Kuhi ʻia nā loiloi a EPA o nā kemika i ka loiloi mai kona ʻepekema ponoʻī

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Ke ʻōlelo nei nā ʻepekema he nui o ka US no ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ʻaʻole lākou e hilinaʻi i nā alakaʻi kiʻekiʻe o ka ʻoihana e hopohopo a makaʻu lākou i ka hoʻopaʻi inā e hōʻike lākou i ka hana hewa i ke kānāwai, e like me ka ana o nā limahana i mālama ʻia ma 2020.

E like me ka ʻO ka nānā ʻana o ka limahana limahana Federal no 2020, i alakaʻi ʻia e ka US Office of Personnel Management, 75 pākēneka o nā limahana EPA i ka National Program Chemicals Division nāna i pane i ka ana ua hōʻike lākou ʻaʻole lākou i manaʻo ua mālama ke alakaʻi kiʻekiʻe o ka ʻoihana i nā "kūlana kiʻekiʻe o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo a me ka pololei." Kanaonokumamālima pākēneka o nā limahana e pane ana mai ka ʻĀpana ʻIkepili ʻInikino i pane i ke ala like.

Pīhoihoi pū kekahi, 53 pākēneka o nā mea pane i ka EPA's Risk Assessment Division ua ʻōlelo ʻia ʻaʻole hiki iā lākou ke hōʻike i kahi kuhi hewa i ke kānāwai a i ʻole nā ​​rula me ka makaʻu ʻole i ka hoʻopaʻi. Kanaha-ʻekolu pākēneka o ka pane ʻana i nā limahana EPA i ka Office of Pollution Prevent and Toxics (OPPT) i pane like i ka like.

ʻO nā manaʻo maikaʻi ʻole i hōʻike ʻia i nā hopena o ke ana ʻana ua kūlike ia me nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka hanaʻino ma loko o nā papahana loiloi kemikal o EPA, e like me ka Public Empleies for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

"Pono e hopohopo nui ʻoi aku ma mua o ka hapalua o nā chemist EPA a me nā loea ʻē aʻe e hana nei i nā hopohopo olakino lehulehu e manaʻo ʻole e hōʻike i nā pilikia a i ʻole nā ​​hae hae," ʻo ka Luna Hoʻokele PEER ʻo Tim Whitehouse, kahi loio o ka EPA ma mua. ʻōlelo.

Ma mua o kēia mahina, ka National Academies of Science, Engineering, a me Medicine wahi a ka EPAʻO nā hana loiloi weliweli i loko o ke kumumanaʻo o ke kānāwai Toxic Substances Control Act he "haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa."

"E piha pono nā lima o ke alakaʻi hou ʻana o EPA i kēia moku piholo," wahi a Whitehouse.

Ma hope o ka lilo ʻana i ke keʻena i loko o Ianuali, ua hoʻopuka ʻo Pelekikena Joe Biden i kahi kauoha hoʻokō e hoʻomaopopo ana e hiki paha i ka EPA ma lalo o Biden ke hoʻololi i kona kūlana ma luna o nā kemikaliʻi mai nā hoʻoholo i hoʻoholo ʻia e ka ʻoihana ma lalo o ka pelekikena o Donald Trump.

In nā kūkā ua hana ʻia ma Ianuali 21, ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA Office of General Counsel penei:

"I kulike ai me ka Peresidena Biden Kauoha Kauoha no ka pale ʻana i ke olakino lehulehu a me ke kaiapuni a me ka hoʻihoʻi ʻana i ka ʻepekema e hoʻoponopono i ka pilikia o ke aniau i hoʻopuka ʻia ma Ianuali 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), e hōʻoia kēia i kaʻu noi no ka US Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) ka US Department of Justice (DOJ) e ʻimi a loaʻa nā abeyance a i ʻole mau noho o ka hana i ke kali ʻana i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana e ʻimi nei i ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana i nā kānāwai EPA i hoʻolaha ʻia ma waena o Ianuali 20, 2017, a Ianuali 20, 2021, a i ʻole e ʻimi nei e hoʻokumu i kahi palena manawa no EPA e hoʻolaha i kahi rula e pili ana i ke kumuhana o kēlā me kēia

ʻO kā Thailand hoʻohuli ʻana i ka pāpā glyphosate i hiki mai ma hope o ke kākau ʻana o Bayer script US, hōʻike ʻia nā palapala

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ʻO Thailand i hoʻokahi makahiki i hala i hoʻonoho ʻia e pāpā ʻo ka mauʻu mauʻu e luku nei i ka glyphosate Nine Inch, kahi neʻe i hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia e nā mea kākoʻo olakino lehulehu no ka mea he hōʻike ka lāʻau i kumu i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, a me nā mea ʻino ʻē aʻe i ka poʻe a me ke kaiapuni.

Akā ma lalo o ke kaomi koʻikoʻi mai nā luna o US, ua hoʻohuli ke aupuni o Thailand i ka pāpā papa ʻia ma glyphosate i ka mahina ʻo Nowemapa i hala a hoʻolohi i ka pāpā ʻana i nā lāʻau pesticides ʻelua ʻē aʻe me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka ʻōlelo a ke Kōmike Kālā Meaʻāina National National Hazardous i ʻōlelo ʻia he pāpā e pono e pale aku i nā mea kūʻai aku.

ʻO kahi pāpā, keu hoʻi i ka glyphosate, e "hoʻopilikia loa" i ka lawe mai ʻana mai o ka soybeans, ka palaoa a me nā mea mahiʻai ʻē aʻe, ua hoʻomaopopo ʻo US Department of Agriculture Undersecretary Ted McKinney i ke Kuhina Nui o Thailand ʻo Prayuth Chan-Ocha i ka hoʻokau ʻana i ka hoʻololi. Hiki ke hoʻopili ʻia nā lawe mai ma muli o kēlā mau ukana, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe he nui, i hoʻopili ʻia me nā koena o glyphosate.

Ano, nā leka uila hou i hōʻike ʻia ma waena o nā luna aupuni a me Monsanto makua Bayer AG hōʻike i ka hana a McKinney, a me nā mea i lawe ʻia e nā luna aupuni o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻomaopopo iā Thailand ʻaʻole e pāpā i ka glyphosate, ua kākau ʻia a paipae ʻia e Bayer.

