Hoʻolālā ʻo Bill Gates e hana hou i nā ʻōnaehana ʻai e hoʻopōʻino i ke aniau

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Na Stacy Malkan

I loko o kāna puke hou e pili ana i kahi e pale ai i kahi pōʻino o ke aniau, Billionaire mea aloha piliona Bill Gates e kūkākūkā ana i kāna mau hoʻolālā i hoʻohālikelike ʻōnaehana ʻai ʻApelika ma luna o ka "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" o India kahi i hoʻonui ai kahi mea ʻepekema mea kanu i nā hua a mālama ʻia he piliona mau ola, e like me Gates. ʻO ka mea keakea i ka hoʻokō ʻana i kahi hoʻoponopono hou like ma ʻApelika, ʻōlelo ʻo ia, ʻo ka hapa nui o nā mahiʻai ma nā ʻāina ʻilihune ʻaʻohe waiwai kālā e kūʻai ai i nā mea momona.  

"Inā hiki iā mākou ke kōkua i nā mahiʻai ʻilihuna e hoʻāla i kā lākou hua ʻai, e loaʻa kālā hou iā lākou a ʻoi aku ka nui o kā lākou mea e ʻai ai, a ʻo nā miliona o nā kānaka ma nā ʻāina ʻilihune o ka honua e hiki ke loaʻa nā meaʻai a me nā meaʻai e pono ai," ʻo Gates hoʻopau. ʻAʻole ʻo ia e noʻonoʻo i nā ʻāpana maopopo he nui o ka pōloli pōloli, e like me kona kāpae ʻana i nā mea koʻikoʻi o ka paio ʻana o ke aniau, e like me kā Bill McKibben i kuhikuhi ai i loko o ka Hōʻikeʻike ʻo New York Times o kā Gates puke Pehea e hōʻalo ai i kahi ʻinoʻino. 

ʻAʻole haʻi ʻo Gates, no ka laʻana, no ka pōloli ka mea nui ka ilihune a me ke kaulike ʻole, ʻaʻole ka nele. A me he mea lā ʻaʻole ia i ʻike i ka nui o nā makahiki he umi makahiki o ka "hoʻokahuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo" kaomi no ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i India i haʻalele i hoʻoilina hoʻoilina o ka hōʻino no nā kaiaolaola a me nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi, i noho ʻia ke kūʻē nei i nā alanui mai ka makahiki i hala.   

"Ke kākau nei nā mea kūʻē mahiʻai ma India i kā obituary o ka Green Revolution," ʻo Aniket Aga i kākau ma Scientific American i ka mahina i hala. Mau makahiki i loko o ka ʻōnaehana kipi ʻōmaʻomaʻo, "maopopo ia ua hoʻohui nā pilikia hou o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i nā pilikia kahiko o pololi a malnutrition, "Kākau ʻo Aga. "ʻAʻohe nui o ka tinkering ma ka hopena kūʻai e hoʻoponopono ai i kahi hana hoʻohua kumu ʻole a kūpono ʻole."

Kēia k .kohu e hoʻoneʻe i nā mahiʻai i nā ʻoihana mahiʻai ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka liʻiliʻi hilinaʻi i nā pesticides a me ka hōʻino-aniau mea hoʻomomona kemika - kahi a Gates Foundation e paipai nei ma ʻApelika no 15 mau makahiki, ma luna o ke kūʻē ʻana i nā neʻe o nā meaʻai ʻApelika e ʻōlelo nei ke hoʻokau nei ke kahua i nā mea nui o nā ʻoihana agribusiness multinational i mea e pōʻino ai ko lākou kaiāulu.  

Ke kūʻē nei nā haneli o nā hui kaiaulu ʻo ka Gates Foundation's nā hoʻolālā mahiʻai a me kona mana ma luna o ka UN World Summit e hiki mai ana. 'Saylelo nā Insiders ke hoʻoweliweli nei kēia alakaʻi i nā hana kūpono e hoʻololi i ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai, ma kahi manawa koʻikoʻi i ka nui o ka sub-Saharan ʻApelika ʻalalā mai nā haʻalulu he nui a me ka ulu ulia pōpilikia ana ma muli o ka maʻi ahulau a me nā ʻano huliau. 

Ua ʻike ʻole ʻia kēia mau mea āpau e nā hoʻolaha pāpāho nui e ʻōwili nei i ka moena ʻulaʻula no kā Gates puke. Eia kekahi o nā kumu i ʻōlelo ai nā loiloi he maikaʻi ʻole ka papahana hoʻomohala mahiʻai ʻo Gates Foundation no ke aniau. ʻAʻole pane ka kahua i nā noi he nui no ka ʻōlelo. 

Pili pili: No ke aha mākou e nānā nei i kā Bill Gates mau hoʻolālā e hana hou i ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai 

Hoʻopili hou i nā hoʻokuʻu kinoea hoʻomehana honua 

ʻAʻole hilahila ʻo Gates e pili ana i kāna kuko no ka momona synthetic, ʻoiai ʻo ia wehewehe i kēia blog e pili ana i kāna kipa i ka ʻO Yara mea hoʻoili mea kanu kanu ma Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ʻO ka mea kanu hou ka mea nui o kona ʻano ma ʻApelika Hikina. ʻO Fertilizer kahi "hana hoʻokalakupua i hiki ke kōkua i ka hāpai ʻana i nā miliona o nā kānaka mai ka ʻilihune," kākau ʻo Gates. "ʻO ka nānā ʻana i nā limahana e hoʻopiha nei i nā ʻeke me nā pellets keʻokeʻo liʻiliʻi e piha ana i ka nitrogen, phosphorous, a me nā mea kanu o nā mea kanu i mea hoʻomanaʻo nui e pili ana i kēlā me kēia ʻeke a me ka momona i hiki ke hoʻololi i nā ola ma ʻApelika."

Ua wehewehe ʻo Corp Watch iā Yara ma ke ʻano “ka pilikua mea hoʻomomona e hōʻino ana i ke aniau. ” ʻO Yara ka mea kūʻai ʻoihana nui o ʻEulopa o ke kinoea kūlohelohe, nā lobbies ʻeleu no ka fracking, a he mea hana kiʻekiʻe i nā mea synthetic synthetic i ʻepekema. haʻi he kuleana no ka mea, mahuahua ka hopohopo i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia o nitrous oxide. ʻO ka kinoea hoʻomehana honua ʻo ia 300 manawa hou aku ka mana ma mua o carbon dioxide i ka hoʻomehana ʻana i ka honua. E like me ka pepa Natura hou, nitrous oxide emissions i kipaku nui ʻia e ka mahiʻai e piʻi aʻe nei i kahi loop loop feedback e hoʻonui nei iā mākou ala hele hewa loa no ka hoʻololi i ke aniau.

Hoʻomaopopo ʻo Gates e hoʻopōʻino nā mea hoʻomomona synthetic i ke aniau. Ma ke ʻano he hopena, lana ka manaʻo o Gates no nā hana ʻenehana ma ka pae, me kahi papahana hoʻokolohua e genetically engineer microbes e hoʻoponopono i ka nitrogen i ka lepo. "Inā holo pono kēia mau hoʻokokoke ʻana," kākau ʻo Gates, "e hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui lākou i ka pono no ka momona a me nā emissions āpau nāna ke kuleana." 

I kēia manawa, ke kia nui o ka hoʻoikaika ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo o Gates no ʻApelika e hoʻonui nei i ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka mea hoʻomomona synthetic me ka manaʻo e hoʻonui i nā hua, ʻoiai ma laila ʻaʻole hōʻike e hōʻike ai ua kōkua ka 14 mau makahiki o kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana i nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi a i ʻole nā ​​ʻilihuna, a i ʻole hoʻohua i nā loaʻa nui.

Hoʻonui i nā monocultures ʻinoʻino 

Ua lilo ka Gates Foundation ma kahi o $ 4 biliona mai 2006 ia "kōkua i ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka mahiʻai”Ma ʻApelika. ʻO ka nui o ka hele kālā i ʻimi noiʻi ʻenehana a me nā hana e hoʻololi i nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i nā ʻano mahiʻai mahiʻenehana a hoʻonui i ko lākou hiki i nā hua kalepa, nā mea hoʻomomona a me nā mea hoʻokomo. ʻ saylelo nā mea kākoʻo i kēia mau hoʻoikaika ʻana hāʻawi i nā mahiʻai i nā koho e pono ai e hoʻonui i ka hana a hapai ia lakou iho mai ka ilihune. Kuhi ka poʻe loiloi he "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" ʻo Gates ʻinoʻino nā ʻōkuhi iā ʻApelika e ka hana ʻana ʻoi aku ka palupalu o nā kaiaolaola, ke waiho nei i nā mahiʻai i ka hōʻaiʻē, a hoʻohuli i nā kumuwaiwai lehulehu mai nā hoʻololi ʻōnaehana hohonu loa pono e kū i ke aniau a me nā pilikia pōloli. 

"Hāpai ka Gates Foundation i kahi hiʻohiʻona o ka mahiʻai mahiʻai monoculture a me ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai e kākoʻo ʻole ai i ko mākou poʻe," kahi hui o nā alakaʻi manaʻoʻiʻo mai ʻApelika kākau i loko o ka leka i ke kahua, ke hāpai nei i nā hopohopo no ke kākoʻo o ke kahua no ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana ikaika e hoʻonui ana i ka pilikia kanaka. 

ʻO ke kahua, ʻōlelo lākou, "Paipai i nā mahiʻai ʻApelika e hoʻohana i kahi ala hoʻokomo kiʻekiʻe – kiʻekiʻe i hoʻokumu ʻia ma kahi ʻano ʻoihana i hoʻomohala ʻia i kahi hoʻonohonoho Komohana" a "kau kaomi i nā mahiʻai e ulu wale i hoʻokahi a i ʻole kekahi mau mea kanu e pili ana i ka hana kiʻekiʻe a me nā genetically GM) mau hua. "

ʻO ka papahana mahiʻai hae ʻo Gates, ka Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), hoʻokele i nā mahiʻai i ka maize a me nā mea ulu nui me ka pahuhopu e hoʻonui i nā hua. Wahi a AGRA's hoʻolālā hana no Uganda (ke koʻikoʻi nei i kā lākou):

  • Hoʻomaopopo ʻia ka hoʻololi ahupuaʻa a ke kaʻina hana a nā mahiʻai e neʻe ai mai ka ʻokoʻa loa, ka hana i hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia i ka hana i hana nui ʻia kū i ka mākeke a i ʻole nā ​​ʻōnaehana o ka hoʻololi, e pili ana i ka hilinaʻi nui ʻana i ka ʻōnaehana hoʻokomo a me ka hoʻopuka ʻana a hoʻonui i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka mahiʻai me nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe o nā ʻoihana kūloko a me ka honua.

Ua hoʻolilo ʻo AGRA ma kahi o $ 524 miliona, ma ka hapanui o nā papahana e hoʻonui i ka hiki ʻana o nā mahiʻai i nā ʻanoano kalepa a me nā mea hoʻomomona. Kākoʻo hou ʻia kēia ʻenehana ʻenehana ʻōuli e $ 1 biliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā kōkua mai nā aupuni ʻApelika, e like me noiʻi i paʻi ʻia i ka makahiki i hala ma ka ʻO Tufts Global Development and Environment Institute a me kahi hōʻike pili e Nā pūʻulu ʻApelika a me Kelemania

ʻAʻole i loaʻa i nā mea noiʻi kahi hōʻailona o kahi boom hoʻonui huahana; Hōʻike ka ʻikepili i nā loaʻa haʻahaʻa o 18% no nā mea kanu nui i nā ʻāina i kūlia i ka AGRA, ʻoiai nā stagnated stagnated a me nā mea ʻai i hoʻomāhuahua, me ka nui o ka poʻe pōloli a me nā mea ʻai ʻole 30%. AGRA hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka noiʻi akā ʻaʻole i hāʻawi i ka hōʻike kikoʻī o kāna mau hopena ma mua o 15 mau makahiki. Ua haʻi mai kahi mea haʻi ʻōlelo AGRA iā mākou i kahi hōʻike e hiki mai ana i ʻApelila.

ʻO nā kānaka noiʻi kūʻokoʻa kekahi ua hōʻike i ka emi ʻana o nā mea kanu kuʻuna, e like me ka mila, ʻo ia ke kūpaʻa i ke aniau a hoi kahi kumu waiwai nui o nā micronutrients no nā miliona o ka poʻe.

"ʻO ke ʻano AGRA i hoʻokau ʻia ma ka mahiʻai ʻana ma Rwanda ma mua ʻokoʻa a ʻaneʻane hoʻi e hoʻohiehie i kāna mau mea kanu mahiʻai mahiʻai kuʻuna, "Jomo Kwame Sundaram, ke kākau ʻōlelo kōkua mua o ka UN no ka hoʻomohala waiwai, i kākau i loko o kahi ʻatikala e wehewehe ana i ka noiʻi.  ʻO ka pūʻulu AGRA, kākau ʻo ia, ua "hoʻokau ʻia me he lima kaumaha "ma Rwanda, me" ke aupuni i hōʻike ʻia e pāpā ana i ka mahi ʻana i kekahi mau mea ulu i loko o kekahi mau wahi. "  

Hoʻololi i nā kumuwaiwai mai agroecology 

"Inā e lilo nā ʻōnaehana o ka honua āpau i mea e hoʻomau pono ai, pono e lilo nā monocultures huaʻai komo nui a me nā mea hānai pālākiō i mea lapuwale," i kākau ai nā alakaʻi alakaʻi ʻApelika i kā lākou hoʻopiʻi i ka Gates Foundation.

ʻOiaʻiʻo, he nui ʻōlelo nā loea a pono ka hoʻololi paradigm, mai ʻaʻano like, ʻōnaehana hoʻoulu monoculture i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa, agroecological kokoke i kēlā hiki ke hoʻoponopono i nā pilikia a me nā palena o ka mahiʻai ʻoihana me nā kaulike ʻole, hoʻonui i ka ilihune, hana maikaʻi ʻole a me ka hōʻino ʻana o ke kaiaola.  

ʻO Rupa Marya, MD, he loea pili no ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma UCSF, e kūkākūkā i ka agroecology ma ka hālāwai kūkā 2021 EcoFarm

He Hui Hoʻolālā Meaʻai a UN hōʻike papa loea e pili ana i ka agroecology kāhea maopopo i ka neʻe ʻana mai ke kumu hoʻohālikelike ahupuaʻa ʻo "ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo" a i nā hana agroecological i hōʻike ʻia e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā mea kanu meaʻai, hoʻemi i nā kumukūʻai a kūkulu i ke kū hou o ke aniau. 

Akā pōloli nā polokalamu e hoʻonui i ka agroecology no ke kālā ke lilo nā piliona i ke kōkua a hele nā ​​kōkua e hāpai i nā ʻano mahiʻai mahiʻai. 

ʻO nā makemake Donor no ka loaʻa kālā, scalability a me nā hopena pōkole e kāohi ana i nā hoʻopukapuka i ka agroecology, e like me ka hōʻike 2020 mai ka International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food). No 85% o ka Gates Foundation i hoʻolako kālā ʻia nā papahana no ʻApelika i nā makahiki i hala iho nei i kaupalena ʻia i ke kākoʻo ʻana i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana, i ʻōlelo ʻia ka hōʻike, ʻoiai ʻo 3% wale nō o nā papahana i loaʻa nā mea o ka hoʻoponopono hou agroecological.

ʻO nā mea noiʻi kahakaha, "ʻaʻole agroecology ʻaʻole kūpono i loko o nā ʻano hana hoʻopukapuka e kū nei. E like me nā mea hāʻawi manawaleʻa he nui, nānā ka BMGF [Bill a me Melinda Gates Foundation] no ka hoʻihoʻi wikiwiki ʻana o ke kālā hoʻopukapuka, a no laila makemake i nā hopena ʻenehana. ” 

Kaupaona kēia mau makemake i nā hoʻoholo e pili ana i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ʻana o nā kālā noiʻi no nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai o ka honua. ʻO ka mea loaʻa nui o ʻO ke kālā mahiʻai a Gates Foundation ʻo CGIAR, kahi consortium o 15 mau kikowaena noiʻi e hoʻohana ana i nā kaukukū ʻepekema a me ka mālama ʻana iā 11 o nā panakō nui o ka honua.

I nā makahiki i hala iho nei, ua hana kekahi mau kikowaena CGIAR i nā ala e pili ana i ka ʻōnaehana ʻōnaehana a me nā pono e pili ana i nā pono. akā ʻo kahi hoʻolālā hoʻolālā i hāpai ʻia e hana i "One CGIAR" me kahi papa hoʻokahi a me nā mana hoʻonohonoho hoʻonohonoho hou e hāpai ana i nā hopohopo. Wahi a ka meaʻai IPES, ka noi hoʻoponopono hou hoʻoweliweli e "hōʻemi i ka mana kūʻokoʻa o nā papahana noiʻi āpana a hoʻoikaika i ka paʻa o nā mea hāʻawi mana nui loa," e like me ka Gates Foundation, ka mea "makemake e haʻalele i nā hoʻolālā ʻōmaʻomaʻo kipi."

ka hoʻoponopono hana hou alakaʻi ʻia e ka ʻelele Gates Foundation a me ke alakaʻi mua o ka Syngenta Foundation, “AUa hoʻokau ʻia ʻo ppears i mua ma ke ʻano koi, "i ʻōlelo ʻo IPES," me ke kūʻai liʻiliʻi mai nā mea e pono ai nā pōmaikaʻi ma ka Hema o ka honua, me ka lawa ʻole o ka like ʻole ma waena o ka pōʻaiapuni o loko o nā mea hoʻoponopono, a me ka noʻonoʻo ʻole ʻole i ke ʻano e pono ai. neʻe i ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai. "

I kēia manawa, ʻo ka Gates Foundation kiki ʻia i $ 310 miliona hou aʻe iā CGIAR e "kōkua iā 300 miliona mau mahiʻai liʻiliʻi e hoʻomaʻa i ka loli." 

Ke kuhi nei i nā hoʻohana hou no nā mea kanu pesticide GMO

ʻO ka leka lawe a Bill Gates puke hou kēlā nā holomua ʻenehana hiki ke hānai i ka honua a hoʻoponopono i ke aniau, inā hiki iā mākou ke hiki hoʻopukapuka lawa lawa i kēia mau mea hou. Ke hoʻolaha nei nā ʻoihana pesticide / seed nui loa o ka honua i ke kumumanaʻo like, ke kau hou ʻana iā lākou iho mai ka poʻe hōʻole i ke aniau i nā mea hoʻoponopono pilikia: ʻO ka holomua i ka mahiʻai uila, ʻo ka mahiʻai pono a me ka hana ʻenekini e hōʻemi i ka wāwae o ka mahiʻai a "hoʻoikaika i ka 100 miliona mau mahiʻai liʻiliʻi" e hoʻomaʻa i ka loli, "āpau i ka makahiki 2030," e like me ʻO Bayer CropSensya.

