kina" ma luna o ka inoa SARS-CoV-2.

ʻO Deyin Guo, ka mea ma mua o ke Kula Nui o Biomedical Science o Wuhan University a me ka mea kākau o ka noi hoʻololi hoʻololi inoa, kakau iho la i nā lālā CSG ua hōʻole lākou i ke kūkākūkā ʻana i kā lākou koho inoa ʻana me "virologists me nā ʻike mua loa [ili] o ka maʻi maʻi a me nā mea wehewehe mua o ka maʻi ”mai Kina ʻāina nui.

"ʻAʻole kūpono i ka hoʻohana ʻana i hoʻokahi inoa virus ma muli o ka maʻi (e like me SARS-CoV) e inoa i nā maʻi kūlohelohe ʻē aʻe āpau o ka ʻano like akā he ʻokoʻa loa nā waiwai," kākau ʻo ia i ka leka i hoʻouna ʻia ma kona ʻaoʻao a ʻelima mau ʻepekema ʻē aʻe o Kina.

Ua hoʻolālā ka hui i kahi inoa koho - "Transmissible respiratory respiratory coronavirus (TARS-CoV). ʻO kekahi koho ʻē aʻe, i ʻōlelo ʻia, ʻo ia ka "Human acute respiratory coronavirus (HARS-CoV)."

Ua kākau ʻia ka pae leka uila e hōʻike kikoʻī nei i ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka inoa iā CSG Chair John Ziebuhr.

Hōʻike nā leka i kūʻē ʻo Ziebuhr i ka manaʻo o ka hui Kina. Ua pane ʻo ia "ʻo ka inoa ʻo SARS-CoV-2 e hoʻopili ana i kēia maʻi i nā mea ʻino ʻē aʻe (i kapa ʻia ʻo SARS-CoVs a i ʻole SARSr-CoVs) i kēia ʻano e like me ka virus prototype o nā mea ulu ma mua o ka maʻi i hoʻouluulu i ka inoa o kēia prototype virus ma kahi o 20 mau makahiki i hala. Hoʻohana ʻia ka suffix -2 ma ke ʻano he mea ʻike kū hoʻokahi a hōʻike ʻia ʻo SARS-Co V-2 he ANOTHER (akā pili loa) i kēia maʻi. "

ʻO kā China hui kūʻāina nona ka mokuʻāina ʻo CGTN hoike hooikaika hou ana i Malaki 2020 e nā virologists Kina e kapa hou i ka inoa SARS-CoV-2 ma ke ʻano he coronavirus kanaka 2019 (HCoV-19), ʻaʻole pū kekahi i hui pū ʻia me ka CSG.

Ke kapa nei i ka maʻi hoʻomaʻamaʻa ahulau - ke kuleana o ka World Health Organization (WHO) - he pinepine ia hoʻopiʻi politika hoʻoikaika kino i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻauhau ʻana.

I ka wā i laha mua o ka H5N1 flu ʻo ka virus i kū aʻe ma Kina, ua hoʻokau ke aupuni Kina i ka WHO e hana i nomenclature e hoʻopaʻa ʻole i nā inoa virus i kā lākou mōʻaukala a i ʻole nā ​​wahi i hele mai ai.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Nā leka uila a ke Kulanui o North Carolina ʻo Professor Ralph Baric, kahi a US Right to Know i loaʻa mai ma o kahi noi moʻolelo lehulehu, hiki ke loaʻa ma aneʻi: ʻO nā leka uila Baric # 2: Ke Kulanui o North Carolina (Nānā 332)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka poʻe ʻepekema i kūkākūkā e pili ana i kā lākou komo ʻana i ka palapala puke pai e pili ana i nā kumu o Covid

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ʻO ka pelekikena ʻo EcoHealth Alliance Peter Daszak, ke poʻo o kahi hui i pili i ka noiʻi ʻana i genetically manipulate coronaviruses, ua kūkākūkā e hūnā i kāna kuleana i kahi ʻōlelo i paʻi ʻia i ka makahiki i hala i ʻO ka Lancet i hoʻohewa ʻia ma ke ʻano he "thepirates theories" hopohopo e pili ana ka maʻi virus COVID-19 i loko o kahi keʻena noiʻi, ua loaʻa nā leka uila i loaʻa e US Right to Know.

ʻO ka ʻōlelo Lancet, i pūlima ʻia e 27 ʻepekema koʻikoʻi, he mea nui i ka hoʻopau ʻana i nā manaʻo kānalua e kekahi poʻe ʻepekema e hiki i ka COVID-19 ke pili i ka Wuhan Institute of Virology o Kina, a he pili pili noiʻi kēia na ka EcoHealth Alliance.

Ua kākau ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo a hoʻolaha iā ia i nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e kau inoa. Akā ʻo ka leka uila hōʻike iā Daszak a me ʻelua mau ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e pili ana iā EcoHealth i manaʻo ʻaʻole pono e kau inoa i ka ʻōlelo i mea e uhi ai i kā lākou komo pū i loko. Ke waiho nei i ko lākou inoa mai ka ʻōlelo e hāʻawi iā ia "kahi mamao mai iā mākou a no laila ʻaʻole holo i kahi ala counterproductive," kākau ʻo Daszak.

Ua hoʻomaopopo ʻo Daszak hiki iā ia ke "hoʻouna a puni" i nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e kau inoa. "E hoʻokuʻi mākou i kahi ala i ʻole e hoʻopili iā ia i kā mākou hana pū ʻana no laila e hoʻonui mākou i kahi leo kūʻokoʻa," i kākau ʻo ia.

Ua kākau nā ʻepekema ʻelua ʻo Daszak e pili ana i ka pono e hōʻike kūʻokoʻa ka pepa iā EcoHealth, he loea coronavirus ʻo Ralph Baric lāua ʻo Linfa Wang.

Ma nā leka uila, ua ʻae ʻo Baric me kā Daszak manaʻo e ʻaʻole pūlima ʻO ka Lancet ʻōlelo, kākau ʻana "Inā ʻaʻole ia e nānā pono iā ia iho, a lilo kā mākou hopena."

Ua kau inoa ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo iā ia iho, akā ʻaʻole ʻo ia i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he alakaʻi alakaʻi a mea hoʻomalu paha o ka hana.

ʻO nā leka uila kahi ʻāpana o kahi tranche o nā palapala i kiʻi ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana i ka hana ʻana ʻo Daszak mai ka wā ma mua o ka makahiki i hala e hōʻino ai ke kuhiakau i kulu paha ka SARS-CoV-2 mai ka Ke Kula ʻo Wuhan.

ʻO ka hōʻike mua ʻia o COVID-19 ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Wuhan.

Pono ʻo US e ʻike mamua ua hōʻike ua kākau ʻo Daszak i ka ʻōlelo no ʻO ka Lancet, a hoʻonohonoho ʻia ia i "ʻAʻole e ʻike ʻia e hele mai ana mai kekahi hui a kanaka paha" akā e ʻike ʻia ma "Kahi leka mai nā ʻepekema alakaʻi".

ʻO EcoHealth Alliance kahi hui nonprofit ma Nu Ioka i loaʻa he miliona miliona o ka ʻauhau ʻauhau US no ka genetically manipulate coronaviruses, me nā ʻepekema ma Wuhan Institute.

ʻO ka mea nui, ua puka mai ʻo Daszak ma ke ʻano he kikowaena kikoʻī i ka hoʻokolokolo kūhelu ʻana o kā SARS-CoV-2 kumu. He lālā ʻo ia o ka Pūnaewele o ka Honuake kime o ka poʻe loea e huli nei i ke kumu o ka coronavirus, a ʻO ka Lancet COVID 19 Komisina.

E ʻike i kā mākou hōʻike mua ʻana i kēia kumuhana: 

E kau inoa no kā mākou leka pepa manuahi e loaʻa ai nā lono hou i kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. 

Hāpai nā ʻikepili i loli i nā nīnau hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o nā kī nui i nā kumu coronavirus

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ʻO nā loiloi i nā ʻikepili genomic e pili ana i nā ʻike nui ʻehā e pili ana i nā kumu coronavirus e hoʻohui i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o kēia mau aʻo ʻana, e hāʻawi ana i ke kākoʻo kumu no ke kuhiakau. i hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 i ka holoholona lōhiu. Nā haʻawina, Peng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., Lam et al., a Xiao et al., ʻike ʻia nā coronavirus pili pili iā SARS-CoV-2 i nā opeapea lio a me nā pangolin Malayan.

Ua waiho nā mea kākau noiʻi i ka ʻikepili hōʻiliʻili DNA i kapa ʻia Heluhelu ke kaʻina, a lākou i hoʻohana ai e hōʻiliʻili i nā genome bat a me pangolin-coronavirus, ma ka National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) kaʻina heluhelu waihona (SRA). Ua hoʻokumu ʻo NCBI i ka waihona kikowaena lehulehu e kōkua i ka hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa o nā aniani genomic e pili ana i nā ʻenehana hoʻonohonoho kiʻekiʻe.