Ua loaʻa nā leka uila ma o kahi Freedom of Information Act i noi ʻia e ka Center for Biological Diversity, kahi hui mālama nonprofit. ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi ka hui ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA) a me ka US Department of Commerce i ka Pōʻakolu e ʻimi nei i nā moʻolelo lehulehu e pili ana i nā hana a nā keʻena o ke kālepa a me ka mahiʻai i ka kaomi ʻana iā Thailand e pili ana i ka pilikia glyphosate. Aia kekahi mau palapala a ke aupuni i hōʻole ai e hoʻokuʻu e pili ana i nā kamaʻilio me Bayer a me nā hui ʻē aʻe, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka hui.

"He mea maikaʻi ʻole ka nānā ʻana o kēia hoʻomalu i ka ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa e kākoʻo makapō ai i kā Bayer manaʻo ponoʻī no ka palekana o glyphosate," wahi a Nathan Donley, he ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe ma ka Center for Biological Diversity. "Akā e hana ma ke ʻano he luna ʻo Bayer e kaomi i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe e lawe i kēlā kūlana he mea huhū loa."

ʻO Glyphosate ka mea hoʻohana i nā herbicides Roundup a me nā mana ʻē aʻe i hoʻomohala ʻia e Monsanto, i waiwai ʻia he mau piliona kālā i nā kūʻai makahiki. Ua kūʻai ʻo Bayer iā Monsanto i ka makahiki 2018 a ke ʻumeʻume nei ʻo ia mai ka wā e kāohi ai i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema noiʻi e hōʻike ana hiki i nā gicphosate herbicides ke kumu i kahi maʻi ʻaʻai koko i kapa ʻia ʻo non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ʻO ka hui pū kekahi e hakakā ana i nā hoʻopiʻi e pili ana ma mua o 100,000 mau mea hoʻopiʻi i koi i ko lākou ulu ʻana o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin i kumu ʻia e ka hōʻike ʻana iā Roundup a me nā lāʻau herbicides a Monsanto glyphosate.

ʻO nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu Glyphosate ka mea kanu lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma ka honua, ma ka hapa nui no ka mea ua hoʻomohala ʻo Monsanto i nā mea kanu ʻenekini e ʻae pono e pīpī pololei ʻia me ka kemika. ʻOiai he mea pono i nā mahiʻai i ka mālama ʻana i nā māla i nā nāhelehele ʻole, ʻo ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i ka lāʻau make ma luna o nā piko o nā mea ulu e ulu ana nā lau i nā pae like ʻole o ka pesticide i loko o ka palaoa maka a me ka pau ʻana o nā meaʻai. Mālama ʻo Monsanto a me nā mea hoʻokele US i nā pae pesticide i ka meaʻai a me nā hānai holoholona ʻaʻole pilikia i nā kānaka a i nā holoholona, ​​akā nui nā ʻepekema e kūlike ʻole a ʻōlelo ʻoiai he mea weliweli ka nui o nā helu.

Hoʻonohonoho nā ʻāina ʻokoʻa i nā pae kū kānāwai like ʻole no ka mea a lākou e hoʻoholo ai he mau palekana o ka mea hoʻomake mauʻu i ka meaʻai a me nā mea kūʻai maka. Kuhi ʻia kēlā mau "koena koina kiʻekiʻe" ma ke ʻano he MRL. ʻAe ka US i nā MRL kiʻekiʻe loa o glyphosate i ka meaʻai ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe.

Inā pāpā ʻia ʻo Thailand i ka glyphosate, ʻaʻohe o ka pae o ka glyphosate e ʻae ʻia i ka meaʻai, haʻi aku ʻo Bayer i nā luna o US.

Kōkua pae kiʻekiʻe

Hōʻike nā leka uila i ka mahina ʻo Kepakemapa 2019 a i ka hoʻomaka mua o ʻOkakopa o 2019 ʻO James Travis, ka luna nui no nā hana aupuni o Bayer a me ke kālepa, ua ʻimi i ke kōkua i ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka pāpā glyphosate mai nā luna kiʻekiʻe he nui mai ka USDA a me ka Office of the United States. Lunamakaʻāinana Kālepa (USTR).

Ma waena o kēlā mau poʻe Bayer i ʻimi ai i ke kōkua mai Zhulieta Willbrand, ʻo ia ka luna o nā limahana o ke kālepa a me nā mea mahiʻai haole ma ka US Department of Agriculture. Ma hope o kā Thailand hoʻoholo e hoʻohuli i ka pāpā ma glyphosate, ua hoʻolimalima ʻia ʻo Willbrand e hana pololei no Bayer ma nā mea kalepa kūwaho.

I ka nīnau ʻana inā kōkua ke kōkua mai iā Willbrand ʻoiai ʻo ia he luna aupuni i kōkua iā ia e loaʻa kahi hana ma Bayer, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka hui e "hoʻoikaika ikaika" e hoʻolimalima i ka poʻe mai "nā ʻano āpau" a me nā "ʻo ka manaʻo ua hoʻolimalima ʻia ʻo ia no nā kumu ʻē aʻe ma mua o ke kālena nui āna i lawe ai iā Bayer he wahaheʻe. "

Ma kahi leka uila iā Willbrand i hana ʻia ma Sepatemaba 18, 2019, ua haʻi ʻo Travis iā Bayer i ka manaʻo he "waiwai maoli" no ke komo ʻana o ke aupuni US ma ka pāpā glyphosate, a ua ʻike ʻo ia e hoʻonohonoho ana ʻo Bayer i nā hui ʻē aʻe e kūʻē pū i ka pāpā.

"Ma ko mākou hopena, ke aʻo aku nei mākou i nā hui mahiʻai, nā mea kanu a me nā hoa ʻoihana i hiki ai iā lākou ke haʻi i nā hopohopo a me ka pono no kahi hana ʻepekema paʻakikī," i kākau ʻo Travis iā Willbrand. Ua hoʻouna aku ʻo Willbrand i ka leka uila iā McKinney, ke kākāʻōlelo o ka USDA ma lalo no ke kālepa a me nā mea mahiʻai haole.

I loko o kahi lā 8 ʻOkakopa 2019, ke aho leka uila me ka laina kumuhana "Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo o Thailand Ban - Hoʻolālā e neʻe wikiwiki nei," ua kākau ʻo Travis iā Marta Prado, ka hope kōkua US Trade Representative no ka Hikina Hema ʻo Asia a me ka Pākīpika, e kope ʻana iā Willbrand a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, e hoʻohou. iā lākou ma ke kūlana.