ʻO ka Gates Foundation a me ka ʻoihana kemika ʻo “ke kūʻai aku nei i ka wā i hala ma ke ʻano he mea hou i ʻApelika, "Hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo Timothy Wise, kahi hoa noiʻi me ka Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, i ka pepa hou no Tufts GDAE. "ʻO ka hana hou maoli," wahi a Wise, "ke hana nei i nā māla mahiʻai i kā lākou hana pū ʻana me nā ʻepekema e hoʻonui i ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano mea kanu o nā meaʻai, hoʻemi i nā kumukūʻai, a kūkulu i ke kūpaʻa o ke aniau ma o ka ʻae ʻana i nā hana agroecological." 

Ma ke ʻano he harbinger o nā ʻenehana breakthroughs e hiki mai ana, kuhikuhi ʻo Gates i kāna puke i ka Impossible Burger. Ma kahi mokuna i kapa ʻia "Pehea mākou e ulu ai i nā mea," wehewehe ʻo Gates i kona ʻoluʻolu me ka burger veggie toto (i ka ʻo ia ka mea hoʻopukapuka nui) a lana kona manaʻo ʻo nā burger-based burger a me nā iʻa pūnaewele ka hopena nui no ka hoʻololi i ke aniau. 

Pololei ʻo ia, ʻo ka neʻe ʻana mai kaʻiʻo i mahi ʻia i ka hale hana he mea nui ia no ke aniau. Akā he hopena paʻa ka Impossible Burger, a i ʻole he ala kūʻai wale ʻia e hoʻohuli i nā mea kanu i hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana nā huahana meaʻai pāloloAs Anna Lappe wehewehe, Nā Mea ʻai hiki ʻole "Ke hele nei i loko o ka GM soy," ʻaʻole wale ma ke ʻano o ka burger akā ʻo ke kumuhana o ka ʻo ka hoʻomau paʻa ʻana o ka ʻoihana.  

No 30 mau makahiki, ua hoʻohiki ka ʻoihana kemika i nā hua GMO e hoʻonui i nā hua, e hōʻemi i nā pesticides a hānai hānai ʻia ka honua, akā ʻaʻole naʻe pēlā. E like me kā Danny Hakim i hōʻike ai ma ka New York Times, ʻAʻole i hoʻohua nā hua GMO i nā hua i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi,  a hoʻohele lākou i ka hoʻohana i nā lāʻau make, ʻo ia hoʻi ka glyphosate, pili i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i waena o nā olakino ʻē aʻe a me nā pilikia kaiapuni. I ka lilo ʻana o ka mauʻu i mea ulu, ua ulu ka ʻoihana i nā ʻanoʻano me nā pale kemika hou. ʻO Bayer, no ka laʻana, ke hoʻouka nei i mua me nā hua GMO ʻenekinia e ola i nā mea kanu ʻelima.

Ua hoʻolaha aku nei ʻo Mekiko hoʻolālā e pāpā i ka lawe mai ʻana mai o GMO i ka palaoa, e haʻi nei i nā mea kanu "ʻaʻole makemake ʻia" a "ʻaʻole pono."

Ma ʻApelika Hema, ʻo kekahi o nā ʻāina ʻApelika e ʻae i ka mahi ʻana i nā mea kanu GMO, ʻoi aku 85% o ka maize a me ka soy ʻenekini, a ʻo ka hapa nui ua kāpīpī ʻia me ka glyphosate. mahiʻai, nā hui kaiaulu, nā alakaʻi kālai'āina a ke hāpai nei nā kauka i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka piʻi ʻana o nā helu maʻi ʻaʻai. A me food palekana ke piʻi nei hoʻi.  ʻO ka ʻike ʻo ʻApelika Hema me nā GMO ʻo “23 mau makahiki o ka holo pono ʻole ʻana, ka pohō o nā mea ola a me ka pōloli nui, "E like me ka ʻApelika Waena Center for Biodiversity.

ʻO ka ʻōmaʻomaʻo ʻōmaʻomaʻo no ʻApelika, wahi a ka mea hoʻokumu o ka hui ʻo Mariam Mayet, kahi "hopena make" e alakaʻi ana i "ke emi nei ke olakino o ka lepo, ka nalowale ʻana o nā meaola mahiʻai, ka nalowale ʻana o ka noho aliʻi mahiʻai, a me ka laka ʻana o nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi ʻōnaehana i hoʻolālā ʻole ʻia no ko lākou pono, akā no ka waiwai o nā hui multinational ʻĀkau nui. " 

"He mea nui ia i kēia manawa, i kēia manawa nui o ka mōʻaukala," wahi a ka ʻApelika Waena ʻAmelika no ka Biodiversity, "e hoʻololi mākou i ke ala hele, e hoʻopau ana i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana a hoʻololi i kahi ʻōnaehana mahiʻai a me ka meaʻai kūpono."  

Ke mālama nei ʻo Stacy Malkan i ka hoʻoponopono a me ka mea hoʻokumu o US Right to Know, kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi e kia ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i ka transparency no ke olakino lehulehu. E kau inoa no ka nūpepa Kākau e ʻike no nā mea hou hou.

 

Pepa ʻo Glyphosate: Ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe

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ʻO Glyphosate, kahi herbicide synthetic i patentia i ka 1974 e ka Hui Monsanto a i hana ʻia a kūʻai ʻia e nā hui he nui i nā huahana he haneli, ua pili pū ʻia me ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe. ʻO Glyphosate ka mea i ʻike nui ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hana i nā lāʻau make inoa ʻo Roundup-branded, a me ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana ʻia me "Roundup Ready" nā meaola i hoʻoponopono maoli ʻia (GMO).

ʻO ka tolerance Herbicide ka mea i hoʻomake nui ʻia me ka GMO i hana ʻia i loko o nā mea kanu meaʻai, me kekahi 90% o ke kulina a me 94% o nā soybeans i ka US i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make, e like me ka ʻikepili USDA. A 2017 like ʻike ʻia ua hoʻonui ʻia ka ʻike ʻana o ka poʻe ʻAmelika i ka glyphosate 500 pakeneka mai ka Roundup Ready GMO i hoʻolako ʻia i ka US ma 1996. Eia kekahi mau ʻike nui e pili ana i ka glyphosate:

Pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia

E like me ka Pepeluali Fepuari 2016, ʻo glyphosate ka ʻo ka pesticide i hoʻohana nui ʻia: "I ka US, ʻaʻohe pesticide i hele mai kahi kokoke i ka hoʻohana nui a hoʻolaha ākea." Loaʻa nā loaʻa ma:

  • Ua noi nā ʻAmelika i 1.8 miliona mau tona o glyphosate mai kona hoʻolauna ʻana i ka makahiki 1974.
  • Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa 9.4 miliona mau tona o ka kemika i pīpī ʻia ma nā kahua - lawa pono e kāpīpī kokoke i ka hapalua paona o Roundup ma kēlā me kēia ʻeka e mahi ʻia ana o ka honua.
  • Ma ke ao holoʻokoʻa, ua piʻi aʻe ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma kahi o 15 mau pā mai ka hoʻopuka ʻia ʻana o nā mea kanu ʻo Roundup Ready GMO.

Nā ʻōlelo mai nā ʻepekema a me nā lawelawe mālama olakino 

Nā hopohopo maʻi ʻaʻai

ʻO nā palapala ʻepekema a me nā hopena hoʻoholo e pili ana i nā glyphosate a me nā gicphosate-based herbicides e hōʻike nei i kahi hui o nā hopena, e hana ana i ka palekana o ka lāʻau make i kumuhana i hoʻopaʻapaʻa nui ʻia. 

Ma 2015, ka ʻO ka 'Oihana Kuleana International o ka World Health Organization no ka Research on Cancer (IARC) glyphosate ʻike ʻia e like me "carcinogenic paha i nā kānaka”Ma hope o ka loiloi ʻana i nā makahiki o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana a me ka loiloi ʻia e nā hoa ʻepekema. Ua ʻike ka kime o nā ʻepekema kūwaho he hui ma waena o glyphosate a me non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Nā keʻena US: I ka manawa o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana IARC, ke alakaʻi nei ka Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i kahi loiloi hoʻopaʻa inoa. ʻO ke Kōmike loiloi i ka maʻi ʻaʻai e EPA (CARC) hoʻopuka i kahi hōʻike i Kepakemapa 2016 Ke hoʻopau nei i ka glyphosate "ʻaʻole ia he carcinogenic i nā kānaka" ma nā lāʻau e pili ana i ke olakino kanaka. I Kēkēmapa 2016, ua hoʻākoakoa ka EPA i kahi Panel Aʻoaʻo ʻepekema e nānā i ka hōʻike; nā lālā i mahele ʻia i kā lākou loiloi i kā EPA hana, me kekahi mau mea i loaʻa i ka EPA i hala i ke ʻano o ka loiloi ʻana i kekahi noiʻi. Hoʻohui ʻia, ua hoʻoholo ke Keʻena ʻo EPA o ka noiʻi a me ke kūkulu ʻana i ka Office of Pesticide Programs a ka EPA ʻaʻole i hahai pono i nā ʻōmole kūpono i loko o kāna loiloi o glyphosate, a ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he mau kākoʻo e kākoʻo ana i kahi hōʻike "carinogen" a "a manaʻo" paha o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka carcinogenicity. Eia naʻe ka EPA hoʻopuka ʻia kahi hōʻike kikoʻī ma glyphosate i ka lāʻo Dekemaba 2017 e hoʻomau ana i ka paʻa ʻana ʻaʻole paha he carcinogenic ka kemikala. I ʻApelila 2019, ka EPA hōʻoia hou i kona kūlana ʻaʻole pilikia kēlā glyphosate i ke olakino lehulehu. Akā ma mua o kēlā mahina, ua hōʻike ka US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) he mau loulou ma waena o glyphosate a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Wahi a ka hōʻike kikoʻī mai ATSDR, "He nui nā noiʻi i hōʻike i nā lakio pōpilikia i ʻoi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi no nā hui ma waena o ka hōʻike glyphosate a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a i ʻole myeloma lehulehu." 

Ua hoʻopuka ka EPA i kahi Hoʻoholo Manaʻo Manaʻo Kākoʻo Kūmau i Ianuali 2020 me ka ʻike hou e pili ana i kona kūlana ma glyphosate. 

Hui PūʻAina: ka ʻO ka Mana palekana palekana Kai ʻEulopa a me ka Ka Hui Kūmole Europa ua ʻōlelo ʻaʻole paha he gākana kino ka glyphosate i kānaka. A Hōʻike 2017 e nā hui kaiapuni a me nā mea kūʻai aku i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i ka hilinaʻi kūpono ʻole o nā mea hoʻokele i ka noiʻi i kuhikuhi ʻia a hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana kemika. A 2019 like ua ʻike ʻo Kelemania Federal Institute no ka hōʻike loiloi ʻikepili ma glyphosate, ka mea i loaʻa ʻole kahi pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai, me nā ʻāpana o ka ʻōlelo plagiarized mai nā noi a Monsanto. I Pepeluali 2020, ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike ʻepekema 24 i waiho ʻia i nā luna hoʻomalu Kelemania e hōʻoia i ka palekana o glyphosate mai kahi keʻena nui Kelemania ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hoʻopunipuni a me nā hana hewa ʻē aʻe.

ʻO ka hui hui ʻana o WHO / FAO ma nā koena Pesticide i hoʻoholo i ka 2016 ʻaʻole hiki i kēlā glyphosate ke waiho i kahi makaʻi kanesa i nā kānaka mai ka hōʻike ʻana ma o ka papaʻai, akā ua hōʻino ʻia kēia ʻike e kipi o ka hoihoi hopohopo ma hope o ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o ka noho a me ka luna noho o ka hui i paʻa i nā kūlana alakaʻi me ka Ke KeʻenaʻEpekema Ola Ola International, kahi hui i kālā kālā ʻia e Monsanto a me kekahi o kāna hui lobbying.

Kaleponi OEHHA: Ma Malaki 28, 2017, ua hōʻoia ka Office of Protection Environmental Protection Agency o Kaleponi e hana ia hoʻohui glyphosate i ka Palapala Kauoha Kaleponi 65 papa inoa o nā kemika i ʻike ʻia e lilo ai ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto e pale i ka hana akā ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka hihia. I kekahi hihia ʻokoʻa, ua ʻike ka ʻaha ʻaʻole hiki i Kaleponi ke koi aku i nā ʻōlelo a ka maʻi ʻaʻai no nā huahana i loaʻa ka glyphosate. Ma Iune 12, 2018, ua hōʻole kahi ʻaha ʻĀpana o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ka noi a ka Loio Kuhina Kaleponi no ka ʻaha e noonoo hou i ka hoʻoholo. Ua ʻike ka ʻaha he hiki wale iā Kaleponi ke koi aku i ka haʻiʻōlelo kalepa e hōʻike ana i ka "ʻike maoli a me ka pili ʻole o ka ʻike," a ʻaʻole i hōʻoia ʻia ka ʻepekema e pili ana i ka carcinogenicity glyphosate.

Ke aʻo olakino mahiʻai: Ua loaʻa i kahi aupuni lōʻihi o US i kākoʻo ʻia e ka cohort prospective cohort no nā ʻohana mahiʻai ma Iowa a me North Carolina ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi pilina ma waena o ka hoʻohana glyphosate a me ka non-Hodgkin lymphoma, akā ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi "ma waena o nā mea noi i ka quartile hōʻike kiʻekiʻe loa, aia kekahi hoʻonui i ka makaʻu o ka myeloid leukemia (AML) i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea hoʻohana ʻole… ” i hoʻolaha ʻia i ka hopena o 2017.

ʻO nā noiʻi hou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā hopohopo olakino ʻē aʻe 

Cancer

Ka hoʻohaunaele Endocrine, ka momona a me nā hopohopo hānau 

ʻO ka maʻi maʻi 

  • ʻO kahi noi 2017 e pili ana i nā hōʻike glyphosate mau loa, haʻahaʻa loa maʻi maʻi ʻona ʻona ʻona ʻole i nāʻiole. Wahi a nā kānaka noiʻi, ʻo nā hopena "hōʻike ʻia ka ʻai mau ʻana o nā pae haʻahaʻa loa o kahi GBH formulate (Roundup), ma nā ʻano like glyphosate e like me ia, e pili ana i nā hoʻololi o ka proteome ate a me ka metabolome," nā biomarkers no NAFLD.

Hoʻohaunaele Microbiome 

  • November 2020 ka pepa i ka Pai no e hopohopo hōʻike e pili ana i ka 54 pākēneka o nā laha i ke kumu o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka i "hiki ke maʻalahi" i ka glyphosate. Me kahi "mahele nui" o nā koʻohune i loko o ka ʻōpū microbiome i maʻalahi ʻia i ka glyphosate, ʻo ka lawe ʻana o glyphosate "e loli loa i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ka microbiome ʻōpū kanaka," i ʻōlelo nā mea kākau i kā lākou pepa. 
  • A 2020 Nānā moʻokalaleo o nā hopena o glyphosate ma ka ʻōpū microbiome Panina ia, "ʻO ke koena glyphosate ma luna o ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke kumu i ka dysbiosis, no ka mea ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa o nā pathogens oportunistic i ka glyphosate ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka bacteria bacteria." Ke hoʻomau nei ka pepa, "ʻO Glyphosate kahi mea hoʻonāukiuki kūpilikiʻi loa i ka etiology o kekahi mau mokuʻāina e pili ana i ka dysbiosis, e like me ka maʻi celiac, ka maʻi ʻōpū a me ka maʻi hanu huhū. He hopena paha kā Glyphosate no ke olakino noʻonoʻo, e like me ka hopohopo a me ke kaumaha, ma o ka loli ʻana i ka microbiome ʻōpū.
  • Ua mālama ʻia kahi noi no ka ʻiole 2018 e ka Ramazzini Institute e hōʻike ana i nā hōʻike haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i Roundup ma nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he palekana loa ua hoʻololi i ka microbiota ʻōpū i kekahi o nā ʻīlio ʻiole.
  • Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe ma 2018 i ke kiʻekiʻe o nā glyphosate kiʻekiʻe i lawelawe ʻia i nā ʻiole i hoʻohaunaele i ka ʻōpū microbiota a hana i nā ʻano hopohopo a me ke kaumaha.

Nā hopena piʻina ʻino a me nā butterflies mōʻī

ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi kanesa

Ma mua o ka 42,000 poʻe i waiho i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē iā Monsanto Company (ʻo Bayer i kēia manawa) e ʻōlelo nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lāʻau make i Roundup i mea iā lākou a i ʻole nā ​​mea aloha e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin (NHL), a ua uhi ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia. Ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka hana ʻike, ua huli ʻo Monsanto i mau miliona o nā ʻaoʻao o nā moʻolelo kūloko. O mākou ke kau nei i kēia mau pepa Monsanto i ka wā e loaʻa ai. No nā nūhou a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i ke kānāwai e hoʻomau nei, e ʻike iā Carey Gillam's Pūnaewele Hoʻokolohua Roundup. ʻO nā hoʻokolokolo mua ʻekolu i pau i nā makana nui i nā mea hoʻopiʻi no ke kuleana a me nā pohō, me nā jure e hoʻoholo ana he mea kōkua nui ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele a Monsanto i mea e hoʻomohala iā NHL. Hoʻopiʻi ʻo Bayer i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo. 

Ka mana o Monsanto i ka noiʻi: I Malaki 2017, ua wehe ka luna kānāwai pekelala i kekahi o nā palapala Monsanto kūloko hāpai i nā nīnau hou e pili ana i kā Monsanto mana i ka hana EPA a pili i nā mea hoʻokele noiʻi e hilinaʻi ai. Hōʻike nā palapala i nā hoʻopiʻi lōʻihi a Monsanto e pili ana i ka palekana o glyphosate a me Roundup mai hilinaʻi pono i ka ʻepekema kani e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka ʻoihana, akā naʻe nā hana e hoʻopololei i ka ʻepekema

Nā ʻike hou aʻe e pili ana i ka hoʻopilikia ʻepekema

Ua hāʻawi ʻia nā ʻepekema ʻo Sri Lankan i kahi makana no ke kūʻokoʻa AAAS no ka noiʻi maʻi maʻi ʻōpū

Ua hāʻawi aku ka AAAS i ʻelua ʻepekema Lankan, ʻo Dr. ʻO Channa Jayasumana lāua ʻo Sarath Gunatilake, ka ʻO ka makana 2019 no ke kūʻokoʻa ʻepekema a me ke kuleana no kā lākou hana e "ʻimi i ka pilina ma waena o glyphosate a me nā maʻi puʻuwai maʻi ma lalo o nā pilikia." Ua hōʻike nā ʻepekema he hana nui ka glyphosate i ka lawe ʻana i nā metala kaumaha i nā puʻupaʻa o ka poʻe e inu ana i ka wai i hoʻohaumia ʻia, a hiki i ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi maʻi ma nā kaiāulu mahiʻai. ʻIke pepa i loko  ʻO SpringerPlus (2015), ʻO BMC Nefrology (2015), Ka Ola Ola (2015), International Journal of Environmental Research a me Health Health (2014). ʻO ka makana AAAS i hala hoʻokuʻuʻia ma waena o kahi hoʻoulu kūʻē kūʻē mai nā mea kōkua pesticide e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i ka hana a ka ʻepekema. Ma hope o ka loiloi, ʻo ka AAAS hoʻihoʻi hou i ka makana

Desiccation: kahi kumu hou aʻe o ka hōʻike papaʻai 

Hoʻohana kekahi mau mahiʻai i ka glyphosate ma nā mea kanu ʻole GMO e like me ka palaoa, ka bale, ka ʻoka, a me ka lihi e hoʻomaloʻo i ka hua i mua o ka ʻohi ʻana i mea e wikiwiki ai ka ʻohi. Kēia hana, ʻike ʻia ʻo desiccation, paha he kumu waiwai nui o ka hōʻike papaʻai i glyphosate.