Ua kuleana ʻo US e ʻike i nā palapala i noi ʻia e nā moʻolelo lehulehu hōʻike i nā hoʻoponopono i kēia mau noiʻi SRA ʻikepili mahina ma hope o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana. ʻAno kēia mau loiloi no ka mea ua hana ʻia ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana, a me ka ʻole o ke kumu, ka wehewehe a me ka hōʻoia.

ʻo kahi laʻana, Peng Zhou et al. a Lam et al. hōʻano hou i kā lākou ʻikepili SRA ma nā lā ʻelua like. ʻAʻole wehewehe nā palapala i ke kumu a lākou i hoʻololi ai i kā lākou ʻikepili, akā ua hana ʻia kekahi mau hoʻololi. Xiao et al. ua hoʻololi he nui i kā lākou SRA ʻikepili, me ka holoi ʻia ʻana o ʻikepili ʻelua ma Malaki 10, ka hoʻohui o kahi hōkeo hou ma Iune 19, kahi 8 o Nowemapa i hoʻololi hou ʻia i ka ʻikepili i hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma ʻOkakopa 30, a me kahi hoʻololi hou o ka ʻikepili ma Nowemapa 13 - ʻelua lā ma hope Nature pākuʻi ʻia i kahi “palapala hopohopo” a ka Luna Hoʻoponopono. e pili ana i ke aʻo ʻana. Hong Zhou et al. e kaʻana like i ka huina SRA holoʻokoʻa e hiki ai i ka hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa. ʻOiai nā puke pai e like Nature koi i nā mea kākau e hana i nā ʻikepili āpau.loaʻa koke”I ka manawa o ka paʻi ʻana, hiki ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka ʻikepili SRA mahope iho o paipalapala; akā ʻano ʻokoʻa ka hana ʻana i nā hoʻololi i kēlā me kēia mahina ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana.

ʻO kēia mau hoʻololi ʻano ʻē o ka ʻikepili SRA ʻaʻole ia e hana maʻalahi i nā ʻehā mau aʻo a me kā lākou ʻikepili e pili pono ana. Eia nō naʻe, nā lohi, nā hemahema a me nā loli o ka ʻike SRA ua hoʻohoka i ka hui kūʻokoʻa a me ka hōʻoia o nā kaʻina genome i paʻi ʻia, a hoʻohui i ninau a nā mea pili e pili ana i ka kūpono o nā aʻo ʻehā, e like me:

  1. He aha nā hoʻoponopono hou ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana i ka ʻikepili SRA? No ke aha i hana ʻia ai? Pehea lākou i hoʻopili ai i nā anamanaʻo a me nā hopena genomic e pili ana?
  2. Ua hōʻoia ʻia kēia mau hoʻoponopono SRA? Inā pēlā, pehea? ʻO ka ʻO kā NCBI hōʻoia wale nō ke ana hoʻohālikelike no ka paʻi ʻana i kahi SRA BioProject– ma ʻō aku o ka ʻike kumu e like me "inoa meaola" - ʻaʻole hiki ke kope ʻia ia.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

ka National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hiki ke loaʻa nā palapala ma aneʻi: Nā leka uila NCBI (Nānā 63)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai no kā mākou noiʻi biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

ʻAoʻao kāʻei kua ma ka US Right to Know ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

ʻAʻohe manaʻo loiloi o nā hoa no ka hoʻohui i ka ʻike kumu coronavirus koʻikoʻi?

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Ka mangalepa Nature ʻaʻole i loiloi i ka hilinaʻi o nā kuleana koʻikoʻi i hana ʻia i Nowemapa 17 hoʻohui a like ma nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa kumu o ka moʻolelo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, nā leka me Nature manaʻo nā limahana.

Ma Pepeluali 3, 2020, ua hōʻike ka ʻepekema Wuhan Institute of Virology i ka ʻike ʻana i kahi pili kokoke loa o ka SARS-CoV-2, kahi cor corona virus i kapa ʻia ʻo RaTG13. Kahiwa13 ua lilo i kikowaena i ke kuhiakau i hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 i ka holoholona lōhiu.

ʻO nā helu ʻōlelo hoʻohui pane ʻole ʻia ninau e pili ana i ka hōʻoia o RaTG13. Ua wehewehe nā mea kākau, Zhou et al., Ua loaʻa iā RaTG13 ma 2012-2013 "i kahi mineshaft i haʻalele ʻia ma ka moku ʻo Mojiang, ka moku ʻo Yunnan," kahi ʻeono mau minia i ʻeha. huʻihuʻi respiratory respiratory syndrome ma hope o ka hōʻike ʻia i nā f bat bathes, a ʻekolu i make. Nā noiʻi ʻana o ka hiki i nā hōʻailona o nā mea minia maʻi ke hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi e pili ana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Zhou et al. ua hōʻike i ka loaʻa ʻole o nā coronavirus e pili ana i ka SARS i nā laʻana serum i mālama ʻia o nā mea miners maʻi, akā ʻaʻole lākou i kākoʻo i kā lākou mau koi me nā ʻikepili a me nā ʻano e pili ana i kā lākou hoʻokolohua a me nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua.

Loaʻa ka ʻole o ka ʻikepili koʻikoʻi i ka addendum hāpai hou i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi o ka Zhou et al. hoʻopaʻa haʻawina. Ma Nowemapa 27, Ua noi ʻo US Right to Know Nature ninau e pili ana i nā kuleana o ka addendum, a noi ʻia i kēlā Nature paʻi i nā ʻikepili kākoʻo āpau a Zhou et al. ua hāʻawi paha.

Ma Kekemapa 2, Nature Ke poʻo o nā kamaʻilio Bex Walton wahi a ʻo ia ke kumu Zhou et al. ua "pololei akā maopopo ʻole" ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana, a ua kūpono ka hoʻohui anuu hope-paʻi no ka wehewehe ʻana. Ua hoʻohui ʻo ia: "E pili ana i kāu mau nīnau, e kuhikuhi mākou iā ʻoe e hoʻokokoke i nā mea kākau o ka pepa no nā pane, e like me ʻaʻole pili kēia mau nīnau i ka noiʻi a mākou i paʻi ai akā i nā noiʻi ʻē aʻe i mālama ʻia e nā mea kākau, ʻaʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo ”(koʻikoʻi iā mākou). ʻOiai ʻo kā mākou nīnau e pili ana i ka noiʻi i wehewehe ʻia i ka addendum, ka Nature Hōʻike ka ʻōlelo a ka lunamakaʻāinana ʻaʻole i loiloi ʻia kā addendum a Zhou et al. ma ke ʻano he noiʻi.

Ua nīnau mākou he nīnau nīnau ma Kēkēmapa 2: "ua kau ʻia kēia addendum i kekahi loiloi ʻia e nā hoa a me / a i ʻole ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono ʻana e Nature? ” ʻAʻole i pane pololei ʻo Ms. Walton; ʻo ia wahi a: "Ma ka laulā, e loiloi kā mākou mea hoʻoponopono i nā manaʻo a i ʻole nā ​​hopohopo i hāpai ʻia me mākou i ka manawa mua, e nīnau ana i nā mea kākau, a e ʻimi ana i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo mai nā loiloi hoa a me nā loea ʻē aʻe inā manaʻo mākou he pono. ʻAʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo i ka mālama pilikino ʻana i nā hihia pākahi.

No ka Nature manaʻo i ka hoʻohui he a ka hope-hoʻopuka hou, a ʻaʻole ia e hoʻokau i ka post post addenda i nā kūlana loiloi loiloi like e like me nā paʻi mua, me he mea lā ʻo Zhou et al. ʻAʻole i hoʻomoe ʻia e addendum.

ʻAʻole pane nā mea kākau ʻo Zhengli Shi lāua ʻo Peng Zhou iā ia mākou nīnau e pili ana i ko lakou Nature pākuʻi

Hōʻike nā leka uila hou i nā kūkākūkā ʻepekema e pili ana i ke kūkā kamaʻilio ʻana no ke kumu ʻo SARS-CoV-2 

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Hāʻawi i nā leka uila hou i nā ʻike i ka hoʻomohala ʻia ʻana o kahi moʻolelo e pili ana i nā kumu kūlohelohe o ka puke coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ʻoiai e waiho ana nā nīnau ʻepekema nui. ʻO nā kūkākūkā kūloko a me kahi ʻōkuhi mua o ka leka a ka ʻepekema e hōʻike ana i ka poʻe loea e kūkākūkā ana i nā hemahema o ka ʻike a me nā nīnau i pane ʻole ʻole ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu lab, ʻoiai e ʻimi ana kekahi e hōʻemi i nā manaʻo "fringe" e pili ana i ka hiki ʻana o ka maʻi virus mai kahi keʻena hana

Ua wehewehe nā ʻepekema koʻikoʻi a me nā nūhou he nui i nā hōʻike e like me "nui loa”I hoʻomaka ʻia ka maʻi ma ka holoholona lōhiu, ʻaʻole mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua. Eia nō naʻe, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope o ka hōʻike mua ʻia ʻana o nā hihia o SARS-CoV-2 ma ke kūlanakauhale Kina o Wuhan. ʻike iki ʻia pehea a ma hea ua hoʻomaka ka maʻi virus. ʻO ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2, ke kumu o ka maʻi COVID-19, he mea nui paha ia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi maʻi e hiki mai ana.