Ua kākau ʻo Travis ua mākaukau ʻo Thailand e pāpā i ka glyphosate i ka wikiwiki o ka wikiwiki, e Kēkēmapa 1, 2019. Me ka glyphosate, ke hoʻolālā nei ka ʻāina e pāpā pū kekahi Nāpūlani, kahi insecticide i hana nui ʻia e Dow Chemical i ʻike ʻia e hōʻino i ka lolo o nā pēpē; a paraquat, Wahi a nā ʻepekema lāʻau hoʻomake lāʻau i ke kumu o ka maʻi ʻōnaehana i kapa ʻia ʻo Parkinson's.

Ua kuhikuhi ʻo Travis i ka makaʻu i kahi pāpā glyphosate e lilo i nā kūʻai aku o nā huahana US ma muli o ka pilikia MRL a hāʻawi i nā kumuwaiwai i hiki i nā luna ke hoʻohana e hui pū me Thailand.

"Ma muli o nā hanana hou, ke ulu nei mākou i ka hopohopo nui e holo wikiwiki ana kekahi o nā mea kālaiʻāina a me nā luna kau kānāwai i ke kaʻina hana a ʻaʻole e kūkākūkā pono i nā mea kuleana mahiʻai a pau a ʻaʻole hoʻi e noʻonoʻo pono i ka hopena o ka hoʻokele a me ke kaiapuni o ka pāpā ʻana i ka glyphosate," i kākau ai ʻo Travis i nā luna o ka US.

Hōʻike nā kūkaʻi leka uila ua kūkākūkā nā luna o Bayer a me US i nā manaʻo pilikino i hiki i nā luna Thai a pehea e pono ai ka ʻike. "ʻO ka ʻike ʻana i ka mea e hoʻonāukiuki iā ia e kōkua paha me ka USG counter arguments," hoʻokahi luna o ka US i kākau aku ai iā Bayer e pili ana i kahi alakaʻi Thai.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Travis e hana like nā luna o US e like me lākou me Vietnam ke neʻe kēlā ʻāina i ʻApelila 2019 e pāpā iā glyphosate.

Ma hope iki o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana mai Bayer, ua kākau ʻo McKinney i ke Kuhina Nui Thailand no kēia mea. I loko o kahi ʻOkakopa 17, 2019 leka ʻO McKinney, ka mea ma mua hana no Ua kono ʻo Dow Agrosciences i nā luna o Thailand i Wakinekona no ke kūkā kamaʻilio pilikino ʻana e pili ana i ka palekana glyphosate a me ka manaʻo o ka Environmental Protection Agency e glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he pilikia kūpono i ke olakino kanaka ke hoʻohana ʻia e like me ka mana."

"Inā hoʻokō ʻia kahi pāpā e hana nui ia i ka lawe ʻia mai o nā mea kūʻai mai Thailand e like me ka soybean a me ka palaoa," i kākau ai ʻo McKinney. "Koi aku au iā ʻoe e hoʻopaneʻe i kahi hoʻoholo ma glyphosate a hiki i ka manawa e hiki ai iā mākou ke hoʻonohonoho i kahi manawa kūpono no ka poʻe loea loea o US e kaʻana like i ka ʻike pili e pili ana i ka hopohopo o Thailand."

Ma kahi o hoʻokahi mahina ma hope aku, ma Nowemapa 27, Thailand hoʻohuli i ka pāpā glyphosate i hoʻolālā ʻia. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻopaneʻe i nā pāpā ma ka paraquat a me ka chlorpyrifos no kekahi mau mahina.

Ua hoʻopau ʻo Thailand i nā pāpā o paraquat a me chlorpyrifos ma Iune 1, o kēia makahiki. Akā hoʻohana mau ʻia ka glyphosate. 

I ka nīnau ʻia ʻana e pili ana i kāna hana me nā luna o US no kēia pilikia, ua hoʻopuka ʻo Bayer i kēia ʻōlelo:

"E like me nā hui a me nā hui e hana ana i nā ʻoihana i hoʻoponopono nui ʻia, hāʻawi mākou i ka ʻike a hāʻawi i ka hana ʻana i ka politika a me nā hana hoʻoponopono. ʻO kā mākou hana pū ʻana me nā mea āpau i ka ʻoihana lehulehu he maʻa mau, ʻoihana, a kūlike me nā kānāwai a me nā rula āpau.

ʻO ka hoʻohuli a ka mana Thai i ka pāpā ma glyphosate e kūlike me nā hoʻoholo ʻepekema e nā kino hoʻomalu a puni ka honua, e like me ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIaʻEulopaKelemāniaNuhōlaniKoreaKanakaAotearoaIapana a ma nā wahi ʻē aʻe i hoʻopau pinepine i ka hiki ke hoʻohana palekana ʻia kā mākou huahana glyphosate e like me ke kuhikuhi.

 Ua hoʻohana maluhia nā mahiʻai Thai i ka glyphosate me ka palekana a me ka kūleʻa no nā makahiki he nui e hana i nā mea kanu pono e like me ka cava, kānana, kō, kō, hua ʻaila, a me ka pākeke. Ua kōkua ʻo Glyphosate i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomaikaʻi i kā lākou nohona ola a hui i nā mea i manaʻo ʻia e nā kaiāulu e pili ana i ka palekana, nā meaʻai kūpono e hana paʻa ʻia. "

 

Ua hilinaʻi nā mea hoʻokele US no nā makahiki i ka ʻike pesticide pesticide i hāʻawi ʻia e Dow Chemical

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No nā makahiki, ua hilinaʻi nā mea hoʻokele US i ka ʻikepili hoʻopunipuni i hāʻawi ʻia e Dow Chemical e ʻae ai i nā pae palekana ʻole o nā kemikolo chlorpyrifos i loko o nā hale ʻAmelika, e like me kahi hoʻoili hou mai nā kānaka noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona.

Nānā hou ka loiloi i nā hana mai nā makahiki 1970 i kākoʻo ʻia e Dow a waiho ʻia i ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) e alakaʻi i ka ʻoihana i ka hoʻokumu ʻana i ka mea a nā ʻepekema e kuhikuhi nei ma ke ʻano he "hopena-hopena-hopena-hopena" a NOAEL paha. Hoʻohana ʻia ia mau paepae e hoʻoholo ai i nā ʻano o ka hoʻohana a ma ka pae hea e hiki ai ke ʻae ʻia kahi kemikal a e manaʻo ʻia he "palekana."