ʻO Glyphosate i ka meaʻai: Huki ʻo US i kona mau wāwae i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana

Ua hoʻokuʻu mālie ka USDA i kahi hoʻolālā e hoʻomaka e hoʻāʻo i nā meaʻai no nā koena o glyphosate ma 2017. ʻO nā palapala kūloko kūloko i loaʻa ʻia e US Right to Know e hōʻike ana ua hoʻolālā ke keʻena e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana ma kahi o 300 mau laʻana o ka syrup kānana no glyphosate i ʻApelila 2017. Akā ua pepehi ka ʻoihana i ka papahana ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana. Ua hoʻomaka ka US Food and Drug Administration i kahi papahana hoʻāʻo palena palena i ka 2016, akā piha ka hana me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a me nā pilikia kūloko a ʻo ka papahana ka hoʻomaha ʻia i Kepakemapa 2016. Loaʻa i nā ʻoihana ʻelua i nā papahana e hoʻāʻo i kēlā me kēia makahiki i nā meaʻai no nā koena pesticide akā ua haʻalele pinepine lāua i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana no ka glyphosate.

Ma mua o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana, loaʻa kahi chemist o FDA pae weliweli o glyphosate i nā laʻana he nui o ka meli US, nā pae i kū ʻole i ke ʻenehana no ka mea ʻaʻohe ʻae i hoʻokumu ʻia no ka meli e ka EPA. Eia kahi recap o nā nūhou e pili ana i ka glyphosate i loaʻa i ka meaʻai.

Nā pesticides i kā mākou meaʻai: Aia i hea ka ʻike palekana?

Hōʻike kaʻikepili USDA mai 2016 i nā pae pesticide i hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma 85% o ʻoi aku ma mua o 10,000 mau meaʻai i laʻana, nā mea āpau mai nā ʻalalā i nā hua waina i nā pīni ʻōmaʻomaʻo. Wahi a ke aupuni ʻaʻohe mea iki e pili ana i ke ola olakino, akā ʻōlelo kekahi ʻepekema ʻaʻohe mea iki e kākoʻo ai i kēlā hoʻopiʻi. E nānā “Nā kemika i kā mākou meaʻai: Inā ʻaʻole palekana ʻo "palekana": ʻImi ʻepekema o ke koena pesticide i nā meaʻai e ulu; nīnau ʻia nā pale hoʻomalu, ”Na Carey Gillam (11/2018).

Ua pāpālua ʻo Gates Foundation i ka hoʻoili hewa ma Cornell e like me ke kāhea o nā alakaʻi ʻApelika no agroecology 

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Pili hōʻike: ʻO kā Gates Foundation ʻōuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo i ʻApelika (7.29.20)

ʻO ka Hoʻolālā Pili a me Melinda Gates Foundation makana hou ʻia he $ 10 miliona i ka pule i hala i ka hakakā ʻo Cornell Alliance no Science, a ka hoʻolauna kūkā kamaʻilio ʻana ma Cornell e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā hoa ma ʻApelika a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe e hoʻolaha a pale aku i nā meaʻai me nā genetically engineered, nā mea kanu a me nā mahiʻai. Hāʻawi ka hāʻawi hou i nā hāʻawi BMGF i ka hui i $ 22 miliona.

Ua hele mai ka hoʻopukapuka PR i kahi manawa i lalo o ka ahi o ka Gates Foundation no ka hoʻolilo ʻana i mau piliona kālā ma nā hoʻolālā hoʻomohala mahiʻai ma ʻApelika i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka poʻe loiloi e hoʻokomo i nā ʻano mahiʻai e pono ai nā ʻoihana ma mua o ka poʻe. 

Hoʻopiʻi nā alakaʻi hilinaʻi i ka Gates Foundation 

Ma Kepakemapa 10, ua alakaʻi ʻia nā alakaʻi manaʻoʻiʻo ma ʻApelika palapala wehe i ka Gates Foundation e noi ana iā ia e nānā hou i kāna mau hana hāʻawi hāʻawi no ʻApelika. 

"ʻOiai mākou e mahalo nei i ka Bill a me Melinda Gates Foundation no kāna kūpaʻa i ka pale ʻana i ka palekana o ka meaʻai, a me ka ʻae ʻana i ke kōkua kōkua kanaka a me nā kōkua i hoʻolako ʻia i nā aupuni o kā mākou ʻāina, kākau mākou no ka hopohopo nui no ke kākoʻo o ka Gates Foundation no ka hoʻonui ʻana o ke hoʻonui nei i ka mahiʻai pālākiō ʻoihana i ka ulia pōpilikia kanaka, "wahi a ka leka hōʻailona i hoʻohui ʻia e ka Ke Kula Kaiapuni ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ʻĀina Hema (SAFCEI).  

Kuhi ka leka i ka Alakaʻi alakaʻi ʻia ʻo Gates no kahi Green Revolution (AGRA) no kāna kākoʻo "pilikia nui" o nā ʻōnaehana hua kalepa i mālama ʻia e nā ʻoihana nui, ke kākoʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hou ʻana i nā kānāwai hua e hoʻomalu i nā hua i hōʻoiaʻiʻo ʻia a hana hewa i nā hua i hōʻoia ʻole ʻia, a me kāna Kākoʻo i nā mea kūʻai hua laha e hāʻawi i ka ʻōlelo aʻo e pili ana i nā huahana ʻoihana ma mua o nā lawelawe ʻoihana lehulehu e pono ai. 

Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi nūpepa nui loa o Uganda i kēlā me kēia lā e pili ana i ka hana hewa a AGRA

"Nonoi aku mākou i ka Gates Foundation a me AGRA e hoʻōki i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā ʻenehana i kūleʻa ʻole a me nā hana hoʻonui lōʻihi a hoʻomaka i ka hoʻolohe ʻana i nā mahiʻai e hoʻomohala nei i nā hopena kūpono no kā lākou pōʻaiapili," wahi a nā alakaʻi o ka manaʻoʻiʻo.

Me nā piliona kālā i lilo a me 14 mau makahiki o ka hoʻohiki, ʻaʻole i hoʻokō ʻo AGRA i kāna mau pahuhopu o ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka ilihune a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā loaʻa kālā no nā mahiʻai liʻiliʻi, e like me ka Hōʻike ʻo Iulai i nā ʻōlelo hoʻohiki wahaheʻe. Ua alakaʻi ʻia ka noiʻi e kahi hui ʻana o nā hui ʻApelika a me Kelemania a hui pū me ka ʻikepili mai a pepa keʻokeʻo hou paʻi ʻia e Tufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

ʻAʻole pane ʻo ka Gates Foundation i nā noi no ka manaʻo no kēia ʻatikala akā i ʻōlelo ʻia i kahi leka uila ma mua, "Kākoʻo mākou i nā hui e like me AGRA no ka mea hui pū lākou me nā ʻāina e kōkua iā lākou e hoʻokō i nā mea nui a me nā kulekele i loko o kā lākou papa hana hoʻomohala ʻāina."

Nā ʻōlelo hoʻohiki e nalo ana o ka ʻōuli ʻōmaʻomaʻo 

Hoʻomaka ʻia ma 2006 e nā Gates a me nā Rockefeller Foundation, ua hoʻohiki ʻo AGRA e hoʻolālua i nā hua a me nā loaʻa no 30 miliona mau home mahiʻai ma ʻApelika e 2020. Akā ua wehe mālie ka hui i kēlā mau pahu hopu mai kāna pūnaewele i kekahi manawa i ka makahiki i hala. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Luna Nui o AGRA ʻo Andrew Cox ma o ka leka uila ʻaʻole i hoʻemi ka hui i kāna makemake akā ke hoʻomaʻemaʻe nei i kāna mau ala a me kona noʻonoʻo e pili ana i nā metric. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia e hana ana ʻo AGRA i kahi loiloi piha i nā hopena i kēia makahiki e hiki mai ana. 

Ua hōʻole ʻo AGRA e hāʻawi i ka ʻikepili a pane paha i nā nīnau nui mai nā mea noiʻi o ka hōʻike wahaheʻe False, haʻi nā mea kākau. ʻO nā Lunamakaʻāinana mai BIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia a me HOMEF Nigeria i hoʻouna aku i leka iā Cox Sept. 7 ke noi nei i kahi pane i kā lākou noiʻi noiʻi. ʻO Cox pane ʻo Sept. 15 me ka mea a kekahi kānaka noiʻi i wehewehe ai ma ke ʻano he "ʻekolu mau ʻaoʻao o PR." (ʻIke piha nā leka ma aneʻi me ka pane o BIBA's ʻOkakopa 7.)

"Pono nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi pane nui mai AGRA," i ʻōlelo ʻia ka leka iā Cox mai Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima a me Ngimmo Bassay.  "Pēlā nō nā mea kōkua o ka lehulehu o AGRA, ka mea e like me ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi hoʻihoʻi ʻilihune loa i kā lākou hoʻokomo kālā. Pono nō hoʻi nā aupuni ʻApelika e hāʻawi i kahi moʻohelu kālā maopopo no nā hopena o kā lākou waihona kālā ponoʻī e kākoʻo ana i nā papahana Green Revolution. "

Hoʻolilo nā aupuni ʻApelika ma kahi o $ 1 biliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki ma nā kōkua kālā e kākoʻo i nā ʻano hua pāʻoihana a me nā mahiʻai. I loko nō naʻe o nā hoʻopukapuka nui i loaʻa nā huahana mahiʻai, ua hoʻonui ka pōloli i kanakolu pākēneka i loko o nā makahiki AGRA, e like me ka hōʻike wahaheʻe.

He mana koʻikoʻi ko Gates Foundation hoʻopukapuka i ke ʻano o ka ʻōnaehana meaʻai i ʻApelika, e like me kahi Iune hōʻike mai ka International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Ua hōʻike ka hui i nā piliona kālā ma nā hāʻawi kālā Gates Foundation i hoʻoulu i ka mahiʻai ʻoihana i ʻApelika a kāohi i nā hoʻopukapuka i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūpono a kaulike hoʻi.  

"Nānā ʻo BMGF no ka hoʻihoʻi wikiwiki, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma ka hoʻopukapuka, a no laila makemake i nā pahuhopu, nā ʻenehana ʻenehana," i ʻōlelo ʻo IPES.

Nā mea hana kūloko a me nā kaulahao meaʻai pōkole 

ʻO ke kūkulu ʻana o ka mahiʻai mahiʻai ʻo Gates Foundation no ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mākeke no nā mea kanu ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka hoʻokomo nui e waiho ana i ka mea kūlike ʻole me ka noʻonoʻo ʻana e pili ana pehea e hana pono ai i nā kūlana kūpikipiki i hana ʻia e nā māhoe ʻelua o ka hoʻololi o ke aniau a me ka pandov Covid-19.

I Kepakemapa, ka Ua ʻōlelo ʻo UN Food and Agriculture Organization pono ia e kūkulu i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūloko hou aʻe e like me ka maʻi pandemia "i hoʻokau i nā ʻōnaehana meaʻai kūloko i nā pilikia ma nā kaulaʻai holoʻokoʻa." Ua hōʻike ka hōʻike i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka maʻi ahulau a me nā haʻawina mai kahi ana honua i mālama ʻia ma ʻApelila a Mei i huki ʻia ai nā 860 pane. 

"ʻO ka leka maopopo, i mea e pale aku ai i nā haʻalulu e like me COVID-19, nā kūlanakauhale me nā kūlana o ka nohona a me ka agroclimatic kūpono e pono ai e hoʻohana i nā kulekele a me nā papahana e hoʻoikaika i nā mea hana kūloko e ulu i nā meaʻai, a paipai i nā kaulahao pōkole e hiki ai i nā kamaʻāina kūlanakauhale. e kiʻi i nā huahana meaʻai, "i pau ai ka hōʻike. "Pono nā kūlanakauhale e hoʻokaʻawale i kā lākou lako meaʻai a me nā kumuwaiwai, e hoʻoikaika ana i nā kumuwaiwai kūloko i kahi e hiki ai, akā me ka hoʻopau ʻole ʻana i nā lako aupuni a me ka honua."

ʻOiai ke hoʻoweliweli nei ka maʻi ahulau i nā kaiāulu mahiʻai e hakakā nei me ka hoʻololi i ke aniau, aia ʻo ʻApelika ma ke alahaka, kākau ʻo Million Belay, ka mea hoʻonohonoho o ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ʻAmelika, a ʻo Timothy Wise, ka mea noiʻi alakaʻi o ka anamanaʻo Tufts o AGRA, i kahi Sepatemaba 23 op-ed. "E hoʻomau anei kona poʻe a me ko lākou aupuni i ka hoʻāʻo e hana kope i nā hana mahiʻai ʻenehana e hoʻolauna ʻia e nā ʻāina kūkulu? A i ʻole e neʻe wiwo ʻole i ka wā e maopopo ʻole ana, e ʻapo ana i ka mahiʻai kaiaola? "

Ua wehewehe ʻo Belay lāua ʻo Wise i kekahi mau nūhou maikaʻi mai ka noiʻi hou ʻana; "ʻElua o nā ʻāina AGRA ʻekolu i hōʻemi i ka helu a me ka mahele o ka poʻe ʻai ʻole - ʻo ʻAitiopa a me Mali - i hana ʻē aʻe ma muli o nā kulekele e kākoʻo ana i ka mahiʻai kaiaola."

ʻO ka moʻolelo kūleʻa nui loa, ʻo Mali, ua ʻike i ka hāʻule ʻana o ka pōloli mai ka 14% a i ka 5% mai ka 2006. Wahi a kahi hihia hihia i ka Hōʻike hoʻohiki wahaheʻe, "ʻAʻole hiki mai ka holomua ma muli o ka AGRA akā no ka mea ua kūʻē ke aupuni a me nā hui o nā mahiʻai i kāna hoʻokō ʻana," kākau ʻo Belay lāua ʻo Wise, e kuhikuhi ana i nā kānāwai ʻāina a me nā hua e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i nā pono o nā mahiʻai e koho i kā lākou mea kanu a me nā hana mahiʻai, a me nā papahana aupuni paipai ʻaʻole wale i ka maize akā ʻo nā ʻano mea kanu meaʻai like ʻole.

"ʻO ka manawa kēia no nā aupuni ʻApelika e hoʻi i hope mai ka hala ʻole ʻana o Green Revolution a pakuhi i kahi ʻōnaehana meaʻai hou e mahalo i nā moʻomeheu kūloko a me nā kaiāulu e ka paipai ʻana i ka mahiʻai haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa," i kākau lākou. 

Ke pāpālua nei i ka hoʻolaha PR i noho ʻia ma Cornell 

Ke kūʻē nei i kēia kāʻei kua, ke pāpālua nei ka Gates Foundation i kāna hoʻopukapuka kālā ma ka Cornell Alliance for Science (CAS), kahi hoʻolaha pili lehulehu i hoʻomaka ʻia ma 2014 me kahi hāʻawi Gates a hoʻohiki e "hoʻopau i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa" a puni GMO. Me ka $ 10 miliona hou, Hoʻolālā ʻo CAS e hoʻonui i kona nānā ʻana "E pale aku ai i nā kumumanaʻo kipi a me nā hoʻolaha disinformation e kāohi ana i ka holomua o ka aniau, ka biology synthetic, nā hana mahiʻai." 

Akā ʻo ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema ua lilo i polarizing ikaika a me kahi kumu o ka misinformation e like me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i nā poʻe a puni ka honua e paipai a me ka lobby no nā mea kanu i hana ʻia i ko lākou ʻāina home, a he hapa nui o lākou ma ʻApelika. 

Ua kāhea aku kekahi mau kālaiʻike, nā pūʻulu meaʻai a me nā loea loea i ka hui pololei ʻole a hoʻopunipuni hoʻi i ka leka ʻana. ʻO nā hui kaiaulu e hana nei e hoʻoponopono i nā pesticides a me biosafety ua hoʻopiʻi iā CAS o e hoʻohana nei i nā hana hoʻomāinoino ma Hawaii a ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mahiʻai ma ʻApelika i kāna hoʻolaha paipai hōʻeuʻeu a me nā hoʻolaha lobby.  

A Hōʻikeʻo 30 i ka lā Iulai na Mark Lynas, kahi kipa ʻana iā Cornell e hana ana no CAS, hoʻomālamalama i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ma o ka leka ʻana o ka hui. Ke kuhikuhi nei i kahi mea i hala iho nei hōʻike pākuʻina ma ka mālama ʻana i ka mahiʻai, i ʻōlelo ʻo Lynas,  "Pilikia ka agro-ecology i ka hōʻino ʻana i ka poʻe ʻilihune a hōʻemi hoʻi i ke kaulike kāne ma ʻApelika." Ua kālailai nui ʻia kāna kālailai e nā poʻe loea o ke kula.

ʻO Marc Corbeels, ka agronomist nāna i kākau i ka meta-analysis, i ʻōlelo ʻia ua hana ʻia ka ʻatikala.kahili laulaha. ” Ua wehewehe nā kālaiʻike ʻē aʻe i ka ʻatikala a Lynas ma ke ʻano “kīnā ʻole, ""hohonu unserious, ""demagogic a me ka ʻepekema ʻole, "Kahi ʻōlelo hewa hewa e lele i"hopena hopena hihiu, "A “Hoʻohilahila no kekahi e makemake e koi he ʻepekema ʻo ia. ”

ʻO ka mea kākau e hoʻokuʻu houʻia, i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Marci Branski, kahi loea ma mua o ke aniau o USDA ʻO Marcus Taylor, he kālaimeaola kālaiʻāina ma ke Kula Nui ʻo Queen.