Nā leka uila a ka loea coronavirus ʻO Professor Ralph Baric - i loaʻa ma o nā moʻolelo lehulehu i noi ʻia e US Right to Know - e hōʻike i nā kamaʻilio ma waena o nā ʻelele o National Academy of Science (NAS), a me nā loea i ka biosecurity a me nā maʻi lele mai nā kula nui o US. Hui ʻEcoHealth.

Ma Pepeluali 3, ke Keʻena Keʻokeʻo o ka ʻEpekema a me nā Kālā ʻEpekema Ua nīnau ʻo (OSTP) ka National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) e "hoʻākoakoa i ka hālāwai o ka poʻe loea ... e loiloi i ka ʻikepili, ka ʻike, a me nā laʻana e pono ai e kamaʻilio i nā mea ʻike ʻole ʻia, i mea e maopopo ai i nā kumu hoʻomohala o 2019-nCoV, a me ka pane maikaʻi aku. i ka maʻi ahulau a me nā hopena hewa e pili ana i ka hopena. "

ʻO Baric a me nā loea maʻi maʻi ʻē aʻe i pili i ka hoʻolālā ʻana ka pane. Hōʻike nā leka uila i nā kūkākūkā kūloko o ka poʻe loea a me kahi ʻōkuhi mua hana ʻia Pepeluali 4.

Ua wehewehe ka ʻōkuhi mua i "nā manaʻo mua o ka poʻe loea" e "kūlike ka ʻike genomic me ka evolution kūlohelohe a ʻaʻohe hōʻike i kēia manawa e ʻenekini ʻia ka maʻi e hoʻolaha koke aku i waena o nā kānaka." Ua nīnau ʻia kēia huaʻōlelo kikoʻī i nā nīnau, i loko o nā panakū: "[noi aku i ka poʻe loea e hoʻohui i nā kikoʻī e hoʻopaʻa hou ana i nā pūnaewele?]" Ua komo pū kekahi ma ka palapala hemahema i loko o nā mākeke: evolution o nā coronaviruses e pili ana.]

In hoʻokahi leka uila, i ka lā 4 o Pepeluali, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Trevor Bedford, ka loea maʻi maʻi: "ʻAʻole wau e ʻōlelo i nā pūnaewele paʻa ma aneʻi. Inā ʻoe e hoʻomaka i ke kaupaona ʻana i nā hōʻike he nui nā mea e noʻonoʻo ai no nā hanana ʻelua. ” Na "nā hanana ʻelua," ʻike ʻia ʻo Bedford i nā hanana lab-origin a me nā kūmole kūlohelohe.

He mea nui ka nīnau no nā pūnaewele paʻa i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Nā pūnaewele paʻa paʻa ma ka hāʻawi pūnaehana spike protein o SARS-CoV-2 "Kokoke-maikaʻi loa" ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana a me ke komo ʻana o ka maʻi i loko o nā huna kanaka, a hoʻonui i ka maʻi ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ma mua o ka SARS-CoV. Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā kānaka ʻepekema ua hiki ke hoʻokumu ʻia nā pūnaewele paʻa paʻa o SARS-CoV-2 ma muli o kahi hopena o maoli hoʻoheheʻe wai i ka hihiu a i ʻole ʻike keʻena hoʻokolohua hoʻohui hou ʻana o kahi kūpuna kūlohelohe i hōʻike ʻole ʻia o SARS-CoV-2.

ka leka hope loa i paʻi ʻia ma Pepeluali 6 ʻaʻole i haʻi ʻia nā pūnaewele paʻa a i ʻole ka hiki ke loaʻa kahi kahua kahua. Hoʻomaopopo pono ia i ka nui o ka ʻike e pono ai e hoʻoholo i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Wahi a ka leka, "Ua haʻi mai ka poʻe loea iā mākou i ka ʻike hou ʻia ʻana o ka ʻikepili genomic mai ka hulihonua - a me ka manawa - pono nā laʻana viral like ʻole e hoʻoholo i ke kumu a me ka ulu ʻana o ka maʻi. ʻO nā laʻana i hōʻiliʻili ʻia e like me ka hiki ke hiki i ka W outbreak ma Wuhan a me nā laʻana mai nā holoholona l?

Hōʻike nā leka uila i kekahi mau loea e kūkākūkā ana i ka pono o ka ʻōlelo moakaka e pale ai i ka mea i wehewehe ʻia ma ke ʻano he "the crackpot theories" o ke kumu lab. Kristian Andersen, mea kākau alakaʻi o an pepa Kauka Lapaʻau Manaʻo koʻikoʻi ke ʻōlelo nei i kahi kumu kūlohelohe o SARS-CoV-2, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ke kumu he "maikaʻi loa ia, akā noʻonoʻo wau inā pono mākou e ʻoi aku ka paʻa i ka nīnau o ka ʻenehana." Ua hoʻomau ʻo ia, "Inā ʻo kekahi o nā kumu nui o kēia palapala ka mea e kūʻē ai i kēlā mau ʻaoʻao pili, manaʻo wau he mea nui e hana ikaika a ma ka ʻōlelo maʻamau ..."

In kana pane, Hoʻonohonoho ʻo Baric i ka lawe ʻana i kahi kumu ʻepekema no ko SARS-CoV-2 kūlohelohe. "Manaʻo wau pono mākou e ʻōlelo ʻo ka pili kokoke loa i kēia maʻi (96%) i ʻike ʻia mai nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa e kahe ana i kahi ana ma Yunnan, Kina. He ʻōlelo ikaika kēia no ke kumu o ka holoholona. ”

ʻO ka hope palapala mai nā pelekikena ʻo NASEM ʻaʻole e kū i kahi kūlana ma ke kumu o ka maʻi virus. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia, "Ua mālama ʻia nā noiʻi noiʻi e hoʻomaopopo pono i ke kumu o 2019-nCoV a pehea e pili ai i nā mea ʻino i loaʻa i nā opeapea a me nā ʻano ʻē aʻe. ʻO ka pili pili kokoke loa o 2019-nCoV ʻike ʻia he coronavirus i ʻike ʻia mai nā laʻana mai nā ʻōpeʻapeʻa i hōʻiliʻili ʻia ma Kina. " Ua kuhikuhi ʻia ka leka ʻelua haʻawina i alakaʻi ʻia e EcoHealth Alliance a me Wuhan Institute of Virology. ʻO nā mea ʻelua kahi kumu kūlohelohe no SARS-CoV-2.

I kekahi mau pule ma hope mai, ua ʻike ʻia ka leka a nā pelekikena NASEM ma ke ʻano he kumu mana no kekahi mea koʻikoʻi ʻōlelo a nā ʻepekema i paʻi ʻia i loko ʻO ka Lancet i hōʻike hou aku i ka maopopo e pili ana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Ua hōʻike ʻo USRTK ma mua ua kākau ʻo Pelekikena EcoHealth Alliance Peter Daszak i kēlā ʻōlelo, i ʻōlelo ʻo "ʻepekema mai nā ʻāina he nui ... ua hoʻoholo nui loa ʻia ua hoʻomaka kēia coronavirus i ka holoholona lōhiu." ʻO kēia kūlana, nā ʻōlelo i kākau ʻia, "kākoʻo hou ʻia e kahi leka mai nā pelekikena o ka US National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

ʻO nā mea i koho ʻia ma hope o Peter Daszak a me nā mea kōkua ʻē aʻe ʻo EcoHealth i ʻO ke Komisina Lancet COVID19 a ʻo Daszak i ka ʻO nā noiʻi a ka World Health Organization o nā kumu kumu o SARS-CoV-2 ʻo ka hilinaʻi o kēia mau hana i hoʻohiolo ʻia e nā paio o ka hoihoi, a ma ka hiohiona ua hoʻokolokolo mua lākou i ka hihia ma ka lima.