Wahi a ka loiloi hou, paʻi ʻia ma ka pūnaewele ma ka lā 3 Iulai i ka puke pai Ka Honua Kaiapuni, ʻo nā hopena pololei ʻole ka hopena o kahi noiʻi duke chlorpyrifos i mālama ʻia e ka mea noiʻi ʻo Frederick Coulston a me nā hoa hana mai ke Kulanui Lapaʻau ʻo Albany i nā 1970 mua no Dow.

Ke nānā hou nei nā mea kākau o ka pepa hou i ka hana ma mua ʻo Lianne Sheppard, Seth McGrew lāua ʻo Richard Fenske o ka Oihana ʻepekema ʻOihana Kaiaulu a me ka ʻOihana Ola, Kula o ka Health Public ma ke Kulanui o Wakinekona.

ʻOiai ka mea i kākau ʻia e ka hui Coulston, ua hoʻopau ʻia ke kālailai e kahi statistician Dow a ua hoʻoholo ʻia he 0.03 mg / kg-lā ka pae NOAEL mau no nā chlorpyrifos i loko o nā kānaka. Akā ʻo ka loiloi hou e ka poʻe noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona ua ʻike ʻoi aku ka nui o ka palena o ka palekana. Inā ua kālailai pono ʻia ka ʻikepili he NOAEL haʻahaʻa o 0.014 mg / kg-lā e loaʻa, i ʻōlelo lākou.

ʻAʻole i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka loiloi ʻana o Coulston e nā hoa akā ua hoʻohana ʻia ia e ka EPA no nā loiloi weliweli ma loko o nā makahiki 1980 a me 1990, ua hōʻike ʻia e nā kānaka noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona.

Pau nā mea noiʻi: "I loko o kēlā manawa, ʻae ʻo EPA i nā chlorpyrifos e hoʻopaʻa inoa no nā hoʻohana he nui i hoʻopau ʻia e hōʻemi i nā hopena olakino hiki i nā keiki a me nā pēpē. Inā ua hoʻohana ʻia nā anamanaʻo kūpono i ka loiloi o kēia noi, malia paha ʻaʻole i ʻae ʻia e ka EPA ka hapa nui o kēlā mau hoʻohana i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia o nā chlorpyrifos. Hōʻike kēia hana i ka hilinaʻi ʻia e nā mea hoʻoponopono pesticide i nā hopena noiʻi ʻaʻole i nānā pono ʻia e nā hoa a he mea pono ʻole ia e hoʻoweliweli i ka lehulehu. "

Hoʻohana nuiʻia

ʻO ka mea i ʻike pinepine ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i ka inoa inoa ʻo Lorsban, hoʻolauna ʻia nā insecticides chlorpyrifos e Dow Chemical i ka makahiki 1965 a ua hoʻohana nui ʻia i nā wahi mahiʻai. ʻO ka mākeke mahiʻai nui loa no ka chlorpyrifos ka kulina akā hoʻohana ʻia ka pesticide e nā mahiʻai e ulu ana i ka soybeans, nā hua a me nā kumu nut, nā pua ʻo Brussels, nā cranberry, a me nā cauliflower, a me nā mea kanu lālani ʻē aʻe. Loaʻa nā koena o ka kemika i ka meaʻai. Hoʻohana nā mahi ʻole mahiʻai i nā papa kolepa, ka honu, nā hale ʻōmaʻomaʻo, a me nā pono hana.

ʻOiai ʻo ka ʻepekema i hāpai ʻia e Dow, ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa i nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka makaʻu o nā chlorpyrifos, ʻo ia hoʻi i nā keiki ʻōpio. Ua ʻike nā ʻepekema ʻo ka hōʻike prenatal i ka chlorpyrifos e pili ana me ka hānau hānau haʻahaʻa, hoʻemi ʻia ka IQ, ka nalowale o ka hoʻomanaʻo hoʻomanaʻo, nā maʻi noonoo, a me ka hoʻopaneʻe ʻana i ka hoʻomohala kaʻa.

ʻO ka American Academy for Pediatrics, ʻo ia ka mea i ʻoi aku ma mua o 66,000 pediatricians a me nā kaukōkō pediatric, ua aʻoaʻo ʻo ia ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kemika e hoʻomohala i nā fetus, nā pēpē, nā keiki a me nā wahine hāpai i ka makaʻu nui.

He mea weliweli loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka Mana Maluhia o ʻEulopa Meaʻai aia nō ʻaʻohe pae palekana.

Ua ʻaelike ka EPA me Dow ma 2000 e kāpae i nā hoʻohana āpau o ka kemika ma muli o ka noiʻi e hōʻike ana he mea weliweli ka kemika i nā lolo e ulu ana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki liʻiliʻi. I ka makahiki 2012, ua pāpā ʻia ʻo chlorpyrifos mai ka hoʻohana ʻana a puni nā kula.

I Pepeluali 2020, ma hope o ke kaomi a ka mea kūʻai, nā hui olakino, nā ʻepekema a me ke alo o nā piʻo e ulu nei a puni ka honua, ʻo Corteva AgriScience, kahi ʻoihana pani i kahi hui o Dow a me DuPont. e hemo aku iecaianoaaiiuo o chlorpyrifos. Eia nō naʻe, ua kū i ke kānāwai ka kemika no nā hui ʻē aʻe e hana a kūʻai aku ai.

Kumuhana kanaka

ʻO ke aʻo ʻana ke kumuhana o ka pepa hou e nā kānaka noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona i kiaʻi ʻia ma 1971 e ka Albany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka noiʻi me 16 mau kāne kāne makua olakino olakino mai kahi wai o nā mea manawaleʻa ma Clinton Correctional Facility, kahi hale paʻahao palekana ʻoi loa ma Dannemora, New York.

Hoʻokomo ʻia nā mea manawaleʻa i ʻehā mau hui hoʻokolohua, me kahi hui kaohi, nona nā lālā i loaʻa i kahi placebo i kēlā me kēia lā. Ua loaʻa i nā lālā o nā hui ʻekolu ʻē aʻe i kēlā me kēia lā nā lāʻau chlorpyrifos i ʻekolu mau lāʻau ʻē aʻe. Ua mālama ʻia ke aʻo ʻana ma kahi o 63 mau lā.

Ua loaʻa i ke kālailai hou kekahi mau pilikia me ke aʻo ʻana, e like me ka haʻalele ʻana o ʻewalu ana ana o nā laina palena kūpono no kekahi o nā pūʻulu mālama ʻekolu.