Hoopaapaa ka 'agroecology hoʻomehana

Ua ala hou ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa i kēia pule ma luna o kahi webinar CAS e hoʻokipa nei Poaha ʻOkakopa 1 ma ke kumuhana o ka agroecology. Ke kuhikuhi nei i nā hopohopo ʻo ka hui ma Cornell-hoʻokumu "ʻaʻole lawa kūpono e komo i kahi hoʻopaʻapaʻa wehe ʻole", ua haʻalele ʻelua mau loea ʻōnaehana meaʻai mai ka webinar ma mua o kēia pule.

Ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema ʻelua ua ʻae lāua e komo i ka webinar ma hope o ka ʻike ʻana i ka inoa o kekahi i waena o nā panela. "Ua lawa ia na mākou ʻelua e hilinaʻi pū i ka hui ma hope o ka hanana," i kākau ai Pablo Tittonell, PhD, ʻEpekema ʻImi Nui ma Argentina's National Council for Science and Technology (CONICET) a ʻO Sieglinde Snapp, PhD, Polofesa o ka Honua a me Cropping Systems Ecology ma ke Kulanui Mokuʻāina ʻo Michigan, i ka luna moderator ʻo Joan Conrow, hoʻoponopono o CAS 

"Akā ʻo ka heluhelu ʻana i kekahi o nā blog a me nā ʻāpana manaʻo i hoʻopuka ʻia e ka Alliance, nā paʻi a nā panela ʻē aʻe, e aʻo e pili ana i nā hoʻopiʻi kūpaʻa ʻole ʻole. kū'ē i ka agroecology, ka push ideologically push no kekahi ʻenehana, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. ua hoʻoholo mākou ʻaʻole lawa ka koʻikoʻi o kēia wahi e komo ai i kahi ākea, kūlike ʻole, kūkulu a, ʻo ka mea nui loa, ʻike maikaʻi ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema, "kākau ʻo Tittonell lāua ʻo Snapp i Conrow.

"No laila ua haʻalele mākou i kēia hoʻopaʻapaʻa." ʻAʻole i pane ʻo Conrow i nā noi no ka manaʻo.

 E hele i mua ka pūnaewele pūnaewele ʻO Nassib Mugwanya, he haumāna alakaʻi alakaʻi honua ma CAS 2015 a he haumāna kauka laeoʻo ma ke Kulanui ʻo North Carolina State, ka mea i hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hōʻeha kūpono ʻole i ka agroecology. I ka a 2019 kikokikona no ka Breakthrough Institute, hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo Mugwanya, "ʻaʻole hiki i nā hana mahiʻai kuʻuna ke hoʻololi i ka mahiʻai ʻApelika." 

Hōʻike ka ʻatikala i ka leka ʻana o ka ʻoihana biotech ʻoihana maʻamau: e hōʻike nei i nā hua GMO ma ke ʻano he "ʻepekema" "e pena ana i" nā ʻano ʻē aʻe o ka hoʻomohala ʻana ma ke ʻano he "anti-science," kumu ʻole a weliweli hoʻi, " mamuli o ke kaanaki e ka Alakaʻi kaiāulu i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Seattle no Global Justice.

"Kaulike nui ʻia i loko o ka ʻatikala," i ʻōlelo ai ka hui, "he hoʻohana ikaika o nā metaphors (e laʻa me ka agroecology i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā paʻa lima), nā laulaha ʻana, ka haʻalele ʻana i ka ʻike a me nā hewa kūpono he nui."

Me Tittonell lāua ʻo Snapp i ka papa inoa ma ka webinar o ka Pōʻalima, e hui pū ʻia ʻo Mugwanya e Pamela Ronald, he polofesa no ke ʻano lāʻau lāʻau ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, ʻo Davis, ka mea nāna ka nā hui i nā pūʻulu pesticide ʻoihana mua, a ʻO Frédéric Baudron, ʻepekema ʻepekema ma ka International Maize and Wheat hoʻomaikaʻi Center (CIMMYT), a Gates Pūʻulu hoʻokumu kālā. 

Ke noi nei i kahi 'hakakā maikaʻi'

Ua ʻike ʻo Mariam Mayet, ka luna hoʻomalu o ka Center for Biodiversity o ʻApelika, i ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o nā hoʻolaha PR ma ke ʻano he "hōʻike o ka hopohopo" "ʻaʻole hiki ke loaʻa pololei ma ka ʻāina nui." 

Loaʻa i kāna hui no nā makahiki e kākau ana "Nā hana e hoʻolaha i ka Green Revolution ma ʻApelika, a me nā hopena make e alakaʻi ia i: ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi o ke olakino o ka lepo, ka nalowale ʻana o nā meaola mahiʻai, ka nalowale ʻana o ka noho aliʻi mahiʻai, a me ka laka ʻana o nā mahiʻai ʻApelika i kahi ʻōnaehana i hoʻolālā ʻole ʻia no kā lākou pono , akā no nā waiwai o ka hapa nui o nā ʻoihana multinational ʻĀkau. "

ʻO ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema e pono e noho aliʻi i loko, wahi a Mayet i kahi webinar ʻAukake e pili ana i ka mana o ka Gates Foundation ma ʻApelika, “no ka hewa o ka ʻike hewa (a) ke ʻano o kā lākou disingenuous a me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole. Nīnau akula ʻo ia, "No ke aha ʻoe e hakakā ʻole ai me mākou?"

ʻO Stacy Malkan ka mea hoʻokumu a reporter no US Right to Know, kahi hui noiʻi noiʻi nonprofit e kia ana i nā pilikia olakino lehulehu. ʻO ia ka mea kākau o ka puke 2007, "ʻAʻole wale he helehelena nani: ka ʻaoʻao maikaʻi ʻole o ka ʻOihana Uʻi." E hāhai iā ia ma Twitter @StacyMalkan 

ʻO Cargill's GMO Stevia Hoodwinks Mea Kūʻai

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ʻO kā Cargill meaʻai āpau o ka honua hoʻonui i ka hana pālākiō ʻoihana o kāna mea hana ʻenekinia genetically, EverSweet, i kahi hale hana hou he $ 50 miliona i hoʻomaka i ka hana i kēia pule ma Blair, Nebraska. E "hoʻohua ana ka mea kanu i ka EverSweet e hoʻonanea ai i mau miliona o nā ʻōmole / kēpau o nā mea inu momona a i ʻole nā ​​lawelawe ʻana o ka yogurt i kēlā me kēia mahina," e like me ka mea haʻi ʻōlelo a Cargill. 

ʻO kā Cargill mea kanu stevia GMO hou

Ke kūʻai aku nei ʻo Cargill i kāna stevia pani hou ma ke ʻano he “hana-ʻole. ” He aha kēlā manaʻo? Nā mea kūʻai mai i kaomi ma ka loulou ʻia i ka paʻi paʻi ʻaʻole e loaʻa kahi pane pololei. Wili ka ʻaoʻao pūnaewele iā ia iho i nā puhaka e hoʻāʻo nei e wehewehe i ke kaʻina hana hou, e pili ana i ka hū genetically engineering e hoʻolilo i nā mole kō i loko o kahi mea e mimike ai i ka ʻono o stevia, ma ke ʻano he "kenekulia makahiki" - me ka ʻōlelo ʻole o ka ʻenekinia a me ka genetika nā meaola (GMO) i hoʻohana ʻia e hana i ka huahana. 

Cargill haʻi ʻia i ka Star Tribune ʻaʻole ia e mākeke iā EverSweet ma ke ʻano he "kūlohelohe" - no laila "non-artipisyal" ia. ʻAʻole pau ka subterfuge ma laila. 

ʻO Cargill, ka mea i kapa ʻia e ka hui kaiaulu o mua ʻo Kongres Henry Waxman ka inoa “ʻoihana ʻoi loa o ka honua"I ka makahiki 2019 no (ma waena o nā mea ʻē aʻe) kona" koi pinepine ʻana i ke kū ʻana i ke ala o ka holomua o ka honua i ka hoʻomau ʻana, "nā mākeke EverSweet ma ke ʻano he" sustainable "i hana ʻia. ʻO kēlā koi, e like me kā mākou i hōʻike ai i 2017 Huffington Post ʻatikala, kuke ʻia e nā mea hoʻolālā PR i hāʻawi ʻia i ka hana pehea e hana ai i nā mea hana i hana ʻia me ka vat i mea maikaʻi i nā mea kūʻai e koi nei i nā meaʻai maoli, nā meaʻai maoli me nā lepili maʻalahi.

ʻO nā ʻoihana a me nā mea hoʻopukapuka me kā lākou mau hiʻohiʻona i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka stevia neʻe - a me nā waiwai nui ʻē aʻe nā mea kanu a me nā mea ʻala - ma nā mahiʻai a i loko o nā hale hōʻikeʻike i hui ʻia i a Kau kauā 2014 e kūkākūkā pehea e kūʻai aku ai i kēia manaʻo i nā mea kūʻai. Paipai nā mea hoʻolālā PR i ka hālāwai e hōʻalo i nā huaʻōlelo e like me ka "synthetic biology" a me ka "engineering engineering" (weliweli loa, hoʻi i ka backlash), a ua manaʻo e hele me nā ʻano kikoʻī e like me "fermentation i loaʻa" a me "kūlike kūlike."  Ua paipai lākou i ka nānā ʻana i nā mea kūkala nūhou i nā moʻolelo o ka manaʻolana a me ka hoʻohiki, a me ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻoulu mea ʻai "me he mea lā ke hele nei mākou āpau ma lalo o ka hae hoʻokahi" no ka hoʻomau ʻana i ka meaʻai, ka mikiʻala a me ka mana kai.

ʻO nā ʻoihana a me nā mea kūʻai aku e mālama pono i kēlā mau manaʻo e kūpono ke nānā ma hope o ka hype. I ke kino o Cargill, “sustainable” ʻo Eversweet no ka mea hoʻoneʻe ia i ka hana mai ka ʻāina. Akā ʻaʻole maoli ia; o ka hui $ 50 miliona hou “kahi hale fermentation,” aia ma ka puʻuwai o Mākaukau GMO Roundup ʻāina kulina, e hilinaʻi ʻia ia mau hua kanu pesticide-sprayed - a i ʻole kekahi kumu kō i hoʻoulu ʻia ma ka ʻāina - e hānai i ka hū i kāna mau ipu e hana iā EverSweet. Hoʻohana kāna hoʻolaha paʻi i nā buzzwords o ka hoʻomau ʻana akā ʻaʻole hāʻawi i nā kikoʻī e kākoʻo i nā hoʻopiʻi. Ua kiʻi aku mākou i ka ʻoihana e noi no nā kikoʻī hou aʻe; ʻaʻohe pane akā e hoʻohui mākou i nā ʻōlelo i loaʻa iā mākou. 

I kēia manawa, ʻo ka mahiʻai ma nā ʻāina e like me Paraguay e hoʻomau nei i ka mahiʻai stevia no nā hanauna, a noho maikaʻi lākou i ka mahi ʻana i ka hua. hōʻike i ka hui ETC. ʻO ka Forum Economic Economic kaulana i kahi ana o nā pilikia kūpilikiʻi e pili ana i "ka hana hou ʻana o nā koho ʻē aʻe, synthetic i nā mea kūʻai aku waiwai nui… hiki ke hoʻopau koke i nā ʻoihana waiwai nāwaliwali e ka lawe ʻana i kahi kumu waiwai e hilinaʻi ai nā mahiʻai." Eia kekahi, ua paipai ikaika ʻia nā mahiʻai ʻilihuna e hoʻopukapuka ma stevia, no ka mea, ʻo ka mahi ʻana hiki ke kōkua i ka mālama ʻana i nā kaiaolaola palupalu a kū hoʻokahi. 

No nā mea kūʻai aku i ka US, ke paʻakikī nei e hōʻalo i nā mea ʻai ʻenekinia hou ke hele mālie nei i ko lākou ala i nā hale kūʻai me ka ʻole o ka lepili pono. ʻO nā mea ʻona a i ʻole GMO ʻole i hōʻoia ʻia e mau ana nā kūlana ʻelua i hana ʻia e hōʻalo i ka biology synthetic a me nā mea hana ʻenekini.

ʻO Cargill, ʻo ia ka ʻoihana pilikino nui ʻia ma ka US, ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā Koch Industries kaulana, a ke kīloi nei kona kapuwai a puni ka honua, e like me ka mea i haʻi mua ʻia e ka ʻahaʻolelo ʻo Waxman, ka luna o ke kaua Mighty Earth, i ko lākou Iulai. hōʻike hōʻike iā Cargill ka ʻoihana ʻoi loa o ka Honua. "ʻIke mākou he kuleana koʻikoʻi kēia. Auē, auwe, nā hui he nui i hiki ke hoʻokūkū i kēia hanohano kānalua. Akā hāʻawi kēia hōʻike i nā hōʻike ākea a me ka ikaika e kākoʻo iā ia ... Ua ʻike maka wau i ka hopena ʻino o nā ʻoihana i lawe ʻole i kā lākou loina me lākou e hana. Akā kū ʻo Cargill. ”

Pākuʻi hou aku: 

Mākaukau paha ʻoe no ka nalu hou o nā meaʻai hana ʻenekini? na Stacy Malkan, makasina CommonGround (3.16.2018)

E hui me ka Stevia Hou! Nā GMO 2.0 e kāhiko ʻia no ka kūleʻa, na Stacy Malkan, Huffington Post (6.15.2017)

ʻO kahi bet maikaʻi ʻole ma ka biology synthetic: Ke hoʻokūkū nei ʻo Cargill's Eversweet me nā mahiʻai a me nā mea kūʻai hewa hewa, Pūʻulu ETC (11.11.2015)  

Hoʻomaʻamaʻa ka ʻoihana Biotech i ka hoʻolālā PR e kiʻi iā mākou e ale i ka meaʻai biology synthetic, na Dana Perls, Nā Hoa o ka Honua (5.22.2014)

Hōʻike Hōʻailona Gene i nā Mishaps Pono no ka nānā ʻo FDA

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ʻO ka ʻimi a kahi hui Midwestern e ʻenekini genetically i nā bipi wahine waiū mua ʻole o ka honua i hōʻeha i kēia kauwela i ka wā i loaʻa ai i ka US Food and Drug Administration nā genes hou aʻe i nā bipi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma laila. ʻO nā hewa i loaʻa iā FDA - akā ua hala ka hui - e hōʻike i ka mea nui o ka nānā ʻana o ke aupuni i nā meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia i nā manawa i ka wā e hoʻokau nei nā hui ʻoihana i ka hana.

Nā bipi me nā pepeiaohao: kahi hana no ka hoʻoponopono gen?

ʻO nā mea hana puaʻa, no ka laʻana, "e ʻōlelo ke aupuni pekelala e hoʻomāmā i nā rula e pili ana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hoʻoponopono gen i nā holoholona," i ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻolohi ana i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala. ka Wall Street Journal i hōʻike ʻia i ka pule i hala. Makemake nā mea hana e neʻe ka nānā ʻana mai ka FDA a i ka US Department of Agriculture, kahi ʻae ʻae i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono gen e kanu a kūʻai aku me ka nānā ʻole o ka hoʻokele.

Akā hoʻolālā ka FDA e koi aku i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā meaʻai meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻāno, e like me ka hana ʻana no nā lāʻau hou. E hōʻoia nā rula i ka palekana o nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe no nā holoholona a me nā mea kūʻai aku, a kōkua i nā mea kūʻai aku e ʻoluʻolu me ka ʻenehana, i haʻi ʻia e kahi haʻi ʻōlelo a ka FDA i ka Pai.

Ka loaʻa ʻana o ka FDA o nā gen keu i loko o ka bipi ʻole, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i hōʻike ʻia nā pilikia e pili ana kūpuna hou ʻenehana ʻenehana, hoʻoikaika i ka hihia no ka nānā aupuni ʻana, a loaʻa i nā hui ʻoihana e ʻākoakoa e kāohi i ka pili pili aupuni.

Ua hala nā gen genes Recombinetics

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā mea noiʻi ma ka hui ʻo Minnesota Recombinetics, Inc. i kahi pepa 2016 ua hana lākou i nā bipi i koho mua ʻia (hornless) me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi ʻenehana hoʻoponopono gen i kapa ʻia ʻo TALENS e hoʻololi i ke kaʻina o nā ʻāpana i nā bipi. Ua hōʻike ka poʻe noiʻi ʻaʻole loaʻa nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. Ua kākau lākou, "manuahi kā mākou holoholona i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu."

Akā i ka manawa i nānā hou ai nā mea noiʻi o FDA i ka DNA i kēia kauwela, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kaʻina genome i kau ʻia ma ka pūnaewele e Recombinetics, ua loaʻa iā lākou nā hopena hopena ʻole. ʻElua mau bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia i hāpai i nā kope o ka plasmid bacterial holoʻokoʻa i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hoʻoponopono, me nā genes ʻelua antibiotic resistence i loko o kēlā me kēia cell o ko lākou kino. ʻAʻole hana maʻamau nā gen i ka pipi.

Hāʻawi kēia "hoʻopiʻi i nā pilikia o ka biosafety i hāʻawi ʻia aia ka ikaika nui o ka honua e kaupalena i ka hoʻolaha ʻana o nā ʻāpana e hāʻawi ana i ka pale antibiotic," kākau ʻo Jonathan Latham, PhD, i Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Hāpai pū kekahi i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hemahema o ka pololei o nā hana hoʻoponopono gen a hāʻawi i ke kaupaona i nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka nānā aupuni. Ua hoʻopau ʻia nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohua i nā bipi kau ʻole ma Brazil ma hope o ka hopena o nā hopena i waho i ka hopena, ua hōʻike ʻo Wired, no ka mea hiki i nā mea hoʻokele ma laila noonoo hou ʻole i nā bipi non-GMO.

Ua ʻōlelo nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo FDA kā lākou loaʻa "kahi mea nui i kahi makapō hiki ke loaʻa i nā ʻano loiloi hoʻoponopono genome maʻamau," a ʻōlelo lākou manaʻo lākou he "hōʻike ʻole ʻia a nānā ʻole ʻia paha" nā hewa hoʻopili "i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻoponopono genome. Ua ʻike lākou i kekahi mau laʻana ʻē aʻe o nā hoʻololi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia - a 2017 hoʻopaʻa ʻiole i loaʻa nā hoʻopau holoi a me nā hoʻokomo ʻana i loko o ka genome iole i hoʻoponopono ʻia, a he 2018 like i hōʻike i ka hōʻino ʻia o DNA i nā laina pūnaewele kanaka.

No laila pehea i hala ai nā mea noiʻi Recombinetics i ka hoʻohui ʻole ʻana o DNA?