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"Nā pilikia e pale paha mākou"

Hōʻike pū nā leka uila Baric i kahi lunamakaʻāinana NAS e'ōlelo ana i nā ʻepekema US pono lākou e "hōʻalo" i nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2 i nā hālāwai kūkā ʻelua a lākou e hoʻolālā nei me nā loea COVID-19 Kina. Ua kūkākūkā nā leka uila i Mei a me Iune 2020 i nā hoʻolālā no nā hālāwai. Ke komo nei i ka ʻepekema ʻAmelika, he hapa nui o lākou he lālā no ka NAS Komite kūpaʻa e pili ana i nā maʻi lele e kū nei a me nā hoʻoweliweli olakino kenekulia 21, me Ralph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, a me Peiyong Shi.

ka komo ʻepekema ʻē aʻe ʻo George Gao, Zhengli Shi, a me Zhiming Yuan. ʻO George Gao ka luna o Kina CDC. Alakaʻi ʻo Zhengli Shi i ka noiʻi coronavirus ma Wuhan Institute of Virology, a ʻo Zhiming Yuan ka luna o WIV.

In email i ka poʻe komo ʻAmelika e pili ana i kahi kau hoʻolālā, ua wehewehe ʻo NAS Rusmeek Polokalamu Senior Program i ke kumu o ka hālāwai: "e hoʻopihapiha iā ʻoe ma ke kamaʻilio kamaʻilio, kūkā i nā kumuhana / nā nīnau (papa inoa i kāu leka kono a hoʻopili ʻia) a me nā pilikia a mākou paha e pale (nā nīnau kumu, nā politika)… ”

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Loulou i ke Kulanui o North Carolina ʻO kā Professor Ralph Baric mau leka uila hiki ke loaʻa ma aneʻi: Nā leka uila Baric (Nānā 83,416)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala mai kā mākou mau palapala lehulehu i noi ai mākou hoʻokolokolo biohazards. E nānā: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

Ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo EcoHealth Alliance i ka ʻōlelo ʻepekema nui e pili ana i ka “kumu kūlohelohe” o SARS-CoV-2

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Hoʻohou 2.15.21 - Ua leka hou ʻia ka leka uila Daszak: “ʻAʻole pono ʻoe e kau inoa i ka 'Statement' Ralph !!

Ua loaʻa nā leka uila i loaʻa iā US Right to Know e hōʻike ana i a ʻōlelo ma ʻO ka Lancet i kākau ʻia e 27 ʻepekema olakino olakino lehulehu e hoʻāhewa nei i nā "kipi kipi e hōʻike nei ʻaʻole he kumu kūlohelohe ʻo COVID-19" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e nā limahana o EcoHealth Alliance, kahi hui waiwai ʻole i loaʻa loaʻa nā kālā he miliona of Luna ʻauhau US kālā i manipulate genetically aihua me nā ʻepekema i ka ʻO Wuhan Institute o Virology.

ʻO nā leka uila i loaʻa ma o nā noi palapala lehulehu e hōʻike ana ua koho ʻo Pelekikena Pelekikena ʻo EcoHealth Peter Daszak i ka Lancet olelo, a ua manao ia e "ʻAʻole e ʻike ʻia e hele mai ana mai kekahi hui a kanaka paha" akā e ʻike ʻia ma "Kahi leka mai nā ʻepekema alakaʻi". Ua kākau ʻo Daszak ua makemake ʻo ia “e hōʻalo ai i ke ʻano o kahi ʻōlelo politika".

Ua ʻike ʻia ka leka a ka poʻe ʻepekema i ʻO ka Lancet ma Pepeluali 18, hoʻokahi pule wale nō ma hope o ka hoʻolaha ʻana o ka World Health Organization e kapa ʻia ka maʻi i hōʻea ʻia e ka novel coronavirus COVID-19.

"Kuhi ikaika nā mea kākau 27 i nā manaʻo kipi kipi e hōʻike nei ʻaʻole he kumu kūlohelohe ʻo COVID-19," a ua hōʻike ʻia ua hana ʻepekema mai nā ʻāina he nui "ua hoʻomaka kēia coronavirus i ka holoholona lōhiu." ʻAʻole pili ka leka i nā ʻepekema e hōʻole i ke kumumanaʻo kumu o ka maʻi. Hoʻokahi ʻepekema, ʻo Linda Saif, i nīnau ʻia ma o ka leka uila inā he pono "E hoʻohui i hoʻokahi a i ʻole 2 mau ʻōlelo i kākoʻo i ke kumu o ka nCOV ʻaʻole kahi lab i hoʻokumu ʻia i ka maʻi virus a ke hana maʻamau nei? ʻIke he koʻikoʻi e hōʻole ʻepekema i kēlā mau koi! ” Pane ʻo Daszak, “Manaʻo wau e pili paha mākou i kahi ʻōlelo ākea. "

Ke heahea nei e noiʻi i ka Wuhan Institute of Virology ma ke ʻano he kumuwaiwai kūpono o SARS-CoV-2 i alakaʻi ʻia i hoʻonui i ka loiloi o EcoHealth Alliance. Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka hana a nā lālā o ka EcoHealth Alliance i ka hana mua ʻana i ka waiho ʻana i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hiki ʻana o kahi lab o SARS-CoV-2 ma ke ʻano he "crackpot theories e pono e kamaʻilio ʻia," e like me ʻLelo ʻo Daszak ke Kahu.

ʻOiai ʻo ka huaʻōlelo "EcoHealth Alliance" hoʻokahi wale nō manawa i kū ai i loko ʻO ka Lancet ʻōlelo, i ka hui pū ʻana me ka mea kākau kākau ʻo Daszak, he mau pilina pili ʻē aʻe kekahi mau hoa kākau ʻē aʻe i ka hui i hōʻike ʻole ʻia ma ke ʻano he hakakā o ka hoihoi. ʻO Rita Colwell lāua ʻo James Hughes lala o ka Papa Hoʻokele o EcoHealth Alliance, ʻO William Karesh ʻo ia ka Pelekikena Hope Pelekikena o ka hui no ke olakino a me nā kulekele, a Kahua Hume ʻo ia ka ʻepekema a me ka aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo.

Ua ʻōlelo pū nā mea kākau o ka ʻōlelo, ʻo ka "hoʻokaʻawale wikiwiki ʻana, a me ka moakāka ʻole o ka ʻikepili e pili ana i kēia laha ke hoʻoweliweli ʻia nei e nā lono a me nā ʻike hewa e pili ana i kāna kumu. I kēia lā naʻe, ʻike iki ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, a me nā noiʻi ʻana i ke kumu o ka Pūnaewele o ka Honua a ʻO ka Lancet Komisina COVID-19 ʻē uhi ʻia i ka hūnā a mired ʻia e nā paio o nā makemake.

ʻO Peter Daszak, ʻo Rita Colwell, a ʻO ka Lancet ʻAʻole hāʻawi ʻo Lunahooponopono Richard Horton i mau manaʻo ma ka pane ʻana i kā mākou noi no kēia moʻolelo.

No ka mea, 'ike hou aku

Hiki ke loaʻa kahi loulou i ka pūʻulu holoʻokoʻa o nā leka uila EcoHealth Alliance ma aneʻi: Nā leka uila ʻo EcoHealth Alliance: Kulanui o Maryland (Nānā 466)

Ke waiho nei ʻo US Right to Know i nā palapala i loaʻa ma o ke noi ākea kūʻokoʻa o ka lehulehu (FOI) kā mākou noiʻi Biohazards i kā mākou pou: Nā palapala FOI e pili ana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2, nā mea weliweli o ka noiʻi loaʻa hana hou a me nā labs biosafety..

Pākuʻi pili

Ke kūpono o nā noi nui e pili ana i ke kumu o ka coronavirus me ke kānalua; nā puke pai ʻepekema e ʻimi nei

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Na Carey Gillam

Mai ka ka laha ʻana o COVID-19 i ke kūlanakauhale Kina o Wuhan i Kēkēmapa 2019, ua ʻimi nā ʻepekema no nā kuhi e pili ana i ke ala ʻana o kāna agena causative, ka puke coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. ʻO ka wehe ʻana i ke kumu o ka SARS-CoV-2 hiki ke lilo i mea koʻikoʻi no ka pale ʻana i nā maʻi e hiki mai ana.

Ho? Oponopono o ʻehā kiʻekiʻe Profile haʻawina i paʻi ʻia ma mua o kēia makahiki i hāʻawi i ka ʻepekema hilinaʻi i ke kuhiakau i hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo SARS-CoV-2 i loko o nā opeapea a laila lele i nā kānaka ma o kahi ʻano anteater i kapa ʻia he pangolin - i waena o nā holoholona hihiu i kālepa nui ʻia ma ka honua. ʻOiai kēlā kumumanaʻo kikoʻī pili pū ana i nā pangolins hoʻēmi nui ʻia, nā noiʻi ʻehā i kapa ʻia ʻo "nā pepa pangolin" e hoʻomau i ka hāʻawi ʻana i ke kākoʻo no ka manaʻo e pili kokoke ana nā coronavirus iā SARS-CoV-2 e hoʻopuni i ka nahelehele, ʻo ia hoʻi ka SARS-CoV-2 i hoʻokumu iā COVID-19 mai kahi kumu holoholona hihiu mai. 