"ʻO kēlā hemo ʻana o ka ʻikepili kūpono me ka ʻole o ka hoʻāpono ʻia kahi ʻano o ka hoʻopunipuni ʻikepili e hōʻeha i nā code maʻamau āpau o ka hana noiʻi ethical a hoʻohālikelike ʻia e like me ka lawehala noiʻi kūwaho ʻole," i hoʻopau ai nā mea noiʻi o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona.

Ua ʻōlelo nā kānaka noiʻi ua hele ʻo chlorpyrifos i ke kaʻina hoʻoponopono me ka nui ʻole o ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa, "ʻoiai aia he" mau hōʻike e ulu nei e lilo paha ia i kahi pōʻino olakino i nā wahi noho. "

"Ua alakaʻi hewa ka Study Coulston Study i nā mea hoʻokele ma ke kāpae ʻana i nā ʻike kūpono," a "ua hopena paha i ka hopena o ke olakino lehulehu" no kekahi mau makahiki, ua pau ka pepa o ke Kulanui o Wakinekona.

Kūʻai nā mea kālepa i DC ma ke ʻano he Battle Brews Over Standards

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Ua kū mua kēia ʻatikala Huffington Post

ʻO ia “Pule Pule” hou ma Wakinekona, DC, a me nā poʻe i hele mai o ka "hanana hana kuhi lima" no ka Organic Trade Association (OTA) he nui nā mea e hauʻoli ai. I ka pule i hala aku nei, ua hoʻolaha ʻo OTA, ka leo alakaʻi no ka meaola meaola, ua hoʻolaha ka ʻāpana i kāna loaʻa kālā makahiki makahiki nui loa ma 2015, me ka nui o nā kūʻai kūʻai kūʻai meaola e ulu nei e $ 4.2 biliona, a i ʻole 11 pākēneka, i he moʻolelo o $ 43.3 biliona.

"Hoʻopiha ʻia e ka koho a nā mea kūʻai aku, ʻo ka meaola ka wā e hiki mai ana o ka mahiʻai," i ʻōlelo ai ka OTA i loko o kahi ʻōlelo e hōʻike ana i ka ʻaha kūkā, e mālama ʻia ana ma Mei 23-Mei 27.

Eia nō naʻe, ʻae ka ʻoihana e uhi ʻia ka wā e hiki mai ana e nā hemahema hoʻomau mau i mua o ka mea a ka OTA i kapa aku ai he "koi koi ʻole e kinai ʻia no ka meaola."

Hoʻolālā ʻia ke kākau ʻōlelo ʻo Tom Vilsack e kamaʻilio i ka OTA Pōʻakolu, e haʻi aku i nā alakaʻi o ke ahupuaʻa e makemake ana ka US Department of Agriculture e hana maʻalahi i nā mahiʻai hou e lilo i palapala hōʻoia no ke kōkua a kōkua i ka ʻokanika me kāna pilikia koi.

Akā ma ka ʻāina holoʻokoʻa, i kahi keʻena hoʻokolokolo pekelala ma Kaleponi, kahi hui o nā loio mea kūʻai a me nā kaiāulu a me nā hui nonprofit ke hāpai nei i kahi hae ʻulaʻula i mua o ka USDA e hoʻoulu ai i ka ʻāpana meaola. Ke ʻoki ʻia nei nā kihi, ʻōlelo lākou. Ke hoʻokalakupua ʻia nei nā kūlana kiʻekiʻe, a ke hoʻololi pōkole ʻia nei nā mea kūʻai mai e USDA National Organic Program nā loli maʻamau.

Hoʻonohonoho ʻia kahi hālāwai hoʻolohe manaʻo ma ka Pōʻahā i hoʻokahi hihia nui e pili ana i nā kemika synthetic i ka compost i ka hana ʻokanika. Ua hoʻopiʻi ka Center for Health Environmental, ke kikowaena no ka palekana o ka meaʻai a me Beyond Pesticides iā Vilsack a me nā luna USDA ʻē aʻe i ka makahiki i hala no ka hoʻopuka ʻana i kahi palapala alakaʻi i ka makahiki 2010 i "hoʻololi maoli i nā koi ʻokanika." Ma lalo o ka hoʻolako hou, hiki i nā mea hana keola ke hoʻohana i nā mea compost i mālama ʻia me nā pesticides synthetic i pāpā ʻia i ka hoʻohana ʻē aʻe.

Ma lalo o nā loli i hoʻolauna ʻia e USDA, hiki i nā mea hana keola ke hoʻohana i nā mea e like me nā mea e pono ai ka lau nahele i hoʻohaumia ʻia me nā pesticides synthetic ma ke ʻano he compost feedstocks no kā lākou mea kanu. ʻAe ʻia ka compost me kahi insecticide i kapa ʻia bifenthrin a me nā pesticides ʻē aʻe, hoʻopiʻi ka hoʻopiʻi.

Hoʻopiʻi kēia i kahi hoʻopiʻi nui o nā meaola - ka manaʻo ʻaʻohe wahi iki o nā pesticides synthetic i ka hana ʻana, hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā hui. A ua hōʻeha ka ʻoihana i ke kānāwai ma o ka hāʻawi ʻole ʻana i ka hoʻolaha ākea a i ʻole ʻae no ka ʻōlelo lehulehu i kā lākou hana ʻana i kēia "puka," i ʻōlelo ai nā hui.

"Ke alakaʻi hewa ʻia nei nā mea kūʻai meaola, a ʻaʻole hiki ke hilinaʻi hou i ka lepili lāʻau e hōʻoia ai i ka meaʻai a lākou e kūʻai ai me ka ʻole o nā pesticides synthetic i nā mea mahiʻai."

Hōʻike ke kikowaena no ka palekana o ka meaʻai a me nā mea hoʻopiʻi ʻē aʻe iā lākou iho i nā noi o ka ʻaha e hana ana e pale i ke kaiapuni a me ke olakino lehulehu a e hana ma ke ʻano he kiaʻi i ka pono o nā meaola. Ua manaʻo lākou i ka ʻOTA e kākoʻo i kā lākou noi no ka pono kūlohelohe, a i ʻole e hoʻāʻo e hele i kā lākou ala. Akā ma ka lā 2 o Mei, ua noi ʻo OTA e komo i ka hihia ʻaʻole ma ka ʻaoʻao o nā mea kākoʻo mea kūʻai akā kūʻē iā lākou.