“ʻAʻole mākou i nānā”

"ʻAʻole ia he mea i manaʻo ʻia, a ʻaʻole mākou i ʻimi," wahi a Tad Sonstegard, ka CEO o Recombinetics 'ahupuaʻa ʻo Acceligen, e like me MIT Technology Review. ʻO kahi kikoʻī piha hou "pono ​​e hana ʻia," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. ʻO ka nūpepa Wired Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Sonstegard e wehewehe ana, “ʻAʻole mākou e ʻimi ana i nā hoʻohui plasmid. Loaʻa iā mākou. "

He wahi maopopo ia e nānā ai, wahi a Michael Hansen, PhD, ʻepekema ʻlelo, Advocacy, o Consumers Reports. "Inā i kiʻi ʻia kekahi DNA mai ka plasmid bacterial i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hana hoʻoponopono a lawe ʻia kekahi o nā mea mua āu e ʻimi ai inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," i ʻōlelo ʻo Hansen.

I kona manaʻo, ʻo kaʻoiaʻiʻo o ka hala ʻana o Recombinetics i ka pilikia e hōʻike nei, “ʻaʻole lākou i hana i ke kiaʻi kūpono. ʻO ia ke kumu e pono ai iā mākou ke kiaʻi aupuni, ”me nā koina no nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke, i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

Latham, he biologist a me ka ʻenekini ʻenekini ma mua, kuhikuhi pū kekahi i nā ʻike hou mai Iapana i manaʻoʻiʻo ʻo ia ka hopena ma mua o nā ʻike a ka FDA, a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā hopena no ka ʻāina hoʻokele. Ma kahi noi 2019, Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Kepanī ua loaʻa i nā genome ʻiole i hoʻoponopono ʻia ka DNA mai ka genome E. coli, a me ka DNA kao a me ka bovine. ʻO kēia DNA hele hewa i hele mai mai nā mea hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono gen, ka hana lawe i hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā hoʻoponopono.

ʻO kēia mau mea i loaʻa he "maʻalahi loa: keʻoki ʻana i ka DNA i loko o nā pūnaewele, me ka nānā ʻole i ke ʻano kikoʻī o ka hoʻoponopono gen, predisposes genome e loaʻa iā DNA makemake ʻole ʻia,", kākau ʻo Latham i Nūhou ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia i nā mea i loaʻa ʻia “imply, ma ka liʻiliʻi loa, ka pono no nā hana ikaika e pale aku ai i ka hoʻohaumia ʻia e ka DNA hele hewa, a me ka nānā pono ʻana o nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō a me nā mea i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō. A, e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka hihia Recombinetics, eia nā pono e hui ʻole paha nā mea hoʻomohala. "

ʻO ke kaʻina kūpono aʻe

Loaʻa iā Recombinetics "Kūʻē kūpikū ʻole" i ka nānā ʻana a FDA āpau a lobbied ka Hoʻokele Trump e huki i nā mana hoʻomalu mai ka ʻaoʻao palekana palekana meaʻai, e like me ka MIT Technology Review. A i ka wā i ʻōlelo ai ʻo Recombinetics i ka makahiki 2016 ʻo kāna mau bipi kauō ʻole i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻanona he "manuahi nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," ua hoʻohana koke ʻia ka loaʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano he mea hana lobby i ka hoʻouka kaua e kūʻē ana iā FDA.

i ka commentary i holo pū me ka noiʻi o ka ʻoihana, ʻelima mau kānaka noiʻi o ke kula nui i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā holoholona meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela a koʻikoʻi a pono ʻole. ʻO kekahi o nā mea kākau, ʻO Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, he loea hoʻolōʻihi holoholona ma UC Davis a me kahi loio alakaʻi no ka hoʻopau kino ʻana, ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ka hoʻolālā a FDA e koi ai i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke. me he "pupule lā."

"ʻO nā hopena o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka ʻaneʻi e like like me nā hana kūlohelohe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i kā lākou ʻōlelo hoʻopuka. ʻO kēlā me kēia "hopena hopena ʻē aʻe hiki ke hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia e ka hoʻolālā akahele a me ka hoʻāʻo nui ʻana," i ʻōlelo lākou, me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana "ʻaʻole i loaʻa i nā kānaka noiʻi mai Recombinetics" i kā lākou pipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela.

Ua ʻōlelo pū kekahi lākou, me ka pololei ʻole e like me ka mea i lilo, ua lawe ʻia ka bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā gen i ka DNA like "i hoʻopau ʻia e nā kānaka ma kahi o 1,000 mau makahiki." ʻO ka "ʻanuʻu kūpono e hiki mai ana," i kākau ai lākou, e hoʻolaha aku i ke kaʻina genome i hoʻoponopono ʻia "i nā heluna waiū o ka honua."

ʻO ka hoʻokaʻawale ma waena o ka wikiwiki e kūʻai aku i nā meaʻai i hana ʻia me nā genetically engineered, a me ka pono no ka hana pono e hoʻomaopopo i nā hopena i waho o nā manipulate a me nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino a me ke kaiapuni. No ka hapanui o nā meaʻai GMO, mālama nā ʻoihana i nā loiloi palekana me nā mea āpau, me ka nānā liʻiliʻi a ʻaʻohe paha o ke aupuni. Akā he aha ka hoʻoikaika e nānā ai nā ʻoihana i nā pilikia?

Hoʻi i 1998, i kahi ninaninau me Michael Pollan no ka New York Times, ʻO Monsanto ka luna hoʻokele kamaʻilio i kēlā manawa i kuhihewa i kāna loiloi ʻana i kahi e waiho ai nā makemake o ka ʻoihana: ”ʻAʻole pono ʻo Monsanto e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka palekana o ka meaʻai biotech. ʻO kā mākou hoihoi i ke kūʻai aku e like me ka hiki. ʻO ka hōʻoia ʻana i kona palekana ka hana a ka FDA. ”

Ka heluhelu hou

Pono e hoʻoponopono pololei i ka Gene e ola i kāna hoʻohiki - na David Edgell, Ke kamaʻilio (10.7.19)

Hoʻohui me ka manaʻo ʻole o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka Gene i ka bovine DNA, DNA kao, a me ka DNA koʻohune - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa Independent (9.23.19)

Loaʻa i kahi bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e ka Gene kekahi koʻikoʻi nui i kā lākou DNA - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (8.28.19)

ʻIke ʻo FDA i nā genes resistic antibiotic i manaʻo ʻole ʻia i loko o nā bipi dehorned 'Gene-hoʻoponopono' - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, a me Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

ʻAʻole wale ka hopohopo o nā pahuhopu i hopohopo wale ʻia i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono kūʻē - Nānā GM (7.10.19)

No ke aha e kuhi hewa ai ka "ʻikela mole" no CRISPR - na Elinor Hortle, ke kamaʻilio (7.4.19)

Hoʻokumu ʻo CRISPR i nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma ke kahua i manaʻo ʻia no ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻikepili - Nānā GM (4.16.19)

Hoʻokumu ka CRISPR i ka wili i waho i nā hoʻololi i makemake ʻole ʻia ma DNA - Nānā GM (3.13.19)

Hoʻonohonoho kumu CRISPR, ʻike ʻia no ka kikoʻī, pā i kahi snag me nā hoʻololi hoʻololi ʻē aʻe - na Sharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Nā alelo nui a me nā vertebra keu: nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā ʻiʻo holoholona - Na Preetika Rana lāua ʻo Lucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

ʻO ka hōʻino ʻia DNA kūpono mai CRISPR i 'hoʻowahāwahā nui ʻia,' ʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi - na Sharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Hiki iā CRISPR hoʻoponopono ke hiki ke hōʻino i nā genome - Nānā Hana Hana MIT (7.16.2018)

ʻO kahi pale hou koʻikoʻi no CRISPR: Hoʻonohonoho nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, ʻelua mau ʻike i loaʻa - na Sharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Makemake nā hoʻoponopono o ka ʻĀina Farmland i nā bipi ʻole me nā pepeiaohao, puaʻa ʻaʻohe huelo, a me ka ʻoihana me ka ʻole o nā lula - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (3.12.18)

Hōʻike: e hoʻonui nā holoholona i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka Gene i ka mahi ʻana i nā hale hana a me ka pilikia o ke aniau, hiki ke hōʻeha i ke olakino kanaka - Nā Hoa o ka Honua (9.17.19)

Mākaukau paha ʻoe no ka nalu hou o nā meaʻai hana ʻenekini? - na Stacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

ʻAʻole hiki i ka Burger hiki ʻole ke hoʻoulu i ka hilinaʻi i ka ʻoihana GMO

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Na Stacy Malkan

No kēlā me kēia mea e haʻohaʻo nei no ke aha e hōʻeuʻeu ʻole ai ka poʻe kūʻai aku e hilinaʻi i ka ʻoihana GMO, e noʻonoʻo i kēia huhū ʻē mai ʻo Impossible Foods Chief Communication Officer Rachel Konrad i ka pale ʻana i ka Impossible Burger, kahi mea ʻai veggie i hana ʻia i kaʻiʻo e like me ka hū genetically engineered. Ua huhū ʻo Konrad i kēlā kahi moʻolelo ma Bloomberg i hāpai aʻe i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka lawa ʻole o ka noiʻi, ka nele o ka rula a me ka transparency maikaʻi ʻole no nā ʻenehana hana ʻenehana genetically.

ʻAʻole hiki ke alakaʻi o Burger i ke alakaʻi "hoʻonohonoho pololei i nā moʻolelo" me ka ʻike i loaʻa mai nā pūʻulu kemika o mua a me nā ʻelele pono ʻole e kamaʻilio pinepine ʻole i ka ʻike kūpono ʻole.

No laila ua lawe ʻo Konrad i Medium, e hoʻohaunaele ana i nā loiloi o ka Impossible Burger ma ke ʻano he "anti-science fundamentalists" a me "hoʻonohonoho pololei ʻana i ka moʻolelo" me ka ʻike i loaʻa iā ia mai nā hui kemika o mua a me nā ʻelele kūʻē hilinaʻi ʻole e haʻi pinepine ʻole i ka ʻike pili i ka ʻepekema.

ʻAʻole hilinaʻi ʻia ʻo Bloomberg i ka hōʻike ʻana i ka ʻepekema, e like me kā Konrad, no ka mea, ʻo ka ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻepekema a me ke olakino (ACSH). wahi a pēlā. ʻO ka ACSH kahi hui pūʻulu mua ia noi kālā mai nā paka, nā kemika a me nā ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau e pale aku i nā pesticides, e-cigs, cosmetics a me nā huahana ʻona ʻē aʻe ʻaʻole e lanakila i ka lehulehu o ka vegan.

Ma kahi o ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana i ka liko o Bloomberg, haʻi ʻo Konrad iā mākou, pono mākou e lawe i ka puʻuwai i ka piʻi ʻana o ʻO Mark Lynas, mea hoʻolaha o GMO a me nā pesticides e kamaʻilio ʻike kūpono ʻole e pili ana i ka ʻepekema, wahi a ʻepekema a nā loea ʻai. Hana ʻo Mark Lynas no ka Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema, a ka hoʻolaha lehulehu e hoʻolaha i nā GMO Hāʻawi kālā nui ʻia e ka Gates Foundation. (ʻO Gates kekahi he mea hoʻopukapuka i ka Burger hiki ʻole.)

ka leka uila Hoʻohana kēia mau pūʻulu e paipai i nā meaʻai me nā genetically engineered, pale i nā pesticides, nānā ʻole i ke olakino a me nā pilikia o ke kaiapuni a hāmau ka mea kūʻai aku a me nā mea kākoʻo kaiapuni i kahi manawa lōʻihi e wehewehe nei no ke kumu e lanakila ʻole ai ka ʻoihana GMO.

Ua loaʻa i nā Mea hiki ʻole i ka meaʻai ke hoʻololi i kahi lau hou. A i kēia manawa, ua ʻenekini ʻia ka hapa nui o nā meaʻai GMO e ola i ka pīpī ʻana i nā mea make i ka nāhelehele. Glyphosate, i keia manawa ʻo dicamba kekahi, a laila ʻo 2,4-D kekahi, i ka mea i kapa ʻia e nā hui kaiapuni Pilikino pesticide GMO. Akā Ke loli nei ʻoihana GMO me ka puka ʻana o nā ʻenehana hou e like me CRISPR a me ka biology synthetic.

E like me kekahi o nā ʻoihana mua me kahi huahana meaʻai GM e hāʻawi maoli paha i nā pono o nā mea kūʻai (inā makemake kekahi i nā "veggie" burger), loaʻa i ka Impossible Foods ka manawa kūpono e kākau i kahi moʻolelo hou, a kūkulu i ka hilinaʻi me kahi kaʻina hāmama, aniani moakaka mahalo i nā hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai. Puhi lākou.

Manaʻo ʻia mākou e hilinaʻi i ka mea hana e hōʻoia no ka palekana o ka protein genetically engineered a Impossible Burger, kahi mea hou i ka lako o ka meaʻai kanaka. Akā ʻaʻole hoʻokumu ka hana a ka ʻoihana i ka hilinaʻi.

ʻO kā lākou mea GMO "heme" mea "palekana loa," e like me ka hiki ʻole i nā meaʻai paena. Wehewehe ʻo Konrad ma Medium, "ʻO kahi pahuhopu, ka hui ʻaoʻao ʻekolu o nā kānaka noiʻi mea ʻai kiʻekiʻe loa o ka lāhui i hoʻoholo like ʻia i ka makahiki 2014 e pili ana i ka mea nui o ka Impossible Burger, soy leghemoglobin (i hana ʻia e ka hū ʻenekini ʻia)," ʻike ʻia he palekana. Ua hoʻoholo ka panela i kēia hopena ma 2014, ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kūʻai aku ʻana i ka Burger Impossible ma ka mākeke ma 2016. "

Ua haʻalele ʻo ia i kekahi mau mea nui. E like me ka Hōʻikeʻia ka New York Times ʻAukake i hala, i ka manawa a ka US Food and Drug Administration i hāpai ai i ka hopohopo e pili ana nā noiʻi Impossible Foods i hōʻike ʻia i kāna hoʻolaha GRAS kūpono ʻole e hoʻokumu i ka palekana, ua huki ka ʻoihana i kāna palapala noi akā kau i ka burger ma ka mākeke.

Aia ia i loko o kā lākou kuleana, akā ʻaʻole ala e hoʻokumu i ka hilinaʻi i kā lākou huahana.

"ʻO kēia nā panela o nā ʻoihana i hoʻolimalima ʻia."

ʻO kekahi hae: ʻO nā kānaka noiʻi mea ʻai ʻekolu i kākau i ka hōʻike panel loea ua waiho ʻia nā mea hiki ʻole hiki ʻole i ka FDA — ʻo Joseph Borzelleca, ʻo Michael Pariza lāua ʻo Steve Taylor - aia ma ka papa inoa pōkole o ka poʻe ʻepekema ka "huli ʻana o ka ʻoihana meaʻai" a loaʻa ke kūlana GRAS, a ua lawelawe nā mea ʻekolu i ka ʻO ka Papa aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo ʻepekema ʻo Phillip Morris, e like me kahi hoʻokolokolo 2015 e ka Center for Public Integrity, “ʻOihana ʻIke Misinformation: pili nā ʻepekema palekana meaʻai i ka Big Tabako. "

ʻO Borzelleca, ka Center for Public Investigation i hōʻike ʻia, ʻo ia ka mea ʻeleu loa o ka hele ʻana i nā ʻepekema, i lawelawe ʻia ma 41 pakeneka o 379 panela i ʻākoakoa ʻia i nā makahiki he 17 i hala e nānā i ka palekana o nā meaʻai hou.

"I loko nō o kona mau makahiki he nui o ka ʻike a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi i kau ʻia ma luna ona e nā hoa hana - ua kapa ʻia ʻo ia he" mea kupaianaha "- ua ʻōlelo nā loiloi o ka ʻōnaehana GRAS ʻo Borzelleca ka mea hōʻailona o kahi ʻōnaehana i piha me nā hakakā hoihoi," wahi a CPI. "Inā hilinaʻi ka ʻepekema i ka ʻoihana meaʻai no ka loaʻa kālā, ʻaʻole paha lākou e hoʻokūkū i ka palekana o nā hui i manaʻo ʻia e ka mākeke," i ʻōlelo nā poʻe loiloi.

"Ke kū nei kēia mau panela o nā ʻoihana i nā pū," i haʻi aku ai ʻo Laura MacCleery, he loio no ka Center for Science i ka hoihoi o ka lehulehu, iā CPI. "Ke hoʻolako kālā nei ia i nā bias."

Akā ʻaʻole ʻoluʻolu nā manaʻo o nā loiloi me nā hopohopo kūpono i ka honua o ka Impossible Burger, e like me kā Rachel Konrad.

Ma mua o ka hoʻomālamalama ʻana i kahi ala hou o ka pololei me kāna ʻenehana ʻai hou, ua hoʻoholo ʻo Impossible Foods e hāhai i ke ala i kāhiko ʻia e nā mea hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻē aʻe o nā mea hoʻohui meaʻai a me nā meaʻai i hana ʻia me nā genetically. a laila e hoʻōho i kēlā me kēia e hāpai i nā hopohopo. Ma waena o ko mākou lāhui, ʻo ka poʻe makemake e ʻike i ka mea i loko o kā lākou meaʻai e hoʻowahāwahā.

ʻO kēia ʻatikala ma mua ua ʻike ʻia ma EcoWatch

Nā Agrichemical Trade Groups: ʻOihana Hoʻohui Hoʻohui Biotechnology a me ka ʻaha kūkā no ka ʻike Biotechnology

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BIO - nā mea nui 

ʻO ka Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO), ʻo ia ka Biotechnology ʻoihana ʻOihana, kahi ʻahahui kālepa e kū nei ma luna o nā ʻoihana 1,000 a me nā hui ʻoihana e like me pesticide, pharmaceutics a me nā ʻoihana biotech. ʻO ka hui kanaka ʻo ka ʻenekini genetika ma ke ʻano he hopena e "hoʻōla i ka honua, wahie i ka honua, hānai i ka honua," a hoʻonohonoho ia i nā kōmike lobbying i 15 mau kulekele me nā meaʻai a me nā mahiʻai, nā kulekele mālama olakino, hoʻoili ʻenehana, kālā a me nā ʻauhau. He mea kūʻē ʻo BIO i ka lepili ʻana i nā meaʻai ʻenekini i hana ʻia i United States. I kāna hoʻoili ʻia nā ʻauhau no ka makahiki e pau ana iā Kekemapa 2016, ua hōʻike ʻo BIO i nā lilo makahiki ma mua o $ 79 miliona.