ʻO ka nānā ʻana i kahi kumu holoholona hihiu, ke kumumanaʻo "zoonotic", ua lilo i mea nui i ke kūkākūkā honua e pili ana i ka maʻi, e kuhikuhi ana i ka lehulehu mai kahi ka hiki i hoʻomaka paha ka maʻi maʻi i loko o kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua aupuni Kina - ka ʻO Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Ua aʻo ʻo US Right to Know (USRTK), eia naʻe ʻelua o nā pepa ʻehā e hoʻokumu ana i ke kumumanaʻo zoonotic e kīnā ʻole ana, a ʻo nā mea hoʻoponopono i nā puke pai i paʻi ʻia ai nā pepa. Nā Polokalamu PLoS a Nature - ke ʻimi nei i ka ʻikepili koʻikoʻi ma hope o nā noi a pehea e kālailai ʻia ai ka ʻikepili. Hōʻike like nā ʻē aʻe ʻelua i pilikia kīnā ʻole.

ʻO nā pilikia me nā pepa noiʻi e hāpai i nā "nīnau a me nā hopohopo koʻikoʻi" e pili ana i ka pono o ke kumumanaʻo zoonotic āpau, e like me ʻO Kauka Sainath Suryanarayanan, he biologist a me sociologist o ka ʻepekema, a me ka ʻepekema limahana o USRTK.  ʻAʻohe o ka ʻikepili i lawa ka hilinaʻi ʻia, nā ʻikepili i hōʻoia ʻia me kahi kaʻawale o ka loiloi a me ka hoʻoponopono ʻana o nā hoa, e like me kā Dr. Suryanarayanan. 

E ʻike i kāna mau leka uila me nā mea kākau kiʻekiʻe o nā pepa a me nā mea hoʻoponopono puke pai, a me ka hoʻopili ʻana. ʻO ke kūlohelohe a me PLoS Pathogens ʻimi i ka ʻepekema ʻoiaʻiʻo o nā noi nui e hoʻopili ana i nā corolavirus pangolin i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2.

Nā luna aupuni aupuni Kina paipai mua i ka manaʻo ʻo ke kumu o ka agena causal no COVID-19 i loko o kānaka i hele mai mai kahi holoholona hihiu i Kekemapa. Ua kākoʻo nā ʻepekema i kākoʻo ʻia e ke aupuni Kina i kēlā kumumanaʻo i ʻehā mau noiʻi ʻokoʻa i waiho ʻia i nā puke pai ma waena o Pepeluali 7 a me 18.

ʻO ka Hui Misiona Hui Hui Kina a ka World Health Organization e ʻimi nei i ka puka a hoʻolaha ʻana o COVID-19 ma Kina i ʻōlelo ʻia ma Pepeluali : "No ka loaʻa ʻana o ka maʻi genome o ka maʻi COVID-19 i ka 96% i ka cor Batavavirus like SARS a me 86% -92% i kahi corolavirus like SARS, he kumu holoholona no COVID-19." 

Ua kōkua ka Kina i hoʻokumu ʻia i kahi kumu holoholona hihiu e hōʻoluʻolu Kāhea no ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana i ka ʻO Wuhan Institute o Virology, kahi i mālama lōʻihi ʻia ai nā coronavirus holoholona a me nā genetically manipulated. Ma kahi o, nā kumuwaiwai a me nā hoʻoikaika ʻana o ka kaiāulu ʻepekema a me nā kaiaulu hana honua hauʻoli i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā kumu e hoʻopili ana i ka pilina ma waena o nā kānaka a me nā holoholona lōhiu. 

ʻO nā pepa ʻehā i nīnau ʻia Liu et al., Xiao et al. , Lam et al. a Zhang et al. ʻO nā mea ʻelua e ʻimi ʻia nei e nā luna hoʻoponopono puke ʻo Liu et al lāua ʻo Xiao et al. I ke kamaʻilio pū ʻana me nā mea kākau a me nā luna hoʻoponopono o kēlā mau pepa ʻelua, ua aʻo ʻo USRTK i nā pilikia koʻikoʻi me ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o kēlā mau aʻo ʻana, e like me kēia:    

  • Liu et al. ʻaʻole i paʻi a kaʻana like (ma ke noi ʻia ʻana) maka a / a i ʻole nalo i ka ʻikepili i ʻae ʻia nā poʻe loea e hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa i kā lākou aniani genomic.
  • Luna hoʻoponopono ma nā mea ʻelua Nature a Nā Polokalamu PLoS, a ʻo Professor Stanley Perlman, ka hoʻoponopono o Liu et al., i ʻae i nā kamaʻilio leka uila ua ʻike lākou i nā pilikia koʻikoʻi me kēia mau pepa a ke nānā nei nā puke pai iā lākou. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole lākou i hoʻolaha i ka lehulehu i nā pilikia kūpono me nā pepa.  

ʻO ka hāmau o nā puke pai e pili ana i kā lākou mau noiʻi e hoʻomau nei, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ʻike ʻole o nā kaiāulu ākea o nā ʻepekema, a me nā lehulehu i hoʻopilikia ʻia e COVID-19 i nā pilikia e pili ana i nā pepa noiʻi, wahi a Dr. 

"Manaʻoʻiʻo mākou he mea nui kēia mau pilikia, no ka mea hiki ke hoʻohālikelike i ka pane ʻana o nā ʻoihana i kahi maʻi ahulau kūpilikiʻi i hoʻopili nui i nā ola a me nā ola ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

Hiki ke loaʻa nā loulou i kēia mau leka uila ma aneʻi: 

Ma Iulai 2020, Ua hoʻomaka ʻo US Right to Know e waiho i nā noi moʻohelu lehulehu i ka ʻimi ʻana i ka ʻikepili mai nā hui lehulehu i ka hoʻāʻo e ʻike i nā mea i ʻike ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o ka novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ke kumu o ka maʻi Covid-19. Mai ka hoʻomaka o ka laha ma Wuhan, ua make ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ma kahi o hoʻokahi miliona mau kānaka, ʻoiai e maʻi ana he mau miliona i loko o ka maʻi ahulau e hoʻomau mau nei.

Ma Nowemapa 5, Ua waiho ʻo US Right to Know i kahi hoʻopiʻi kue i ka National Institutes of Health (NIH) no ka ʻaihue ʻana i nā ʻāpana o ke kānāwai Freedom of Information. Ke hoʻopiʻi, i waiho ʻia i ka ʻĀpana ʻApana ʻAmelika ma Wakinekona, DC, ʻimi i nā leka me a i ʻole e pili ana i nā ʻoihana e like me Wuhan Institute of Virology a me ka Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevent, a me ka EcoHealth Alliance, ka mea i hui pū me a kālā kālā ka Wuhan Institute o Virology.

ʻO US Right to Know kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi nonprofit e nānā ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu. Hiki iā 'oe kākoʻo i kā mākou noiʻi a me ka hōʻike ʻana ma o ka hāʻawi ʻana ma aneʻi. 

ʻO ke kūlohelohe a me PLoS Pathogens ʻimi i ka ʻepekema ʻoiaʻiʻo o nā noi nui e pili ana i nā corolavirus pangolin i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2

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Kākau iā loaʻa nā hōʻike hou mai ka Biohazards Blog.

Na Sainath Suryanarayanan, PhD 

Maʻaneʻi, hāʻawi mākou i kā mākou leka uila me nā mea kākau kiʻekiʻe o Liu et al. a Xiao et al., a me nā luna hoʻoponopono o Nā Polokalamu PLoS a Nature. Hōʻike pū kekahi mākou i kahi kūkākūkā hohonu o nā nīnau a me nā hopohopo i hāpai ʻia e kēia mau leka uila, kahi i kanalua ai i ka pono o kēia mau noiʻi nui e pili ana i ke kumu o ka moʻolelo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 i kumu ʻo COVID-19. E ʻike i kā mākou hōʻike ʻana i kēia mau leka uila, Ke kūpono o nā noi nui e pili ana i ke kumu o ka coronavirus me ke kānalua; nā puke pai ʻepekema e ʻimi nei (11.9.20)


Nā leka uila me Dr. Jinping Chen, mea kākau kiʻekiʻe o Liu et al:


ʻO nā leka uila a Kauka Jinping Chen e hāpai nei i kekahi mau hopohopo a me nā nīnau: 

1– Liu et al. (2020) hōʻuluʻulu i kā lākou panolin coronavirus genome series i hoʻokumu ʻia e pili ana i nā coronaviruses i ʻāpana ʻia mai ʻekolu mau pangolins, ʻelua mau laʻana mai kahi pūʻulu i hoʻopuka ʻia i Malaki 2019, a me hoʻokahi laʻana mai kahi hui ʻē aʻe i komo ʻia i Iulai 2019. , kahi e koi ʻia ai ka ʻepekema e waiho i ka ʻikepili hoʻonohonoho e hōʻoia i ka hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa a me ka hana hou ʻana o nā hopena i paʻi ʻia, loaʻa ka ʻikepili heluhelu waihona (SRA) ʻikepili no ʻelua mau lā Malaki Malaki 2019 akā ua nalowale nā ​​ʻike no ka laʻana o Iulai 2019. Ma ka nīnau ʻia ʻana e pili ana i kēia hāpana nalo, a Kauka Jinping Chen i hōʻike ai ma ke ʻano he F9, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen: "Ua ʻike ʻia ka ʻike maka o kēia mau laʻana ʻekolu ma lalo o ka helu helu NCBI PRJNA573298, a ʻo ka ID BioSample ʻo SAMN12809952, SAMN12809953, a SAMN12809954, eia hoʻi, pākahi (F9) mai nā pūʻulu like ʻole he maikaʻi hoʻi, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ka ʻike maka ma NCBI SRA SUB 7661929, e hoʻokuʻu koke ʻia no ka mea he MS hou aʻe kā mākou (ma lalo o ka loiloi)”(Ko mākou koʻikoʻi).