I kāna faila ʻana, Ua hui pū ʻo OTA, a me Kaleponi Hoʻohui Organic Organic (CCOF) me ka Western Growers Association (WG), ʻo ia ka mea kū i nā mahiʻai no ka hapakolu o nā huaʻai meaola US hou, e kūʻē i nā hui palekana o nā mea kūʻai aku no ka pilikia compost. ʻO ka OTA a me nā hui ʻoihana ʻē aʻe Ke hoʻopaʻapaʻa nei inā inā hoʻolei ʻia ka ʻohana USDA e ʻae ana i nā pesticides synthetic i ka compost e ka ʻaha, e "hoʻokau loa ʻia nā hana lāʻau."

ʻ saylelo nā hui i ka waiho ʻana i ka ʻaha he mea hiki ke nānā ʻole ʻia a hiki ʻole hoʻi ke hoʻokele waiwai ke hōʻike i nā compost āpau me ka manuahi o kēlā me kēia kemikōne synthetic i pāpā ʻia i ka hana ʻana i nā mea kanu. ʻLelo lākou i ka hoʻopau koke ʻia ʻana o ka hoʻolako ʻana i ka compost hiki ke alakaʻi ʻia i ka hoʻopiʻi kīwila koʻikoʻi a me nā palapala hōʻoia ʻokanika a nā mea ulu e weliweli. ʻO ka wili ʻana i kā USDA “ʻoihana a me ke kuleana e hoʻokokoke aku ai i kahi kumuhana paʻakikī” e “hoʻopilikia loa ia,” i ʻōlelo ai nā hui kūlohelohe.

Kūʻai ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi ʻo kēlā mau koi o nā hopena disruptive he "ʻulaʻula." Hiki ke kōkua i kahi erosion o nā kūlana meaola ke hoʻonui i ka hana a hoʻokō i nā koi o nā mea kūʻai, akā hiki i kēlā ala ke hana i kahi pali a paheʻe a me ka make loa o nā mea organ draw. "ʻO kēia mau waiwai kaiapuni, a ʻaʻole kikoʻī i ke kākoʻo ʻana i ka mahiʻai hoʻōla pesticide, he mea hoʻokele nui ia no ke kumu e uku ai ka poʻe kūʻai i ke kumukūʻai e kūʻai i nā meaʻai meaola," i ʻōlelo ʻia e kā lākou faila.

ʻO ka hoʻolohe ʻia o ka Pōʻalima ma Kapalakiko e hāpai i nā noi keʻa no ka hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo no kēia hihia. I kēia manawa hoʻi i Wakinekona, e māka ana ka OTA "Lā kākoʻo," e hele ana ma waena o Capitol Hill e hui pū me nā luna kau kānāwai a hoʻokau aku i nā kulekele e kākoʻo ana i ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻoihanaola.

He mea maikaʻi ke nānā aku nā mea ʻelua i nā mea ʻelua.

ʻO Carey Gillam kahi mea kākau moʻolelo kahiko ʻo Reuters a i kēia manawa he alakaʻi noiʻi no US Right to Know, kahi hui noiʻi ʻoihana meaʻai.  E hāhai iā Carey Gillam ma Twitter: www.twitter.com/careygillam 

Makemake i nā meaʻai hou aʻe no ka noʻonoʻo? Kakau inoa no ka Leka uila USRTK.

ʻO ka hakakā o ka hoihoi e pili ana i ka nānā ʻana ʻo Cloud Glyphosate

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Na Carey Gillam

Ua hala iki aku ia i hoʻokahi makahiki mai ko ka World Health Organization (WHO) ʻimi noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai i hāpai i ke keiki punahele a ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO ka hui, ʻo ka International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i hoʻolaha aku i ka honua nei i ka lāʻau make (glyphosate) i hoʻohana nui ʻia e ka honua.

Mai ia manawa, ʻo Monsanto Co., ka mea e huki ana i ka hapakolu o kāna $ 15 biliona i loaʻa kālā makahiki mai kāna huahana huaʻai lāʻau Roundly branded glyphosate, (a me ka hapa nui o ke koena mai nā ʻenehana kanu ahonui-glyphosate-tolerant) i kahi mikiona e hoʻopau i ka ʻIke ʻIARC. Ma o ka pūʻali koa koa i komo pū me nā luna ʻoihana, nā loea pili i ka lehulehu a me nā ʻepekema o ke kulanui lehulehu, ua kāhea ka ʻoihana e pāpā i kā IARC hana ma glyphosate.

Pehea e kūleʻa ʻole ai kēlā mau hoʻoikaika ʻana he nīnau ākea ia. Akā manaʻo ʻia kekahi mau pane ma hope o ka hālāwai i mālama ʻia i kēia pule ma Geneva, Switzerland. An "Hui ʻepekema loea kūwaho" ʻike ʻia ʻo JMPR ke nānā nei i kā IARC hana ma glyphosate, a ke manaʻo ʻia nei nā hopena e hāʻawi i nā mea hoʻokele a puni ka honua i alakaʻi no ka pehea e ʻike ai i ka glyphosate.

ʻO ka hui, i ʻike kūhelu ʻia ʻo ka Hui Joint FAO-WHO ma nā Pesticide Residues (JMPR), lawelawe pū ʻia e ka Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) a me WHO. Hui pinepine ʻo JMPR e nānā i nā koena a me nā ʻanalike o nā pesticides, e koho ai i nā koena koena kiʻekiʻe, a me ka nānā ʻana i ka ʻikepili toxological a kuhi i nā ʻai i kēlā me kēia lā (ADI) no nā kānaka.

Ma hope o ka hālāwai o kēia pule, e hoʻomaka ana e holo mai Mei 9-13, manaʻo ʻia e hoʻopuka ʻo JMPR i kahi moʻo ʻōlelo e hele aku i ka FAO / WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka Codex Alimentarius e FAO a hoʻomohala ka World Health Organization i nā kaulike kaulike o ka honua ma ke ʻano he mea e pale aku ai i ke olakino mea kūʻai aku a paipai i nā hana kaulike i ke kālepa meaʻai.

Ka hālāwai hele mai ʻoiai e hakakā ana nā mea hoʻokele ʻEulopa a me US me kā lākou loiloi ponoʻī a pehea e pane ai i ka hoʻohālikelike IARC. Hele mai nō ʻo ia e like me kā Monsanto nānā ʻana no ke kākoʻo ʻana i kāna mau koi no ka palekana glyphosate.