Pili pou:

ʻAha kūkā no ka ʻike Biotechnology - nā ʻike nui 

Hoʻokumu ʻia ma 2000, ʻo ka Council for Biotechnology Information (CBI), kahi hui kalepa i uku ʻia e nā hui kemika nui loa (BASF, Bayer / Monsanto, DowDuPont, Syngenta) e hoʻolaha i ka biotechnology i ka mahiʻai. Māhele ʻo BIO a me CBI i kekahi mau limahana a me nā kālā, e like me ka faila ʻauhau. Ua hōʻike ʻo CBI ma mua o $ 4 miliona i nā lilo makahiki i kāna hoʻoili ʻauhau no ka makahiki e pau ana iā Kekemapa 2016. Mai ka 2013, ua lilo ʻo CBI ma mua o $ 11 miliona ma ʻO ka paʻa pili lehulehu holo Nā Pane GMO, kahi hoʻolaha pāʻoihana e hoʻolaha a pale i nā GMO a me nā pesticides.

Pili pou:

Mālama ʻia ka Mea Hoʻolālā Meaʻai Meaʻai ʻO GMO Film Agenda

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Ua hōʻano hou ʻia kēia pou me nā loiloi o Food Evolution: 

Na Stacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

ʻO kekahi o nā hana leka ʻana i nā ʻoihana he kaumaha nui loa a hoʻopau lākou i ke kahakaha ʻana i kā lākou PR tactics ma mua o ka leka a lākou e hoʻāʻo nei e hōʻike. ʻO ia ka pilikia me Hoʻolālā Meaʻai, kahi pepa moʻolelo hou na Academy Award-i koho ʻia ʻo Scott Hamilton Kennedy a haʻi ʻia e Neil deGrasse Tyson.

ʻO ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, e wehe ana i nā hale kiʻiʻoniʻoni ʻo Iune 23, koi e hāʻawi i kahi nānā pahuhopu i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa e pili ana i nā meaʻai me nā genetically engineered, akā me kāna hōʻike ʻepekema o ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻikepili, hele mai ia me he mea lā e like me kahi puke puke o ka propaganda ʻoihana no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai a me kāna mea kanu GMO.

ʻO ka manaʻo o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni e lawelawe ma ke ʻano he kaʻa leka uila ʻoihana-ʻaʻohe mea hūnā. ʻO ka Food Evolution ka i hoʻolālā ʻia ma 2014 a kālā ʻia e ka Institute for Food Technologists, kahi hui kalepa, e hoʻopau i kahi hana leka uila he mau makahiki.

Hāʻawi kālā ʻia ʻo IFT e nā hui meaʻai nui, a me ka hui pelekikena i kēlā manawa ʻO Janet Collins, kahi luna DuPont ma mua a me Monsanto luna nāna hana kēia manawa no ʻO CropLife ʻAmelika, ka hui kalepa pesticide. Koho Peresidena o IFT ʻO Cindy Stewart hana no DuPont.

Ua koho ʻo IFT iā Kennedy e alakaʻi i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, akā ʻo ia a me ka mea hana ʻO Trace Sheehan 'ōlelo lākou ua loaʻa iā lākou ka mana piha ma luna o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a lākou e wehewehe ai ma ke ʻano he noiʻi kūʻokoʻa piha i ke kumuhana o GMO me nā manaʻo āpau.

Pilikia ka hilinaʻi o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i kā lākou koho e ʻapo wale i ka ʻepekema a me nā ʻepekema e pili pū me nā mea hana ʻoihana kemika e loaʻa kālā mai nā GMO a me nā kemika i hoʻohana ʻia ma luna o lākou, me ka nānā ʻole i ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻikepili i kūpono ʻole i kēlā papahana.

ʻO ka lapaʻau ʻepekema Monsanto

ʻO ka laʻana maopopo loa o ka pono ʻole ʻepekema i ka Food Evolution ke ala e hana ai ke kiʻi me glyphosate. ʻO ka kemikena mea pepehi kanaka ka naʻau o ka moʻolelo GMO, mai 80-90% o nā hua GMO ʻenehana ʻenekinia e hoʻomanawanui i ka glyphosate.

Ua hōʻike ʻo Food Evolution ua hōʻike ʻia ka hoʻonui i ka hoʻohana glyphosate ma muli o nā GMO ʻaʻole pilikia, no ka mea palekana ka glyphosate. Hoʻokumu nā kumuwaiwai ʻelua i kēia koi i loko o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni: ʻōlelo kahi mahiʻai i ka glyphosate he "haʻahaʻa, haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa loa ia; ʻoi aku ka haʻahaʻa ma mua o ke kope, ma lalo o ka paʻakai, ”a me Monsanto's Robb Fraley - i ka pane ʻana i kahi wahine i kahi anaina e nīnau iā ia e pili ana i ka ʻepekema e hoʻopili ana i ka glyphosate i nā hānau hānau a me ke kanesa - haʻi iā ia ʻo ia ka ʻepekema maikaʻi ʻole," he pseudoscience ia. "

ʻO nā ʻepekema āpau e hāpai nei i nā hopohopo e pili ana i ka glyphosate "pseudoscience," wahi a Monsanto.

ʻAʻohe mea e pili ana i nā manaʻo carcinogenicity e hoʻopuni nei iā Monsanto i kahi lahui nauka Temepela, a i ʻole nā ​​mahiʻai he nui i ke hoʻopiʻi nei iā Monsanto ke kuhi nei ua loaʻa lākou i ka maʻi ʻaʻai mai ka glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

ʻAʻohe mea e pili ana i ka hōʻike 2015 e ka World Health Organization's cancer agency i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka glyphosate ma ke ʻano he kino kanaka make paha, a Ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo a Kaleponi e hoʻohui i ka glyphosate i ka papa inoa Prop 65 o nā kemika i ʻike ʻia e hana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, a i ʻole nā ​​loiloi loiloi ʻia e nā hoa i pili nā hopena olakino like ʻole e glyphosate a me Roundup.

Ma kahi o ka nānā pahuhopu i nā hōʻike, hāʻawi ʻo Food Evolution i nā mea nānā i ka hoʻomana ʻepekema Monsanto piha: ʻo nā ʻepekema e hāpai i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā pilikia olakino o nā huahana mahiʻai e pono e nānā ʻole ʻia, ʻoiai ʻo nā noiʻi e kau i kēlā mau huahana i kahi kukui maikaʻi wale nō ka ʻepekema. pono kūkā.

Pālua Koina i ka ʻEpekema a me ka Mākala

ʻO ka mālama kaulike ʻana i nā kumuhana nīnauele me nā manaʻo like ʻole e kōkua i ka hilinaʻi o ka Food Evolution. Akā, pena ka kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i nā mea hoʻopiʻi GMO i hōʻike ʻia e like me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole a i ʻole e hōʻoki i ka ʻoihanaola, ʻoiai e waiho ana i nā kikoʻī nui e pili ana i kāna kumuwaiwai pro-ʻoihana.

I hoʻokahi hiʻohiʻona, ke ʻano nui o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, ke kumu aʻoaʻo o UC Davis ʻo Alison van Eenennaam, nā frets e kū nei ma ke kahua me kahi luna o Monsanto i kahi paio hiki ke hoʻonāukiuki i kona kūlana kūʻokoʻa. ʻAʻole ʻike ka poʻe ʻike maʻa mau iā ia hana no Monsanto, a i ʻole ʻo ia e paʻa ana nā palapala Sila GE e hōʻike nei i kahi hoihoi kālā i ke kumuhana i kēia manawa.

ʻO ka ʻepekema Pro-ʻoihana Pamela Ronald, kahi kumu ʻepekema ʻē aʻe, loaʻa i ka lāʻau meʻe me ka ʻōlelo ʻole ʻole ua hoʻihoʻi ʻia ʻelua o kāna aʻo ʻana. Akā naʻe, ua haki ʻia ka poʻe nānā i ka nūhou e noiʻi ʻia e ka ʻepekema Palani ʻo Gilles-Eric Séralini - i loaʻa nā pilikia o nā puʻupaʻa a me nā tumors i nā ʻiole i hānai ʻia i ka palaoa GMO - "retract, retraced, retraced!"

Haʻalele ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ke aʻo ʻana a laila hoʻopuka hou ʻia, a ua huki hou ʻia i ka mea mua ma hope o kahi limahana Monsanto mua i kahi kūlana hoʻoponopono me ka puke pai kahi i paʻi mua ʻia ai.

ʻO ka moʻolelo "Pono ʻApelika i nā GMO" Nararrative

I loko o kekahi moʻolelo i hoʻomākaukau maikaʻi ʻia, lawe ʻo Food Evolution i nā mea nānā i kahi huakaʻi manaʻo i ka honua e ulu nei, a me kahi ala leka uila ʻoihana punahele: ma mua o ka nānā ʻana i ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o ka hana ʻenekini i kā mākou ʻōnaehana meaʻai i kēia manawa - no ka lawe ʻana i ka hoʻomanawanui i ka lāʻau make - pono mākou kālele ana i ka pehea e hoʻohana ʻia ai paha i ka wā e hiki mai ana.

Me ka nui o ka manawa lewa a me ka pīhoihoi nui, nānā ke kiʻiʻoniʻoni i ka pilikia o ka lau maiʻa, kahi maʻi e luku nei i nā mea kanu nui i ʻApelika, a alakaʻi i nā mea nānā e manaʻoʻiʻo e hoʻopakele ka hana ʻenekini i ka hua, nā mahiʻai a me ke kaiāulu.

Maliʻa paha. Akā hoʻowahāwahā ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i ka ʻōlelo ʻana ʻaʻole hiki ke loaʻa ka ʻenehana ʻo ka mea hoʻopakele GE a ʻaʻole paha e holo. Wahi a kahi pepa i Palapala Pai Biotechnology Plant, kūpale ke kūpaʻa i hōʻike ʻia i ka lab akā ʻaʻole e kūpaʻa i nā māla hāmama.

ʻO ke kiʻi ʻino ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻole.

I kēia manawa, ke holo pono nei kahi ʻenehana ʻenehana haʻahaʻa a like me he mea lā hiki ke hoʻohana i kahi hoʻopukapuka. Wahi a kahi pepa 2012 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka Hoʻomohala ʻana a me nā ʻoihana ʻEnehana, nā kula mahiʻai mahiʻai, nā mea e kōkua ai i ka poʻe mahiʻai e loaʻa ka ʻike lima i nā ʻenehana e pale aku ai i ka maiʻa maiʻa, i alakaʻi ʻia ai i nā helu o ka maʻi a me ka hoʻāla hou ʻana o nā mea kanu i Uganda. Nā hualoaʻa mai nā kula mahiʻai mahiʻai "kupaianaha," e like me ka UN.

ʻAʻole koi ka hopena i kahi ʻōlelo ma Food Evolution.

"He mea pono ʻole maoli ia i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni e kiʻi i kahi hopena GE ʻaʻole paha e holo, e like me ka ʻepekema e hoʻomaopopo ai," i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Michael Hansen, he ʻepekema kiʻekiʻe ma Consumers Union, "ʻoiai e hōʻike ana i kahi ala ʻē aʻe e kāohi ai i ka pilikia e holo pono ana. maikaʻi, akā ʻaʻole pili i ke kūʻai aku ʻana i kahi huahana e loaʻa kālā. ”

Ua pili paha ʻo Monsanto i ka mea e pili ana i ka Food Evolution?

Kūkākūkā ʻo Monsanto a me nā mea kōkua i nā hoʻolālā no kahi pepa i ka hopena o 2013, e like me nā leka uila i loaʻa na US Pono e ʻike. ʻAʻohe i loko o nā leka uila nā hōʻike e pili ana i kēlā mau kūkākūkā ʻana me ka Food Evolution, akā hoʻokūpaʻa lākou i ko Monsanto makemake no kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni e like me ka like loa me kā Kennedy i hana ai.

ʻO Monsanto ʻo Eric Sachs i kākau ʻia ma Dec. 2013 i kahi hui o nā aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo PR, "maopopo leʻa ka nui o ka hoihoi e alualu i kahi kiʻi paʻi kiʻi. ʻO ka mea nui, ua ʻae ʻia ka ʻae a ko Monsanto komo ʻana, ʻo ia hoʻi i ka papa hoʻolālā. "

Ua paipai ʻo ia i kahi kāhea hoʻolālā Ianuali 2014. ʻO Jon Entine o ka Hoʻopuka Haʻawina Genetic piʻi i luna e alakaʻi, a ʻōlelo ʻia ua "loaʻa iā ia kahi hoʻohiki pilikino o $ 100,000 mai kahi kanaka pilikino inā hiki iā mākou ke kiʻi" (oki ke koena o ka laina). He pilina pū kekahi ʻo Entine i ka Institute for Food Technologists; ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia e pili ana ika hoʻāʻo anti-ʻai”Ma ka hui makahiki ʻo IFT's 2012.

ʻO kekahi kanaka i haʻi ʻia i loko o nā leka uila ʻo Monsanto, Karl Haro von Mogel - nāna i kūkākūkā me Sachs "ʻO nā ʻaoʻao i lalo o kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i uku kālā ʻia e ka 'Big 6'" a ʻōlelo "ʻo ka mea e ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o kā lākou kālā ke komo" - ua ninaninau ʻia i ka Food Evolution, a ua komo pū kekahi i ke kiʻi ʻana i hoʻokahi hanana, e hōʻike ana i kekahi ma hope o nā hanana. ka laulima me nā mea hana kiʻiʻoniʻoni.

I ka pane ʻana i nā leka uila, ua kākau ʻo Kennedy ma Twitter: "Ua loaʻa iā @foodevomovie ka ZERO $ a i ʻole INPUT mai #Monetona. Kūleʻa piha mākou & hauʻoli 2 i kahi kamaʻilio kūʻiʻo i hoʻokumu ʻia. "

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia i loko o kahi nīnauele, "ʻaʻohe mea e pili ana i ka pānaʻi leka uila me kā mākou papahana ʻoiai ... ʻaʻole mākou i hana i ka hana ʻana i ke kiʻi me IFT i kēlā lā i ka makahiki 2013."

ʻAʻole pili ka poʻe i ka hoʻololi leka uila i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a i ʻole ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo ʻana, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia, a ʻo Karl Haro von Mogel "he kumuhana i loko o ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a ʻaʻohe o lākou pili a i ʻole ka hoʻohuli i nā hoʻoholo a me nā hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono ʻana ma ke kiʻi i kēlā me kēia manawa o ka hana. . Maikaʻi paha e kuhi aku i ka kamaʻilio ʻana i ka leka uila āu i kuhikuhi ai i hala ma mua o ka ʻike o Karl a i ʻole kekahi o kēia poʻe. ”

Sneak Peek ma hope o nā hiʻohiʻona

ʻO kahi hoʻololi leka uila hou aʻe i loaʻa e US Right to Know hāʻawi i kahi peek ma hope o nā hanana i ka hoʻomohala moʻolelo i ka Food Evolution. Hōʻike ka pānaʻi i kā Kennedy ʻimi ʻana i mau laʻana e hōʻike no "mākou / e hoʻomohala i ka honua e pono iā GMO."

"Pono kekahi 'ʻē aʻe / e hoʻomohala honua nei iā GMO' hiki iā ʻoe ke hāʻawi iaʻu i mau inoa ʻē aʻe mai nā ʻalani? Lettuce Shintakus? " Nīnau ʻo Kennedy. Ua pane aku ka mea hana ʻo Trace Sheehan me kahi papa inoa o nā huahana GMO e like me ka laiki-hoʻomanawanui i ka maloʻo, nā pī ʻaihue ʻaʻohe allergy, ʻuala manuahi carcinogen ... "a laila pihi me ka Rice Gula."

I ka wā i pahu aku ai ʻo Kennedy no "nā mea kanu GMO kiʻekiʻe e hoʻohana ʻia nei, a he aha nā ʻāina," ʻo Mark Lynas o ka ʻO Cornell Alliance no ʻEpekema Ua kākau ʻo ia, "ʻO Bt brinjal maoli ma Bangladesh wale nō kahi GMO maoli a ke hana nui ʻia nei."

Hoʻowahāwahā ka hōʻike o ka kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i kēlā kikoʻī e pili ana i ka nele o nā ʻōnaehana GMO hana, a ʻaʻole e haʻi i ke ʻano o ka laʻana kokoke, ka wikamina-A i hoʻonui ʻia ʻo Golden Rice, ʻaʻole loaʻa ʻoiai nā hoʻopukapuka nui a me nā makahiki o nā hoʻokolokolo, no ka mea ʻaʻole holo pono ia ma ke kula e like me nā līlī e kū nei.

He aha ka propaganda?

Ma kahi hanana i manaʻo ʻia e hōʻike i ka hilinaʻi ʻepekema, ua hoʻāla ka Food Evolution i ka lepili o ka ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻepekema a me ke olakino i kēia manawa ʻo Neil deGrasse Tyson e ʻōlelo nei aia he ʻae kūkākūkā honua no ka palekana o GMO. He paheʻe kūpono ia. ʻO ASCH kahi hui pūʻulu mua pili pono me Monsanto.

Hōʻike ʻia ka hiʻohiʻona logo ACSH ma hope o kēia 2 mau minuke pahu mai kahi paio hou o ka Climate One, e like me kā Kennedy pahu ʻana i hope e kūʻē ana i ka manaʻo o kāna kiʻi ʻoniʻoni he propaganda.

"Pehea mākou e hoʻoholo ai i ka mea o ka propaganda?" Nīnau ʻo Kennedy. "Ke ʻōlelo nei wau ʻo kekahi o nā ala a mākou e hana ai (no ka nīnau), noi ʻia nā hopena, a i ʻole nā ​​hopena i hoʻohiki ʻia? ʻAʻole wau i nīnau ʻia no nā hopena a ʻaʻole wau i hoʻohiki i nā hopena. Inā pilikia ʻoe i kēia kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, aia iaʻu ka pilikia. ”

Ua hōʻike mua ʻia kēia loiloi ma Huffington Post a ua paʻi hou ʻia ma Alternet. 

E nānā pū kekahi: ʻO ka ʻatikala ukali a Stacy Malkan, ʻO Neil deGrasse Tyson Owes Fans i kahi kamaʻilio ʻoi aku ka ʻoi loa e pili ana i nā GMO ma mua o ka Food Evolution. "Nīnauele me kekahi mau loiloi GMO ʻē aʻe i hōʻike ʻia i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, a i ʻole noi ʻia e komo i loko o ia kiʻi, e hōʻoia i ke kiʻi o kahi hana ʻano ʻē e pili ana i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni sneakying, ka hoʻoponopono pono ʻana, ka hōʻike wahaheʻe ʻole ʻana a me ka hōʻike ʻole e pili ana i ke kālā a ke kiʻiʻoniʻoni.