E pili ana ia Liu et al. ʻaʻole i paʻi i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i ka 1 o nā laʻana o 3 pangolins a lākou i hoʻohana ai e hōʻuluʻulu i kā lākou kaʻina genome coronavirus pangolin. ʻAʻole ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen i kaʻanalike i kēia ʻikepili ke nīnau ʻia. ʻO ka maʻamau i ka ʻepekema ka hoʻopuka a / a kaʻana like ʻana i nā ʻikepili āpau e ʻae ai i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe e hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa a hana hou i nā hopena. Pehea Nā Polokalamu PLoS e hoʻokuʻu iā Liu et al. ʻalo i ka paʻi ʻana i ka ʻike ikepili koʻikoʻi? No ke aha ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen e kaʻana ʻole nei i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i kēia hāpana pangolin ʻekolu? No ke aha ʻo Liu et al. makemake e hoʻokuʻu i nā ʻikepili i hoʻopuka ʻole ʻia e pili ana i kēia hāpana pangolin ʻekolu ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o kahi noi ʻē aʻe i waiho ʻia i kahi puke pai ʻē aʻe? ʻO ka hopohopo ma aneʻi e kuhi hewa nā ʻepekema i ka hāpana pangolin e nalo nei mai Liu et al. i kahi noiʻi ʻokoʻa, e paʻakikī ana i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe e huli hope i nā kikoʻī nui e pili ana i kēia hāpana pangolin, e like me ka pōʻaiapili i ʻohiʻohi ʻia ai ka hāpana pangolin.

2– Ua hōʻole ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen ʻaʻole ʻo Liu et al. ua pili kekahi me Xiao et al.'s (2020) Nature hoʻopaʻa haʻawina. Ua kākau ʻo ia: "Ua hāʻawi mākou i kā mākou PLOS Pathogens pepa ma Pep. 14, 2020 ma mua o ka pepa Nature (ka Reference 12 i kā mākou PLOS pepa pathogens, ua waiho lākou ma Pep. 16, 2020 mai kā lākou lā i waiho ai ma Nature), kā mākou PLOS pathogens pepa. wehewehe ʻaʻole ʻo SARS-Cov-2 mai ka pangolin coronavirus pololei a ʻaʻole ʻo pangolin ma ke ʻano he kikowaena waena. Ua ʻike mākou i kā lākou hana ma hope o kā lākou haʻi ʻōlelo nūhou ma Pepeluali 7, 2020, a he ʻokoʻa ko mākou mau manaʻo me lākou, ua helu ʻia nā pepa ʻē aʻe ʻelua (Virus and Nature) i ka pepa PLOS Pathogen ma ke ʻano he pepa kūmole (helu kuhikuhi 10 a me 12), he mau hui noiʻi ʻokoʻa mākou mai nā mea kākau pepa ʻo Nature, a ʻaʻohe pilina o kekahi me kekahi, a ua lawe mākou i nā mea laʻana me ka ʻike kikoʻī kikoʻī mai ke kikowaena hoʻopakele holoholona ola Guangdong me nā kōkua mai Jiejian Zou a me Fanghui Hou ma ke ʻano he mea kākau pū mākou. a ʻaʻole maopopo iā mākou kahi o nā laʻana o ka pepa Natura. ” (ko mākou koʻikoʻi)

ʻO nā mea aʻe e hāpai nei i nā kānalua no nā ʻōlelo a Kauka Chen ma luna: 

a– Liu et al. (2020), Xiao et al (2020) a me Liu et al. (2019) kaʻana like i kēia mau mea kākau: Ping Liu lāua ʻo Jinping Chen he mau mea kākau ma ka 2019 Nā Virus pepa a me ka 2020 Nā Polokalamu PLoS pepa, mea kākau kiʻekiʻe ʻo Wu Chen ma Xiao et al. (2020) he mea kākau kākau o ka 2019 Nā Virus pepa, a ʻo Jiejian Zhou a me Fanghui Hou nā mea kākau ma Xiao et al. a me Liu et al. 

b– Waiho ʻia nā palapala ʻelua i ka pūnaewele preprint lehulehu bioRxiv ma ka lā like: Pepeluali 20, 2020. 

c– Xiao et al. "Kapa inoa hou ʻia nā laʻana pangolin e Liu et al. [2019] Nā Virus me ka helu ʻole ʻana i kā lākou hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma ke ʻano he ʻatikala kumu i wehewehe ai i kēia mau laʻana, a hoʻohana i ka ikepili metagenomic mai kēia mau laʻana i kā lākou kālailai ”(ʻO Chan lāua ʻo Zhan). 

d– Liu et al.'s full pangolin coronavirus genome is 99.95% kūlike i ka pae nucleotide a hiki i ka genomine coronaavirus pangolin piha i paʻi ʻia e Xiao et al. Pehea e hiki ai iā Liu et al. ua hana i kahi genome āpau i 99.95% kūlike (ʻokoʻa ~ 15 ʻokoʻa nā nukleotide) iā Xiao et al. me ka kaʻana like ʻole ʻana i nā ʻikepili a me nā kālailai?

Ke hiki kūʻokoʻa i nā pūʻulu noiʻi like ʻole i nā hopena like e pili ana i kahi nīnau noiʻi i hāʻawi ʻia, hoʻonui ia i ka likelike o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o nā hoʻopiʻi i pili. ʻO ka hopohopo ma aneʻi ʻo Liu et al. and Xiao et al. ʻaʻole alakaʻi kaʻawale ʻia e like me ka ʻōlelo a Dr. Chen. Aia kekahi pilina ma waena o Liu et al. and Xiao et al. e pili ana i kā lākou kālailai a me nā paʻi? Inā pēlā, he aha ka nui a me ke ʻano o kēlā hoʻohui ʻana? 

3– No ke aha ʻo Liu et al. ʻaʻole e hoʻolaha ākea i ka ʻikepili hōʻuluʻulu mana paʻa a lākou i hoʻohana ai e hōʻuluʻulu i ko lākou pangolin coronavirus genome? Me ka ʻole o kēia ʻikepili maka, ʻo ka genolism coronaavirus pangolin i hoʻākoakoa ʻia e Liu et al., ʻAʻole hiki i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe ke hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa a hana hou i nā hopena o Liu et al. E like me ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻia ma mua, ʻo ka maʻamau o ka ʻepekema ka hoʻopuka a / a kaʻana like ʻana i nā ʻikepili āpau e ʻae ai i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe e hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa a hana hou i nā hopena. Ua noi mākou iā Kauka Jingping Chen e kaʻana like i ka ʻike o Liu et al. Ua pane ʻo ia ma ke kaʻana like ʻana i nā hopena o ka huahana RT-PCR a Liu et al. No ke aha e makemake ʻole ai ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen e hoʻokuʻu i ka ʻikepili maka e ʻae ai i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe e hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa iā Liu et al.

4- Liu et al. Nā Virus (2019) i paʻi ʻia ma ʻOkakopa 2019 a ua waiho aku kāna mau mea kākau i kā lākou pangolin coronavirus (waihona heluhelu waihona) ʻikepili SRA me NCBI ma ka lāʻo Ianuali 23, 2019, akā kali a hiki Ianuari 22, 2020 e hoʻike ākea i kēia ʻike. Hoʻokuʻu pinepine nā ʻepekema i ka ʻikepili o ke kaʻina genomic ma luna o ka waihona i hiki i ka lehulehu ke loaʻa koke ma hope o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o kā lākou noi. Hōʻoia kēia hana i hiki i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe ke komo kūʻokoʻa, hōʻoia a hoʻohana i ia ʻikepili. No ke aha ʻo Liu et al. Kali ʻo 2019 i 4 mau mahina e hiki ai i kā lākou ʻikepili SRA ke ākea ākea? Ua koho ʻo Kauka Jinping Chen ʻaʻole e pane pololei i kēia nīnau a mākou i kāna pane ma Nowemapa 9, 2020.