ʻAʻole wale ʻo Glyphosate i kahi lynchpin no ke kūʻai aku ʻana i nā lāʻau make o ka hui akā no kāna mau ʻanoʻano genetically i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i ka pīpī ʻia me ka glyphosate. Ke pale aku nei ka ʻoihana iā ia iho kekahi mau hoʻokolokolo kahi a ka poʻe mahiʻai a me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i ʻōlelo ai ua ʻaelike lākou i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i pili i ka glyphosate a ua ʻike ʻo Monsanto, akā hūnā, i nā pilikia. A, kahi ʻōlelo hōʻeuʻeu o kā IARC papa inoa glyphosate hiki ke kōkua i ka ʻoihana i kona hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ka mokuʻāina ʻo Kaleponi, ʻo ia ka mea e hōʻoki i ka mokuʻāina mai ka hāhai ʻana i ka hoʻonohonoho IARC me kahi inoa like.

Aia i ka hopena o ka JMPR, e hoʻoholo ka Codex i nā hana e pili ana i ka glyphosate, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka haʻi ʻōlelo o WHO ʻo Tarik Jasarevic.

"ʻO kā JMPR hana e alakaʻi i ka loiloi no ka mahiʻai a me ka loiloi ʻana i nā pōʻino olakino i nā mea kūʻai mai nā koena i loaʻa i ka meaʻai," i ʻōlelo ʻo Jasarevic

Ke nānā pono ʻia nei ka hopena o ka hālāwai JMPR e kekahi mau kaiaulu a me nā hui e makemake ana e ʻike i nā kūlana palekana hou no glyphosate. A ʻaʻole me ka hopohopo ʻole. ʻO ka hui ʻana, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ʻAha Kūkākūkā Kūlohelohe Kūlohelohe a me nā Hoa o ka Honua, ua hōʻike ʻo ia i ka hopohopo e pili ana i nā hakakā o ka hoihoi i ka ʻaha aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo loea. ʻIke ʻia kekahi mau pilikino i ka pili kālā a me ka ʻoihana iā Monsanto a me ka ʻoihana kemika, e like me ka hui ʻana.

ʻO ka hoʻohuihui hōʻike kikoʻī i nā hopohopo me nā pili lālā i ka mea ʻole International Life Science Institute (ILSI), i kālā kālā ʻia e Monsanto a me nā hui kemika ʻē aʻe, nā meaʻai a me nā lāʻau. ʻO kā Institute papa kahu komo pū nā luna mai Monsanto, Syngenta, DuPont, Nestle a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, ʻoiai ʻo kāna papa inoa o nā lālā a me nā hui kākoʻo e komo pū me kēlā a me nā mea hou aku nā hopohopo no ka ʻai a puni ka honua.

Nā palapala ILSI kūloko, i loaʻa ʻia e kahi noi palapala lehulehu mokuʻāina, e ʻōlelo ana ua hāʻawi kālā ʻia ʻo ILSI e ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO kahi palapala i hōʻike ʻia he papa inoa hāʻawi nui ʻo ILSI 2012 e hōʻike nei i ka nui o nā hāʻawi o $ 2.4 miliona, me ka ʻoi aku o $ 500,000 pākahi mai CropLife International a mai Monsanto.

"Nui ko mākou hopohopo e hoʻohuli hewa ʻole ʻia ke kōmike e nā ʻoihana pesticide āpau a me Monsanto- ka mea hana nui loa o glyphosate ma ka honua," i haʻi aku ai ka hui ʻana iā WHO i kahi leka i ka makahiki i hala.

ʻO Alan Boobis kekahi loea ʻo ia ʻo Alan Boobis, ka polofesa o ka lāʻau pono lāʻau biochemical a me ka luna o ke keʻena ʻona ma ke kumu o ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma Imperial College London. He lālā ʻo ia a he luna hoʻomalu i hala o ka papa lunakiaʻi o ILSI, pelekikena hope o ILSI ʻEulopa a me ka noho o ILSI.

ʻO kekahi lālā ʻo Angelo Moretto, Luna Hoʻokele o ka International Center for Pesticides and Health Risks Prevention at "Luigi Sacco" Hospital of the ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, in Milan, Italia. Ua ʻōlelo ka hui ʻana ua pili ʻo Moretto i nā papahana like ʻole me ILSI a ua lawelawe ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he lālā o ke kime hoʻokele no kahi papahana ILSI e pili ana i nā pilikia o nā hōʻike kemika i uku kālā ʻia e nā hui mahiʻai i hoʻopili pū ʻia me Monsanto.

ʻO Aldert Piersma kekahi, he ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe loa ma ka National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands a he kākāʻōlelo no nā papahana o Ke Keʻena Ola Ola Ola o ILSI.

I nā āpau ʻo ka papa inoa o nā loea JMPR he 18. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Jasarevic ua koho ʻia ka papa inoa o ka poʻe loea mai kahi hui o kēlā me kēia kanaka i hōʻike i ka hoihoi i ke komo ʻana, a ʻo nā mea āpau he "kūʻokoʻa a koho ʻia e pili ana i ka maikaʻi o ka ʻepekema, a me ko lākou ʻike i ke kahua o ka loiloi i ka pilikia o ka pesticide."

ʻO Aaron Blair, he ʻepekema emeritus ma National Cancer Institute a me ka luna o ka hui IARC nāna i hana i ka papa glyphosate, ua pale aku i ka hana a IARC ma ke ʻano o ka loiloi ʻepekema piha. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ʻaʻohe ona hopohopo e kūkākūkā e pili ana i ka loiloi o JMPR o kā IARC hana.

"Manaʻo wau e hōʻike ka loiloi e ka hui FAO / WHO hui pū i nā kumu no kā lākou loiloi, ʻo ia ka mea koʻikoʻi no ka nūpepa a me ka lehulehu," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

Ke kali nei ka honua.