Paipai ka Science Media Center i nā ʻike ʻoihana o ka ʻepekema

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ʻO ka Science Media Center (SMC) kahi hui PR nonprofit PR i hoʻomaka ʻia ma UK i loaʻa i kāna poloka nui loa o kālā mai ka ʻoihana nā hui. ʻO nā mea kālā o kēia wā a me nā wā i hala e hui pū me Bayer, DuPont, Monsanto, Coca-Cola a me nā hui kālepa ʻoihana mea ʻai a me nā mea hana kemika, a me nā hui media, nā keʻena aupuni, nā hoʻokumu a me nā kula nui. Ke hoʻolaha nei ka hiʻohiʻona SMC a puni ka honua a ua nui ka mana i ke kālai ʻana i ka pāpāho o ka ʻepekema, i kekahi manawa i nā ala e hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā makaʻi o nā huahana kontroversial a ʻenehana paha. Hōʻike kēia pepa pono i ka mōʻaukala SMC, ke akeakamai, ke ana hoʻohālike kālā, nā hana a me nā hōʻike mai ka poʻe loiloi i ʻōlelo ʻo SMC ke hāʻawi nei i nā ʻepekema pro-ʻoihana, hōʻole kahi ʻano SMC.

e pili pū ana:

Mea nui nui

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka Science Media Center ma 2002 i ka pane ʻana i ka "frenzies media ma luna o MMR, nā mea kanu GM a me nā noiʻi holoholona" e kōkua i nā nūhou e hōʻike pono i ka ʻepekema mainstream, e like me ka pepa pono o ka hui.

i kona hōʻike hoʻokumu, Wehewehe ʻo Science Media Center i ka pehea i haku ʻia ai e kamaʻilio:

  • e ulu ana ka "pilikia o ka hilinaʻi" i ka manaʻo o ka ʻepekema i ka lehulehu
  • kahi hāʻule o ka mahalo i ka luna a me ka loea
  • kahi kaiāulu kūpilikiʻi kūwaho a me ka uhi pāpāho alarmist a
  • ʻo nā "papa hana pāpāho ʻoi loa" i hoʻohana ʻia e nā kaiaulu NGO e like me Greenpeace a me nā Hoa o ka Honua.

SMC kūʻokoʻa i kaʻana like i ka palapala hoʻohui like ʻoiai ke hana mua ʻia nei ma Kanada, Australia, New Zealand, Kelemania a me Iapana, a ke hoʻolālā ʻia nei ʻo SMCs ma Palukela a me ka ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa.

ʻO ka hiʻohiʻona SMC ka mea nui i ke kālai ʻana i ka pāpāho e pili ana i ka ʻepekema. A nāʻike media o nā nūpepa UK ma 2011 a me 2012 i ʻike ka hapanui o nā mea nūpepa nāna i hoʻohana i nā lawelawe SMC ʻaʻole ʻimi i nā kuanaʻike hou aku no kā lākou mau moʻolelo. Hāpai ka hui i ka mana politika. I ka makahiki 2007, ua hoʻōki ʻo SMC i kahi pāpā i hāpai ʻia no nā embryo hybrid kanaka / holoholona me kāna pāʻoihana media e hoʻohuli i ka uhi ʻana mai nā hopohopo pili i nā pono o nā embryos ma ke ʻano he mea noiʻi. 'atikala ma Kūlohelohe.

Ua hoʻohewa kekahi mau kālaiʻike a me nā mea noiʻi iā SMC no ka hoʻokikina ʻana nā ʻike ʻoihana o ka ʻepekema, a no ka pāʻani ʻana i nā pilikia o ke kaiapuni a me ke olakino kanaka o nā huahana a me nā ʻenehana loea. Ua hōʻike nā hōʻike i ka hana a SMC e pahu i ka leka uila ʻoihana kākoʻo a kāpae i nā manaʻo kūʻē i nā kumuhana e like me kūpilikiʻi, palekana kelepona paʻalima, Maʻi ka luhi Syndrome a Nā GMO.

I loko o kahi leka uila, ua haʻi ʻo ka Luna Hoʻokele SMC ʻo Fiona Fox ʻaʻole kūlike kāna hui no ka ʻoihana: mai kēia mau mea kuleana. Hoʻowahāwahā mākou i ka uku no ka ʻohana ʻoihana pro a hōʻike kā mākou hana i ka hōʻike a me ka ʻike o nā mea noiʻi ʻepekema koʻikoʻi 3000 ma kā mākou waihona. Ma ke ʻano he keʻena paʻi kūʻokoʻa e kia ana i kekahi o nā moʻolelo ʻepekema loa kontroversial manaʻo nui mākou i ka hoʻohewa mai nā hui ma waho o ka ʻepekema mainstream. "

Nā ʻōlelo e pili ana i ka Pūnaewele ʻApekema ʻEpekema

ʻO nā mea kākau moʻolelo a me nā mea noiʻi e pili ana i ka mana a me ka laha ʻole o ka Pūnaewele ʻAilana ʻEpekema (hoʻohui ʻia i hoʻonui ʻia i nā huaʻōlelo ma lalo):

  • "Nā Pūnaewele Pāhana ʻEpekema ... ua lilo mea koʻikoʻi, akā nā mea pāʻani kontroversial i ka honua o ka journalism. ʻOiai manaʻo kekahi mau mea nūhou he mea kōkua lākou, manaʻo kekahi poʻe he līkū lākou i ke aupuni a me nā ʻepekema ʻoihana. " Hōʻikeʻike ʻatikala ʻo Columbia
  • "Ke hilinaʻi nei i ka mea āu e noi ai, (Luna Hoʻokele SMC) Ke mālama nei paha ʻo Fiona Fox i ka puke pai ʻepekema a i ʻole ke luku ʻana iā ia." ʻO Ewen Callway, Nature
  • "ʻO kahi hōʻemi hōʻemi o nā mea nūpepa ʻepekema UK i kaomi manawa ʻole e hele hou i ke kula a ʻeli no nā moʻolelo. Hele lākou i nā haʻi ʻōlelo i hoʻonohonoho mua ʻia ma ka SMC… ʻO ka ua ʻeha ka maikaʻi o ka hōʻike ʻepekema a me ka pololei o ka ʻike i loaʻa i ka lehulehu, e hoʻohuli i ka hiki i ka lehulehu ke hoʻoholo i nā pilikia. ” ʻO Connie St. Louis, Ke Kulanui o Lādana ma Lādana, ma CJR
  • "ʻAʻole ka pilikia e hoʻolaha lākou i ka ʻepekema, e like me kā lākou e ʻōlelo nei, akā ʻo lākou paipai i ka ʻepekema kākoʻo pāʻoihana. " ʻO David Miller, Ke Kulanui o Bath, ma SciDev
  • "No ka poʻe i makapō ʻole ʻia e ka SMA's aura makaʻu, ʻike ʻia ʻo kāna hana hūnā e hōʻoia i ka poʻe nūpepa a me ka pāpāho e hōʻike i nā mea ʻepekema a me nā lāʻau lapaʻau wale nō i kahi ala kūlike i ke 'kulekele' a ke aupuni a me ka ʻoihana e pili ana i nā pilikia i nīnau ʻia. " Malcolm Hooper, Kulanui o Sunderland, pepa ma CFS / ME
  • «Maopopo lea ka ʻO ke kumumanaʻo o SIRC, SMC a me nā hui kōkua e kākoʻo i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni UK e hoʻolaulaha i ka ʻenehana Biotec a me ke kelepona ʻana. ” ʻO ka pepa Don Maisch ma nā kelepona paʻalima
  • "The ke waiho nei ka hana a ka SMC i kahi nānā haiki o, ma ka hapanui o nā hihia maikaʻi, nā manaʻo o ka palekana o ka fracking. " Paul Mobbs, Nā ʻimi noiʻi kaiāulu ʻo Mobbs
  • "ʻO ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema, naif politika mau, ʻike ʻole ʻole ʻia e ʻae ʻia i kāna mau kuleana e hōʻike ʻia i ka lehulehu e nā lālā o kahi kāhuna politika ʻano ʻē a kolohe hoʻi. " ʻO George Monbiot, ke kahu

ʻO ke kālā kālā ʻepekema Pūnaewele ʻo Science

ʻO kā SMC hapa nui o ke kālā, ma kahi o 30%, hele mai nā hui a me nā hui kālepa. ʻO nā mea kālā e like me ʻAukake 2016 i hui pū ʻia me ka laulā o ke kemika, biotechnology, nukelea, ʻai, lāʻau lapaʻau, kelekaʻaʻike a me nā pono hana hoʻonaninani. ʻO nā mea kālā ʻoihana Agrichemical i hui pū me Bayer, DuPont, BASF, CropLife International, BioIndustry Association a me ka Chemical Industries Association. Mea kālā mua ua hoʻokomo iā Monsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola a me Kraft. Loaʻa iā SMC ke kālā kālā mai kekahi mau pūʻulu, aupuni a me nā hui aʻo.

SMC wahi a ia nā makana pāpale mai kēlā me kēia hui a i ʻole ke kula i 5% o ka loaʻa kālā makahiki i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e "pale mai ka mana kūpono ʻole" - hana ʻia nā hoʻokoe no nā makana nui aʻe mai ka Wellcome Trust a me ke aupuni UK. Keʻena no ka ʻoihana, ikaika a me nā ʻoihana papahana.

Mōʻaukala SMC: “Ke Kuhina Nui ʻoiaʻiʻo o Pelekane”

Ma ka hopena o 1990, ua pili ka pilina ma waena o ka ʻepekema a me ka media i kahi wāwahi, wehewehe i ka SMC kiʻi wikiō. "Ma kahi o ka manawa o ka BSE, MMR, nā mea kanu GM, aia he manaʻo maoli o kēia awawa ma waena o nā ʻepekema a me ka pāpāho," i ʻōlelo ʻo Fox i loko o ka wikiō. Ua hana ʻia ʻo SMC "e kōkua i ka hoʻohou hou ʻana i ka hilinaʻi o ka lehulehu i ka ʻepekema e ka hana ʻana e paipai i ke kaʻina kaulike, pololei a kūpono hoʻi o nā moʻolelo ʻepekema hoʻopaʻapaʻa," e like me kāna kūkākūkā kūkākūkā.

Aia nā palapala hoʻokumu SMC i:

  • Pepeluali 2000 Hoike komite o na Haku Haku ho'ākāka i kahi "pilikia o ka hilinaʻi" i ka pilina o ke kaiāulu me ka ʻepekema, a paipai i kahi hana hou i ka ʻepekema a me ka pāpāho.
  • Kepakemapa 2000 “Code o ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa / alakaʻi ma ka ʻepekema a me ke kamaʻilio olakino, "Na ka Royal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) e paipai i nā alakaʻi no ka poʻe nūpepa a me nā ʻepekema e kūʻē i" ka hopena maikaʻi ʻole o nā mea i ʻike ʻia he "moʻolelo hoʻoweliweli" kūpono ʻole a me nā mea e hāʻawi nei i nā manaʻolana wahaheʻe i nā maʻi nui. "
  • 2002 Hōʻike Kūkākūkā SMC wehewehe i ke kaʻina ninaninau me nā mea kuleana mai ke aupuni, ʻoihana a me nā pāpāho nāna i hoʻomaopopo pehea e "lawe ai ʻo SMC i ke ala i kiola ʻia e nā Haku… o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻepekema i ka nūhou."

Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa koke ka hana SMC. Ua wānana ka mea kākau ʻo Tom Wakeford i ka makahiki 2001 e lilo ʻo SMC i “Kuhina ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Britain no ka ʻoiaʻiʻo e haʻaheo ai ko George Orwell mau aliʻi hana wahaheʻe.” Ua kākau ʻo ia i loko Ka Luna, "Ua hoʻoholo ka poʻe kiʻekiʻe o ke Aupuni, Royal Society a me Royal Institution i ko lākou waiwai waiwai nui e pono ai ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo kūʻokoʻa." Ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ke Kaʻina Hana: "Kuhi ka Code i nā mea nūpepa e kūkākūkā me nā loea i ʻae ʻia, kahi papa kuhikuhi malū e hāʻawi ʻia i nā" mea kākau inoa i hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia me nā palapala hōʻoiaʻiʻo. "

ʻO kā SMC papahana mua - kahi hoʻāʻo e hōʻino i kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni BBC i hōʻike ʻia i nā hua i hana ʻia i loko o kahi kukui maikaʻi ʻole. Ua wehewehe nā ʻatikala iā SMC ma ke ʻano he “pūʻulu ʻepekema ʻepekema kākoʻo ʻia e nā ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā hui kemika nui ”e hana nei "Kahi ʻano o ka hui rebuttal wikiwiki a Mandelsonian"A hoʻohana" kekahi o nā ʻenehana wili clumsiest o New Labor i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hōʻino (ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni) ma mua. ”

ʻO Dick Taverne a me Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema

ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema - kahi hana lobby e hoʻololi hou i nā ʻike o ka ʻepekema - i hoʻokumu ʻia ma UK ma 2002 me ka SMC ma lalo o ke alakaʻi ʻana a Lord Dick Taverne a me nā mea e pili ana i ka SMC. ʻO Lord Taverne kahi SMC Lālā lālā aʻoaʻo a me ia hana pū ʻia ke Kaʻina Hoʻohana SIRC.

He moʻolelo 2016 i Ka-puni na Liza Gross i wehewehe iā Sense About Science a me kāna mau alakaʻi ma ke ʻano he “kahu ponoʻī no ka 'epekema kani'” nāna e kuhikuhi i nā unahi i ka ʻoihana. Ua wehewehe ʻo Gross i kā Taverne mau ʻoihana paka a me nā hana PR ʻoihana.

Wahi a nā palapala kūloko i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana e nā mea hana paka, ua kōkua ka hui kūkā o Taverne, PRIMA Europe, i ka British American Tobacco. hoʻomaikaʻi i nā pilina me kāna mea hoʻopukapuka a hahau i nā lula ʻEulopa ma ka uahi i nā makahiki 1990. Ua hana ʻo Taverne iā ia iho i ka papahana hoʻopukapuka: I kahi memo pili ʻole, PRIMA i hōʻoia i ka ʻoihana paka e "hana pono ʻia ka hana e Dick Taverne," no ka mea ua hoʻonohonoho maikaʻi ʻia ʻo ia e ninaninau i nā alakaʻi o nā ʻoihana a "e ʻimi e hōʻoia i ka pono o nā ʻoihana i nā manaʻo o ka poʻe." I loko o nā makahiki he XNUMX, ua noho ʻo Taverne ma ka papa o ka lālā Pelekania o ka hale pili pilina lehulehu ʻo Burson-Marsteller, ka mea i koi iā Philip Morris ma ke ʻano he mea kūʻai aku. ʻO ka manaʻo no kahi hui "ʻepekema kani", i hoʻokumu ʻia i kahi pūnaewele o nā ʻepekema nāna e ʻōlelo kūʻē i nā lula i nele i ka mea haʻi waha ʻole ʻoihana i ka hilinaʻi e ʻaʻa ai, he pitch ʻo Burson-Marsteller i hana iā Philip Morris i kahi Memo 1994.

Ma waena o kāna papahana mua, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Sense About Science i kahi leka mai 114 ʻepekema lobbying the British government to "contradict false claims" e pili ana i nā GMO, a ua hana i kahi noiʻi e hōʻike ana i ka pilikia o ka hōʻino kūʻē i nā mea kanu GMO.

Ua wehe ʻo Sense About Science USA ma 2014 ma lalo o ke alakaʻi ʻana o ka wā lōʻihi hui hana kemika ʻo Trevor Butterworth, a me nā hoapili me ka Cornates Alliance i uku kālā ʻia e Gates, a Pūʻulu hoʻolaha GMO.

Nā aʻa Komunista Revolutionary

ʻO nā luna hoʻokumu a me nā luna o ka Science Media Center a me ka manaʻo e pili ana i ka ʻepekema - Luna Hoʻokele SMC Fiona Fox a me SAS Luna Hoʻokele ʻO Tracey Brown - a me nā mea ʻē aʻe e pili ana i kēlā mau pūʻulu, ua pili pili ʻia ma o ka Revolutionary Communist Party, kahi hui splinter Trotskyist i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka hopena o 1970s ma lalo o ke alakaʻi a ka sociologist. ʻO Frank Ferudi, e like me ka mea kākau ʻO George Monbiot, ʻO Jonathan Matthews, ʻO Zac Goldsmith a ʻO Don Maisch.

ʻO ka hui splinter o Ferudi RCP i komo i loko Noho Marxism, Mākeke LM, Nūpepa Spiked a me ka Ke Kulanui o nā Manaʻo, ka mea i ʻapo i ke kapitalism, individualism a hoʻolahalaha i kahi ʻike kūpono o ka ʻenehana a hoʻowahāwahā ʻia i ka poʻe kaiāulu. e like me kā Monbiot. (Ferudi pane i kēia ʻāpana.) A Ka'ōlelo hoʻopuka e pili ana i kahi hanana LM i ka makahiki 1999 i wehewehe ʻia i ka pūnaewele me he "kūʻē kūʻē i ka hema" (i nā huaʻōlelo a Furedi) me ka manaʻo honua e manaʻo ana ka ʻaoʻao hema "ʻaʻole ia he kumu politika" a ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe i ka mākeke.

"ʻO kekahi o nā ʻāpana ʻē o ka politika kā kēia au ka mana o nā ʻēheu hema hema i holo aku i ka ʻākau," kākau ʻo Monbiot i loko o kahi 2003 kikokikona e wehewehe nei i nā pilina ma waena o Sense About Science a me ka Science Media Center, nā poʻe i pili me kēlā mau hana a me nā loulou i ka pūnaewele LM:

"He kuhi wale paha kēia a pau? Manaʻo wau ʻaʻole pēlā. Akā ʻaʻole maʻalahi e hoʻomaopopo i ke kumu o kēia hanana. Ke nānā nei mākou i kahi hui e makemake ana i ka mana nona iho, a i ʻole kekahi ma hope o kahi hoʻolālā politika, kahi o kēia keʻehi waena. ʻO ka mea e hiki ai iaʻu ke ʻōlelo aʻe, ʻo ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema, he naif politika mau ia, me ka ʻike ʻole ʻole e ʻae ʻia i kona mau pono e hōʻike ʻia i ka lehulehu e nā lālā o kahi pūnaewele politika ʻano ʻē a moʻomeheu hoʻi. Ma mua loa o ke kūkulu hou ʻana i ka hilinaʻi o ka lehulehu i ka ʻepekema a me ka lāʻau lapaʻau, hiki i ka ʻepekema hoʻopunipuni o kēia hui ke hoʻopau hope loa iā ia. ”

Tactics

ʻO ka SMC ma UK wahi āna kahi waihona pūnaewele me 2700 mau loea a ʻoi aku ma mua o 1200 mau luna paʻi, a me nā papa inoa leka me nā mea kākau moʻolelo he 300 e kū ana i kēlā me kēia puka nūhou nui o UK. Hoʻohana ʻo SMC i ʻekolu mau hana nui e hoʻohuli i ka uhi ʻepekema, e like me kāna kiʻi wikiō:

  1. ʻO ka pane wikiwiki i ka wāwahi ʻana i nā nūhou me nā ʻōlelo manaʻo: Ke haki ka moʻolelo ʻepekema, "i loko o nā minuke he mau leka uila SMC i loko o nā pahu leta o kēlā me kēia mea kamaʻilio aupuni e hāʻawi nei i ka poʻe loea," wahi a Fox.
  2. Ke kiʻi mua ʻana i nā mea kūkala nūhou me ka noiʻi hou. Ua loaʻa iā SMC "ke kuleana kūpono e pili ana i 10-15 mau puke pai ʻepekema ma mua o ka hāpai ʻana o ka embargo" i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻomākaukau i nā ʻōlelo mua mai nā poʻe loea ʻaoʻao ʻekolu e hōʻailona ana inā he kūpono nā noi hou a pehea lākou e pono ai.
  3. Ke hoʻonohonoho nei ma kahi o 100 kaomi puʻupuʻu kahi makahiki i "hoʻonohonoho hoʻonohonoho i ka papa kuhikuhi" ma ka nui o nā kumuhana ʻepekema hoʻopaʻapaʻa e like me ka nukelea neoneo, biotechnology a me nā maʻi e kū nei.