Ua launa pū mākou me Dr. Stanley Perlman, Nā Polokalamu PLoS Lunahooponopono o Liu et al. a ʻo kēia kāna i ʻōlelo ai.

ʻOiaʻiʻo, ua ʻae ʻo Kauka Perlman e:

  • "Ke noiʻi nei ʻo PLoS Pathogens i kēia pepa i nā kikoʻī hou aʻe" 
  • ʻAʻole ʻo ia i "hōʻoia i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka laʻana o Iulai 2019 i ka wā o ka loiloi mua ʻia e nā hoa"
  • “[C] oncerns e pili ana i ka like ma waena o nā noi ʻelua [Liu et al. a ʻo Xiao et al.] i ʻike ʻia ma hope wale nō o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o nā noiʻi ʻelua. ”
  • ʻAʻole ʻo ia “ʻike i kekahi ʻikepili amplicon i ka wā o ka loiloi 'ana o nā hoa. Ua hāʻawi nā mea kākau i kahi helu komo no ka genome i ʻākoakoa… ʻoiai ma hope o ka paʻi ʻana ua ʻike ʻia ua hewa ka helu komo i helu ʻia i loko o ka ʻatikala Ka ʻIke ʻIke ʻIke o ka ʻatikala. ʻO kēia kuhi hewa a me nā nīnau e pili ana i ka ʻikepili helu contig sequencing ʻike ʻia i kēia manawa ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hihia post-publication. "

Ke kāhea aku nei mākou Nā Polokalamu PLoS me ko mākou hopohopo e pili ana iā Liu et al. ua loaʻa iā mākou ka mea aʻe pane mai ka Luna Hooponopono o ka hui PLoS Publication Ethics:

Nā leka uila mai Xiao et al.

Ma ʻOkakopa 28, ka Luna Hooponopono Koiolo Ola o Nature pane (ma lalo) me ka huaʻōlelo kī "lawe mākou i kēia mau pilikia a koʻikoʻi a e nānā pono i ka mea āu e hāpai ai ma lalo nei me ke akahele." 

Ma ʻOkakopa 30, Xiao et al. hope loa hoʻokuʻu ākea ʻO kā lākou ʻikepili moʻo amplicon. Eia nō naʻe, e like me ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o kēia ʻāpana, ua hāʻawi ʻia nā ʻikepili hōʻuluʻulu mana e Xiao et al. ke nalo nei i nā faile ʻike maka maoli e ʻae ai i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe e ʻākoakoa a hōʻoia i kā lākou kaʻina genome virus coronavirus pangolin.

ʻO nā nīnau nui i koe e pono e kamaʻilio ʻia. 

  1. He ʻoiaʻiʻo nā coronaviruses pangolin? ʻO ka lepe kiʻi no Hōʻike 1e ma Xiao et al. ʻ stateslelo: "ʻIke ʻia nā huehue Viral i nā vesicle membrane pālua i ke kiʻi microscopy electron hoʻoili i lawe ʻia mai ka moʻomeheu cell Vero E6 i hoʻopili ʻia me ka supernatant o nā kiko o ka homogenized lung mai hoʻokahi pangolin, me ka morphology e hōʻike ana i ka coronavirus." Inā Xiao et al. hoʻokaʻawale i ka coronavirus pangolin, e kaʻana like lākou i ka hāpana virus i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia me nā mea noiʻi ma waho o Kina? Hiki i kēia ke hele ma kahi lōʻihi loa i ka hōʻoia ʻana e kū nei kēia maʻi a hele mai mai nā aʻa pangolin.
  2. Pehea ka mua o 2020, a ʻo 2019 paha Liu et al., Xiao et al., Lam et al. a Zhang et al. e hoʻomaopopo nei e paʻi ana lākou i nā hopena e pili ana i ka ʻikepili like.
    a. Aia kekahi hoʻonohonoho e noʻonoʻo nei i paʻi ʻia kekahi ma Pepeluali 18 a ʻekolu i paʻi ʻia ma Pepeluali 20?
    b. No ke aha ʻo Liu et al. (2019) mai hana i kā lākou kaʻina heluhelu i ka ʻikepili archive ākea ākea ma ka lā a lākou i waiho ai ma ka NCBI database? No ke aha lākou i kali ai a hiki i Ianuali 22, 2020 e hoʻolaha i kēia ʻikepili kaʻina coronavirus pangolin.
    c. Ma mua o ka Liu et al. 2019 Nā Virus ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka ʻike ma NCBI ma Ianuali 22, 2020, ua hiki i kēia ʻikepili i nā kānaka noiʻi ʻē aʻe ma Kina? Inā pēlā, he aha ka pūnaewele i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ai ka ʻikepili ma ka pangolin coronavirus, a ʻo wai ka loaʻa, a i ka manawa hea i waiho ʻia ai ka ʻikepili a hiki ke maʻalahi ʻia?
  3. E hui pū anei nā mea kākau i kahi hoʻokolokolo kūʻokoʻa e nānā i ke kumuwaiwai o kēia mau hiʻohiʻona pangolin e ʻike inā hiki ke ʻike ʻia nā virus hou aʻe e like me ka SARS-CoV-2 i loko o Malaki a Iulai Iulai ke ola nei nō ia ma ka Guangdong Wildlife Rescue Center?
  4. A e hui pū paha nā mea kākau i kahi hoʻokolokolo kūʻokoʻa e ʻike ai inā loaʻa nā mea hoʻopuka pōpilikia (i hoʻopaʻa ʻia lākou i ka hale paʻahao? A i ʻole i hoʻopaʻi ʻia a hoʻokuʻu ʻia?) I loaʻa nā mea ʻino i ka maʻi SARS mai ka hōʻike mau ʻana i kēia mau maʻi?

No ke aha mākou e ʻimi nei i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2, nā labs biosafety a me ka noiʻi GOF

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E nānā i ka Blog Biohazards no nā mea hou i kā mākou noiʻi ʻana, a ke kau nei mākou palapala mai kā mākou hoʻokolokolo ʻana ma aneʻi. Kau inoa maanei e loaʻa i nā hoʻohou i kēlā me kēia pule. 

I Iulai 2020, ua hoʻomaka ʻo US Right to Know i ka waiho ʻana i nā palapala a ka lehulehu i ka ʻimi ʻana i ka ʻikepili mai nā keʻena lehulehu i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e ʻike i nā mea i ʻike ʻia e pili ana i ke kumu o ka novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ke kumu o ka maʻi Covid-19 Mai ka hoʻomaka o ka laha ma Wuhan, ua make ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ma kahi o hoʻokahi miliona mau kānaka, ʻoiai e maʻi ana he mau miliona i loko o ka maʻi ahulau e hoʻomau mau nei.

Ke ʻimi nei nō hoʻi mākou i nā ulia pōpilikia, nā kulu a me nā pōʻino ʻē aʻe ma nā keʻena hoʻokolohua kahi e mālama a hoʻoponopono ʻia ai nā pathogens o ka maʻi ahulau, a me nā pilikia o ka olakino lehulehu o ka noiʻi loaʻa (GOF), e pili ana i nā hoʻokolohua e hoʻonui i nā hiʻohiʻona o ka hana o nā pathogens make , e like me ka ukana viral, infectivity a me transmissibility.

He kuleana ko ka lehulehu a me ko ke kaiāulu ʻepekema honua e ʻike i ka ʻikepili e pili ana i kēia mau mea. E hōʻike mākou ma aneʻi i nā loaʻa kūpono e kū mai kā mākou noiʻi.

ʻO US Right to Know kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi e kia ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu.

No ke aha mākou e hana nei i kēia noiʻi?

Ke hopohopo nei mākou ʻaʻole hiki i nā ʻōnaehana palekana aupuni o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Kina a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe, a me ke kula nui, nā ʻoihana a me nā hui aupuni a lākou e hana pū ai, ke hāʻawi i kahi kiʻi piha a ʻoiaʻiʻo o nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2 a me nā pilikia. o ka noiʻi loaʻa lanakila.

Ma o kā mākou noiʻi ʻana, ʻimi mākou e pane i nā nīnau ʻekolu:

  • He aha ka mea i ʻike ʻia e pili ana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?
  • Aia paha kekahi mau pōʻino a i ʻole nā ​​pōʻino i hana ʻia ma kahi biosafety a i ʻole nā ​​wahi noiʻi GOF i hōʻike ʻole ʻia?
  • Aia paha kekahi hopohopo e pili ana i nā pilikia palekana o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a i ʻole noiʻi GOF i hōʻike ʻole ʻia?

He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2?

I ka hopena o Kekemapa 2019, ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Wuhan, Kina, ua puka mai ka nūhou e pili ana i ka maʻi weliweli i kapa ʻia ʻo COVID-19, i hoʻokumu ʻia e SARS-CoV-2, kahi coronavirus hou i ʻike ʻole ʻia ma mua. ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2. Aia kekahi kuhiakau nui ʻelua.