ʻAʻole wale no ka palaoa a me ka soy: kahi nānā ma Glyphosate e hoʻohana ai i nā mea kanu meaʻai

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Na Carey Gillam

E like me ka mea hana i ka mea make a ka Monsanto's Roundup weed killer, me nā haneli he nui o ka make ʻana i ka nāhelehele, ua kapa ʻia ka kemika glyphosate i mau piliona kālā ma ke kūʻai aku no Monsanto a me nā hui ʻē aʻe i kēlā me kēia makahiki e like me ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā mahiʻai a puni ka honua i kā lākou mahiʻai. . Ubiquitous i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai, hoʻohana wale ʻia ka glyphosate ʻaʻole wale me nā mea kanu lālani e like me ka palaoa, ka mea soybeans a me ka palaoa akā me nā hua hua, nā hua kukui a me nā mea ʻai. ʻOiai nā mea kanu spinach e hoʻohana i ka glyphosate.

ʻOiai e noʻonoʻo ʻia no nā makahiki ma waena o nā ʻoi loa o nā mahiʻai, ke ulu nei nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka glyphosate ma hope o ka poʻe loea o ka World Health Organization i ka makahiki i hala. hoʻolaha ʻia ia ma ke ʻano he carcinogen kanaka, ma muli o ke kaʻina o nā noiʻi ʻepekema. Aia kekahi mau hopohopo ʻē aʻe - ke piʻi nei i ka pale mauʻu mauʻu i ka glyphosate; nā hopena maikaʻi ʻole i ke olakino lepo; a me ka make ʻana i ka heluna butterfly mōʻī i nakinaki ʻia i ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma ka forage a nā mōʻī ʻōpio e ʻai ai. Ke hoʻopau nei ka EPA i kēia manawa kahi loiloi weliweli no glyphosate e nānā ana i ka laulā o nā pilikia.

ʻO ka EPA ke hoʻāʻo nei nō e hoʻoholo pehea ka worrisome glyphosate, a i ʻole. I kēia manawa pono ke nānā aku i ka laha o ka hoʻohana ʻana o glyphosate i kā mākou lako meaʻai. ʻO kahi palapala i hoʻokuʻu ʻia e EPA ma ka lā 29 o ʻApelila e hāʻawi iā mākou i kahi peek.

I kahi memo i kākau ʻia ma ʻOkakopa 22, 2015, Ua hōʻike nā luna ʻepekema ʻo EPA i kahi "hōʻano hou ʻia o ka pae ʻana o ka pae ʻana o ka Screening" no ka hoʻohana glyphosate i nā mea ʻai. Hoʻololi kēlā memo i nā manaʻo kuhi o ka hoʻohana glyphosate i nā mea kanu i nā ʻāina mahiʻai kiʻekiʻe, a hāʻawi i nā manaʻo hoʻohana maʻamau no kēlā me kēia makahiki 2004-2013. Kanahiku mau mea kanu ma ka papa inoa EPA, mai ka pīʻāpā mai ka alfalfa a me nā ʻalemona i nā watermelons a me ka palaoa. A, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i kahi kālailai ma mua i holo i loko o 2011, hōʻike ia e ulu nei ka hoʻohana glyphosate i ka hana ʻana i ka hapa nui o nā mea kanu meaʻai nui ma ka papa inoa. Eia kahi paʻi kiʻi:

Hoʻohana ʻia ʻo Glyphosate ma nā māla soya a US, ma ka awelika o ka makahiki, ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma 101.2 miliona mau paona; me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka palaoa ma 63.5 miliona mau paona. Ua piʻi aʻe nā koho ʻelua mai kahi loiloi mua i holo i loko o 2011, kahi i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka makahiki soybean makahiki he 86.4 miliona mau paona a me ka palaoa ma 54.6 miliona mau paona. Hoʻolālā ʻia nā huaʻai ʻelua i hiki iā lākou ke kāpī pololei ʻia me glyphosate e like me ka mahi ʻana o nā mahiʻai i nā māla no ka nāhelehele. Hoʻohana ʻia me nā beets kō, a ʻenekini ʻia hoʻi e like me ka tolerant glyphosate, i koho ʻia ma 1.3 miliona mau paona, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me 1 miliona mau paona.

ʻIke pū kekahi, ʻike ʻia ka hoʻohana glyphosate me nā ʻano mea kanu ʻaʻole ʻenekini e pīpī pololei ʻia. Ke nānā nei i ka manawa i pau i ka 2013 hoʻohālikelike ʻia me 2011, hoʻohana ʻia ka hoʻohana glyphosate i ka hana palaoa ma 8.6 miliona mau paona, mai 8.1 miliona mau paona; hoʻohana ʻia i nā ʻalemona ua kāpili ʻia ma 2.1 miliona mau paona, hoʻololi ʻole ʻia mai ka hoʻokolokolo mua ʻana; ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hua waina ma 1.5 miliona mau paona, mai 1.4 miliona mau paona; a ua koho ʻia ka hoʻohana laiki ma 800,000 paona, i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me 700,000 paona i ka hoʻokolokolo mua.

Hiki iā ʻoe ke nānā i kāu meaʻai punahele ponoʻī Eia, a hoʻohālikelike iā ia i ka loiloi mua maanei. Kāhāhā paha iā ʻoe kekahi ma ka papa inoa, e like me nā cherry, nā avocados, nā ʻāpala, nā lemona, ka huaʻakai, nā peanuts, nā pecan a me nā walnuts.

ʻO ka ulu ʻana o ka glyphosate e ulu ana i nā mea kanu meaʻai i hoʻonāukiuki i nā kāhea i nā mea hoʻokele e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i nā pae o ia mau koena i ka meaʻai e hoʻoholo inā aia lākou i loko o nā pae i ka palekana. Ke hana nei lākou i kēlā ʻano hoʻāʻo no nā makahiki no ke koena o nā mahiʻai ʻē aʻe. Ka Hoʻokele Meaʻai a me nā lāʻau i olelo mai ma Pepeluali e hoʻomaka ia e hana i kēlā ʻano hoʻāʻo no nā koena glyphosate i kēia makahiki ma kahi kau palena.

I kēia manawa, ʻo ka EPA, ka mea e hoʻonohonoho i ka Pae "ahonui" Manaʻo ia he aha ka mea palekana e pili ana i ke koena pesticide, i hoʻolaha ai i ka Mei 3 e hoʻopau ana he kānāwai hou e hoʻonui i nā helu o nā mea kanu i hiki ke ʻae ʻia nā tolerance. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka EPA e ʻae kēia i nā mea ulu mea hoʻohana liʻiliʻi i koho ākea ākea o nā pono hana pale e like me nā lāʻau pesticides ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi, e hoʻohana ʻia ma nā mea kanu liʻiliʻi, ma loko a me nā ʻāina e lawe mai i ka meaʻai i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa.

 Kuʻi.