Nā kānaka noiʻi i nā ʻoihana ʻoihana i pili me ka ʻO Wuhan Institute o Virology (WIV) a Hui ʻEcoHealth, kahi US non-profitthat i ua loaʻa he mau miliona kālā mai nā hāʻawi kālā i uku kālā ʻia e ka ʻauhau i hana pū me WIV ma ka noiʻi coronavirus, palapala ʻo ka virus mea hou hoʻomaka ʻia ma o ke koho kūlohelohe i na mea hookipa holoholona, ​​me kona waihona i loko o nā opeapea. keia Ke kumu "zoonotic" ua hoʻoikaika hou ʻia ke kuhiakau e kuleana ua hoʻomaka ka maʻi ahulau hou i a “Holoholona hihiu” mākeke ma Wuhan, ka Mākeke kai ʻo Huanan, kahi i kūʻai ʻia aku ai nā holoholona i hoʻopili ʻia. (Eia naʻe, ma ka liʻiliʻi hoʻokahi hapakolu o ka hui mua o nā mea maʻi maʻi, me ka hihia mua loa o ka maʻi i ʻike ʻia mai Kēkēmapa 1, 2019, ʻaʻohe pili a pili ʻole paha me nā poʻe kaiāulu a me nā holoholona o ka mākeke iʻa Huanan.)

ʻO ke kuhiakau zoonosis i kēia manawa ke kuhiakau o ke kumu. Eia naʻe, ʻo ka kumu zoonotic o SARS-CoV-2 i akā e hoʻokumu paʻa ʻia, a ua kuhikuhi kekahi o nā kānaka noiʻi ua kau ia ma luna kuee loina ia makemake hoʻokolokolo hou.

No ka heluhelu hou ʻana i kēia mau kumuhana, e ʻike i kā mākou papa inoa heluhelu: He aha nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2? He aha nā mea e makaʻu ai i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka noiʻi?

Ua kuhi kekahi ʻepekema i kahi kuhiakau ʻokoʻa o ke kumu; kuhi lākou ʻo ka SARS-CoV-2 ka hopena o kahi pilikia hoʻokuʻu o kahi ʻano hihiu a i ʻole hōʻano lab-i kānana o kahi pili pili Virus e like me SARS i mālama ʻia i nā wahi biosafety e mālama nei i ka noiʻi coronavirus ma Wuhan, e like me ka WIV a i ʻole nā ​​Wuhan Centres for Disease Control and Prevent.

ʻO ka mea nui, ʻaʻole kuhi ʻia kahi hanana ʻōnaehana lab-kumu i ke kuhiakau zoonosis no ka mea ʻo SARS-CoV-2 ka hopena o nā hoʻololi lab i mālama ʻia ma nā mana i hōʻike ʻole ʻia o nā coronaviruses like like me SARS. mālama i WIV, a i ʻole ka hōʻiliʻili a mālama ʻana paha o ia mau coronavirus. Kū'ē o ke kuhiakau-kumu-kuhiakau ua kipaku aku i kēia mau manaʻo e like me nā manaʻo pohihihi ʻole a nā manaʻo kipi.

I kēia lā, aia nō aole lawa hoike e hōʻole definitively i kahi zoonotic kumu a me nā kuhiakau-kumu kuhiakau. ʻIke mākou, ma muli o nā ʻatikala noiʻi i paʻi ʻia a Hāʻawi ke aupuni pekelala US i ka EcoHealth Alliance no ke kākoʻo kālā ʻana i ka noiʻi coronavirus a WIV, kēlā WIV mālama haneli o ka weliweli SARS-like coronaviruses, a hana ʻia Nā hoʻokolohua GOF ma nā coronaviruses i ka hana pū ʻana me nā kula nui o US, a aia kekahi hopohopo biosafety me ʻO ka hale hana BSL-4 a WIV.

Akā i kēia manawa, ʻaʻohe loiloi kūʻokoʻa o nā moʻolelo hale hōʻikeʻike a WIV a me ka ʻikepili pūnaewele, a liʻiliʻi ka ʻike e pili ana i nā hana kūloko o ka WIV. Ua wehe ka WIV mai kāna ʻike pūnaewele e like me ʻo ka huakaʻi 2018 o ka diplomats ʻepekema US, a pani paʻa ʻia i ke kiʻi ʻana i kāna hōkeo ʻikepili a papa hana hale hōʻikeʻike o nā hoʻokolohua coronavirus e mālama ʻia e nā ʻepekema WIV.

ʻO ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā kumu o SARS-CoV-2 he hopena koʻikoʻi koʻikoʻi no ka olakino a me nā ʻōnaehana kai. Hoʻāla ʻia kahi kumu zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 kūpono ninau e pili ana i nā kulekele e hoʻolaha ana i ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana a me nā hana holoholona, ​​i hiki ke lilo i mau hoʻokele nui ka puka ʻana o nā nūhou a me nā mea hoʻomaʻi pathogenic kiʻekiʻe, ka wao nahele, nalowale o nā mea ola a me nā wahi noho. ʻO ka hiki i kū mai paha ʻo SARS-CoV-2 mai kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua biodefense e ala aʻe nei ninau e pili ana i inā pono mākou e loaʻa kēia mau wahi, kahi e mālama a hoʻoponopono ʻia ai nā pathogens microbial i loaʻa i ka nahelehele ma o nā hoʻokolohua GOF.

ʻO nā noiʻi ʻana ma kahi o ka SARS-CoV-2 e hāpai i nā nīnau nui e pili ana i ka hemahema o ka transparency e pili ana i ka noiʻi ʻana i nā pathogens pandemic kūpono, a me nā mea nui a me nā mea pāʻani e hana nei i nā wahi paʻa biosafety ākea ākea kahi e mālama ʻia ai nā mea ʻino weliweli a lilo i mea e make hou ai.

Loaʻa ka makaʻu i ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana?

Aia kekahi mea nui hoike he nui nā laboratories biosafety ulia, nā hāhā, a hāʻule paʻa, a o na nā pōmaikaʻi kūpono o ka noiʻi loaʻa-o-ka hana hiki ʻaʻole waiwai ka nā pilikia o ke kumu o nā pandemics hiki.

ʻO ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo e hoʻololi a hoʻāʻo i nā pathogens weliweli e like me ka maʻi Ebola, H1N1 influenza virus, a me nā coronaviruses pili i ka SARS ma lalo o ka rubric o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā hana kūʻē lapaʻau (e like me nā lāʻau lapaʻau). E like me ia, ʻaʻole hoihoi ia wale ʻenehana biotechnology a me ka ʻoihana lāʻau akā, i ʻoihana biodefense, e pili ana i ka hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia o ka noiʻi ʻo GOF no nā hana o ka biowarfare.

ʻO ka noiʻi GOF ma nā pathogens make he a nui maoli aupuni pili ola olakino. hoike o nā kulu kuhihewa a me nā haʻihaʻi biosafety ma nā wahi noiʻi GOF ʻaʻole mea maʻamau. Ma hope o kahi hui koʻikoʻi o nā virologists i paʻi i kahi koi ʻōlelo ʻaelike ma Iulai 14, 2014 e kāhea ana i kahi moratorium ma ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo, ua hoʻokau ke aupuni US ma lalo o kā Pelekikena Barack Obama hoʻokele.  "Hoʻomaha kālā" ma nā hoʻokolohua GOF e pili ana i nā pathogens weliweli, me nā coronaviruses a me nā virus influenza.

ʻO ka hoʻomaha kālā kālā pekelala ma ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo i hāpai ʻia i 2017 ma hope o kahi manawa a ke aupuni US i hana ai he moʻo kūkā e helu i ka nā pōmaikaʻi a me nā pilikia pili pū me nā noiʻi e pili ana i ka noiʻi GOF o ka hopohopo.

Ke ʻimi nei i ka transparency

Ke hopohopo nei mākou i ka ʻikepili i koʻikoʻi i ke kulekele olakino lehulehu e pili ana i ke kumu o SARS-CoV-2, a me nā makaʻu o nā keʻena hoʻokolohua biosafety a me ka noiʻi ʻana o ka loaʻa pono o ka hana, e hūnā ʻia ma loko o nā pūnaewele biodefense o nā pale pono aupuni o ka United. Nā Aupuni, Kina, a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe.

E hoʻāʻo mākou e hoʻomālamalama i kēia mau mea ma o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā noi palapala lehulehu. E kūleʻa paha kāua. Hiki iā mākou ke hāʻule maʻalahi. E hōʻike mākou i kekahi mea pono e loaʻa iā mākou.

ʻO Sainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, he ʻepekema limahana ma US Right to Know a me ka mea kākau o ka puke, "ʻO nā pi e nalo nei: ʻEpekema, politika a me ka olakino Honeybee”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).