Nā laʻana o ka hoʻohuli a me ka hoʻokalakiko

Ua hōʻike kekahi mau mea noiʻi a me nā kālaiʻike i ka mea a lākou e ʻōlelo nei ʻo ka hoʻokūkū pro-ʻoihana o SMC i nā kumuhana hoʻopaʻapaʻa, a me ka nui o ka hilinaʻi ʻana o ka poʻe nūpepa i ka manaʻo loea o SMC e hoʻopaʻa i nā moʻolelo ʻepekema.

Ka nele i nā kuanaʻike like ʻole

Ua loiloi ʻo Professor Connie St. Louis o ke Kulanui o City, Lākana, i ka hopena o SMC i ka hōʻike ʻepekema ma nā nūpepa ʻāina he 12 ma 2011 a me 2012, a loaʻa:

  • ʻAʻole hoʻohana ʻo 60% o nā ʻatikala e uhi ana i nā haʻi ʻōlelo SMC i kahi kumu kūʻokoʻa
  • 54% o nā "hōʻike manaʻo loea" i hāʻawi ʻia e SMC i ka haʻihaʻi nūhou i loko o ka manawa i uhi ʻia i loko o ka nūhou
    • I kēia mau moʻolelo, ʻaʻole hoʻohana ʻo 23% i kahi kumu kūʻokoʻa
    • ʻO kēlā mau mea i hana, 32% wale nō o nā kumuwaiwai kūwahi i hāʻawi i kahi manaʻo kūʻē i ka mea i hāʻawi ʻia e ka loea i ka hopena SMC.

"He nui aku nā mea nūpepa ma mua o ka pono e hoʻohana wale nei i nā loea mai ka SMC a ʻaʻole e nīnau i nā kumuwaiwai kūʻokoʻa," hoʻopau ʻo St.

ʻAʻole ʻepekema mau ka poʻe loea

Ua kālailai ʻo David Miller, polopeka o ka sociology mai ke Kulanui o Bath, UK, i ka ʻikepili SMC ma ka pūnaewele a ma o ke noi Freedom of Information Act, a hōʻike ʻia:

  • ʻAʻole kekahi o ka 20 o ka poʻe akamai he nui loa i haʻi ʻia ma SMC ʻaʻole he ʻepekema, e like me ka wehewehe ʻana ma ka loaʻa ʻana i kahi PhD a me ka hana ʻana ma kahi keʻena noiʻi a i ʻole kahi kaiāulu ʻike kiʻekiʻe, akā he poʻe lobbyist no a me nā CEO o nā hui ʻoihana.
  • ʻAʻole i hōʻike piha loa ʻia nā kumuwaiwai kālā ma ka pūnaewele.
  • ʻAʻohe mea i hōʻike ʻia no ka makemake o SMC i kahi mea leʻaleʻa, akā ua makemake ia i nā ʻāpana ʻoihana a me nā kumuhana i uhi ʻia "e hōʻike i nā mea nui a kā lākou mea kālā."

"Inā ʻōlelo ʻoe e ʻōlelo i nā ʻepekema a hoʻopau i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā lobbyist a me nā NGO, eia ka nīnau: pehea ʻoe e koho ai i nā lobbyists a i ʻole nā ​​NGO e loaʻa? No ke aha ʻoe i loaʻa ʻole ai i nā lobbyist e kūʻē nei i ka hoʻokolohua kūlohelohe a i ʻole nā ​​lālā o Greenpeace e hōʻike nei i ko lākou manaʻo ma mua o ke kūlana bioindustry? Hōʻike maoli kēlā i nā ʻano bias e hana nei, "wahi a Miller.

Lanakila ka wili rautaki ma luna o nā embryos hybrid kanaka / holoholona

I ka 2006, i ka wā a ke aupuni UK i manaʻo ai e pāpā ana i nā ʻepekema mai ka hoʻokumu ʻana i nā embryos hybrid kanaka-holoholona, ​​ua hoʻohui like ka SMC i nā hana e hoʻohuli i ka nānā ʻana o ka pāpāho mai nā hopohopo a me ka mea nui o nā embryos hybrid ma ke ʻano he mea noiʻi. 'atikala ma Kūlohelohe.

ʻO ka hoʻokūkū SMC "he lanakila lanakila ma nā pilina pāpāho" a "kuleana nui no ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ke kai eʻe o nā embryo hybrid kanaka," e like me kā Andy Williams, he mea noiʻi nūhou ma ke Kulanui o Cardiff, UK, nāna i alakaʻi i kālailai ma ka ʻaoʻao o SMC a me nā mea kākoʻo kaiāulu.

Ua loaʻa ʻo Williams:

  • Ma mua o 60% o nā kumuwaiwai i kākau ʻia e ka ʻepekema a me nā mea kūkala olakino - nā mea i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka SMC - i kākoʻo i ka noiʻi, a hoʻokahi hapahā wale nō o nā kumuwaiwai i kūʻē iā ia.
  • Ma ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, ua kamaʻilio ka poʻe nūpepa ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka SMC i nā ʻepekema kākoʻo ʻemi a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā mea kūʻē.

"Ua hopohopo ʻo Williams i kēia manawa no ka hana a SMC i alakaʻi ai i ka poʻe kūkala nūhou e hāʻawi i ka mahalo nui i nā ʻepekema, a na ia mea i kāohi i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa," Ua hōʻike ʻia ka ʻatikala kūlohelohe. He nīnauele me Williams i ʻO SciDevNet hōʻike pūʻulu:

"ʻO ka hapa nui o ka ʻōlelo i hoʻohana ʻia e wehewehe ai i nā ʻōlelo pōkole [SMC media briefing] koʻikoʻi he manawa kūpono ia na ka ʻepekema e wehewehe i ka ʻepekema i kā lākou ʻōlelo ponoʻī, akā - koʻikoʻi - ma ke ala kūlike ʻole a waiwai ʻole hoʻi," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. Akā nānā kēia i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o kēia mau hanana i mālama nui ʻia e hoʻokau nei i nā moʻolelo persuasive, ua hoʻohui ʻo ia, a ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia lākou e hoʻopaʻa i ka hopena o ka pāpāho no nā ʻepekema e pili ana. Ua hānai ʻia nā mea nūpepa ʻepekema loea i ka "kōkua kālā ʻike" e ka SMC a ʻoi aku paha ka nui o ka manaʻo ma mua o nā mea nūpepa ʻē aʻe e ʻōlelo i nā kumu pro-hybridisation, i ʻōlelo ʻo Williams.

Paipai i ka ʻike ʻoihana ma fracking

E like me ka Pepeluali 2015 ka nānā ʻana pāpāho alakaʻi ʻia e Paul Mobbs o Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, ua hāʻawi ʻo SMC i nā ʻōlelo loea he nui e pili ana i ka fracking ma waena o 2012-2015, akā ʻo ka lima o nā ʻepekema i hoʻomalu i ka ʻōlelo hoʻopuka mai nā kula me nā pilina kālā me ka ʻoihana wahie fossil a i ʻole nā ​​papahana noiʻi i kākoʻo ʻia e ka ʻoihana.

"Ke waiho nei ka hana a ka SMC i kahi nānā ʻololī o, i ka hapanui o nā hihia maikaʻi, nā manaʻo o ka palekana o ka fracking. Hoʻokumu ʻia kēia mau manaʻo i ke kūlana ʻoihana o ka poʻe e pili ana, a ʻaʻole i kākoʻo ʻia me nā kūmole i nā hōʻike e hōʻoia i ko lākou pono. A ʻo kēia, ua ʻōlelo pinepine ʻia kēia mau manaʻo i ka pāpāho me ka nīnau ʻole. ”

"I ka hihia o ka shale gas, ʻaʻole hāʻawi ka SMC i kahi ʻike kaulike o nā hōʻike i loaʻa, a me nā kānalua ʻole, i nā hopena o ka aila a me ka ʻaila kū ʻole. Ke hāʻawi nei ia i nā ʻōlelo mai nā mea ʻepekema e hōʻike nui ana i kahi manaʻo o 'UK hoʻokumu', e nānā ʻole i ke kino holoʻokoʻa o nā hōʻike i loaʻa i kēia pilikia mai USA, ʻAukekulia a me Kanada. "

Ke hōʻino nei i ka maʻi luhi maʻi maʻi 

A Kōpana 2013 na Malcolm Hooper, Polofesa Emeritus o Medicinal Chemistry, University of Sunderland, UK, i hoʻopiʻi iā SMC no ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā manaʻo o kekahi mau kauka lapaʻau, me ka hōʻole ʻole e hōʻike e pili ana i ka ʻepekema biomedical a me ke kaomi ʻana i ka "ideology a me ka propaganda o nā hui hoihoi" i loko o kāna pāpāho. hana i ka maʻi luhi mau loa / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Hōʻike ka pepa a Hooper e pili ana i nā loulou ma waena o ka SMC a me nā mea pāʻani nui i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa CFS / ME me nā pilina i ka ʻoihana ʻinikua, a hāʻawi i nā hōʻike o ka mea a Hooper i hōʻike ai e like me ka hoʻouka kaua a SMC e hoʻowahāwahā i ka poʻe me CFS / ME, a me kāna mau hana e hōʻike hewa ʻole i ka PACE nā hopena hoʻokolokolo i ka pāpāho. Pau ʻo ia, "ʻO kahi hui e hana i nā ʻano ʻepekema ākea loa ʻaʻole hiki ke loaʻa i kahi kuleana kūpono e hōʻike i ka ʻepekema."

No nā ʻike SMC, ʻike Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo 2018 ma CFS / ME "ka maʻi a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa."

ʻO ka palekana kelepona paʻalima a me nā mea kōkua telecom

A Kōpana 2006 na Don Maisch, PhD, "hāpai i nā hopohopo koʻikoʻi no ke kūlike ʻole o ke kuhi SMC i ke kamaʻilio ʻepekema ke hāʻawi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe loea e pili ana i nā pilikia hakakā inā he kuleana kekahi o ka SMC." Nānā ka pepa Maisch i nā kamaʻilio SMC e pili ana i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka uila uila a me ka palekana kelepona paʻalima, a hāʻawi i ka mea āna i kapa ai he "moʻolelo uncensored o ke ʻano SMC o ke kamaʻilio ʻepekema."

"ʻIke ʻia ka papahana o ka SIRC, SMC a me nā hui kōkua e kākoʻo i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni UK e paipai i ka ʻenehana ʻo Biotec a me nā telecommunications. Hōʻike paha kēia i ke kumu e hiki ai i ka poʻe me ka ʻole o ka māka maoli i ka kamaʻilio ʻepekema e kiʻi i nā kūlana i lilo i maka lehulehu o ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema Pelekane. Hoʻomaopopo pū ia ke kumu o ka hoʻokumu ʻepekema a me ka hoʻokumu olakino o UK, e ʻike nei i kahi ʻāpana nui o ke kālā ʻepekema e loaʻa mai nā kumuwaiwai ʻoihana, he mau hoa makemake e ʻae i nā ʻoihana PR me kahi papahana i hoʻoholo mua ʻia e kamaʻilio no lākou a lanakila i ke kulekele hoʻokele waiwai o ke aupuni no ka pono o ka lehulehu. . ”

Ke pale nei iā GMO

E like me ka mea i iho mai ma luna, ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā ʻaoʻao ʻepekema ʻelua a me kāna hui kaikuahine ʻo Sense About Science me nā papahana e pale ana i nā meaʻai ʻenekini. Hāʻawi pinepine ʻo SMC i ka poʻe loea e loiloi i nā noiʻi e hāpai i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā GMO. ʻO nā laʻana me:

I ka 2016, ua hoʻoneʻe ka ʻepekema i nā kūʻē loea o SMC a lākou i kuhi hewa ai i kā lākou hana ma GMO ʻO ke aʻo ʻana i alakaʻi ʻia e Michael Antoniou, PhD, poʻo o ka Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King's College London School of Medicine, a paʻi ʻia ma Hōʻike Pūnaewele, hoʻohana 'ana i ka pelekikena mole e hoʻohālikelike i ka mānoanoa o GMO i kona ʻaoʻao non-GM a hōʻike ʻia ʻo ka huaʻōla GM a me GM ʻole "ʻaʻole like iki." Ua hoʻopuka ʻo SMC i kahi nā hopena loea hoʻowahāwahā i ke aʻo ʻana, a ʻaʻole e ʻae i nā mea kākau e pane a hoʻoponopono paha i ka ʻike kūpono ʻole i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o SMC, e like me nā mea kākau noiʻi.

"ʻAʻole pololei kēia mau manaʻo [i ʻōlelo ʻia ma ka hoʻokuʻu SMC] a no laila hoʻolaha i nā hewa e pili ana i kā mākou pepa. Ua hoʻomaopopo ʻia mākou ʻaʻole ia ka kulekele o ka Science Media Center e kau ai i nā pane, e like me kā mākou, i nā ʻōlelo a ke komisina / kau ma kā lākou pūnaewele, "wahi a Antoniou. Nā mea kākau hoʻopaʻa haʻawina Kau ʻia kā lākou pane ma aneʻi.

Ua hōʻike ʻo Rebeka Wilce ka mea kākau moʻolelo i PR Nānā i ka 2014 ma kekahi mau laʻana o ka pro-GMO bias ma nā kamaʻilio SMC. Ua kākau ʻo ia:

Kāhea ʻo SMC iā ia iho i wahi kikowaena haʻiʻōlelo kūʻokoʻa no nā pilikia ʻepekema. Eia nō naʻe, nīnau ka poʻe loiloi i kona kūʻokoʻa mai ka ʻoihana GMO - me ka ʻōlelo a ka hui e hāʻawi wale ana kēlā me kēia hui a i ʻole nā ​​mea lawelawe ʻē aʻe i ʻelima pākēneka o ka loaʻa kālā o ka hui. e hoʻolako i nā wili GMO hou aʻe ma aneʻi.

ʻO SMC alakaʻi ʻia ka pane i kahi noi 2012 e hōʻike nei i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā tumors i nā holoholona lab i hānai ʻia nā GMO i kahi noiʻi hānai wā lōʻihi. Ua hōʻino ākea ʻia ke aʻo ʻana ma ka nūpepa, ua unuhi ʻia e ka puke pai mua a hoʻopuka hou ʻia i loko o kahi puke pai ʻē aʻe.

ʻO Media Coverage

ʻO Columbia Journalism Review ʻekolu ʻāpana moʻo, Iune 2013, "Nā Pūnaewele ʻApekema Pūnaewele a me ka Press"

Nature, na Ewen Callaway, Iulai 2013, "Pūnaewele ʻepekema: Ke kikowaena o ka nānā; Hoʻoholo ʻo Fiona Fox a me kāna Science Media Center e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka paʻi paʻi o Britain. Ke hoʻolaha nei ke k aroundkohu a puni ka honua ”

Nature, na Colin Macilwain, "ʻElua mau lāhui i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e kahi kumu maʻamau: ʻO nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohālikelike i ko Britain Media Science Center ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopiha ʻia me ka makaʻu"

Maikaʻi, na Stacy Malkan, Iulai 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Aia paha nā pilina paʻa i ka ʻepekema ʻikepili?"

ʻO SciDevNet, na Mićo Tatalović, Mei 2014, "ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka UK Media Science Center no ka hoʻokuke ʻana i ka ʻepekema ʻoihana" Center lamb

Nānā PR, na Rebekah Wilke, ʻApelila 2014, "Hoʻolaha ka Science Media Center Pro-GMO Line"

Ma ka hui pili Sense e pili ana i ka ʻepekema:

ʻO ke kuʻina, na Liza Gross, Nowemapa 2016, "Kanalua kanalua: Pehea nā kiaʻi ponoʻī o ka 'epekema kani' e kuhikuhi i nā unahi i ka ʻoihana."

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo USRTK: ʻIke e pili ana i ka ʻepekema-USA Luna Hoʻokele ʻo Trevor Butterworth Spins ʻEpekema no ka ʻOihana

Pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo USRTK: Ua hilinaʻi ʻo Monsanto i kēia mau 'hoa' e hoʻouka aku i nā ʻepekema maʻi ʻaʻai ʻoi loa

Nānā Hou: E hāʻule nei ke kūpaʻa ʻo Insect GMO; ʻO Crop Crop ma Jeopardy

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Na Carey Gillam 

Hoʻohui ʻia kahi noiʻi hou e hōʻike nei i ka maikaʻi o nā ʻano ʻenekini kaulana i hoʻohana ʻia no ka pale ʻana i ke kulina a me ka pulupulu mai nā mea kolo e hāʻule ʻole ana, e waiho ana i ka hiki i ka hana ʻana o ka palaoa US i ka pōpilikia, a me ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka pono no ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka insecticide.

ʻO ke aʻoʻana, i kākau ʻia e ka ʻekolu o nā mea noiʻi kūʻokoʻa, nā palapala kūʻē i kahi pest pest nui i kapa ʻia he earworm kulina, a hoʻohui ʻia i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i ka ʻenehana GMO insect-resistable kaulana i kapa ʻia ʻo Bt, ma hope o ka bacteria e noho ana i ka lepo ʻo Bacillus thuringiensis, ua nalowale kona kukuna. He mea nui ia e like me ka loiloi mua loa o ka wā lōʻihi, ka maikaʻi o ka transgenic Bt kūʻē i kekahi o nā mea ʻino maikaʻi loa o ke kulina momona, kulina māla, pulupulu a me nā mea kanu waiwai ʻē aʻe. Ma mua o ka paʻi ʻana i kā lākou mau mea i loaʻa, i uhi ʻia ma loko o 20 mau makahiki o ka nānā ʻana, ua hōʻike nā mea noiʻi iā lākou i ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a me nā hui i hoʻomohala a kūʻai aku i nā ʻano, i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Galen Dively, he entomologist University of Maryland a alakaʻi noiʻi no ke aʻo ʻana.

ʻO nā hua i hana ʻia me nā genes Bt e hōʻike i nā protein kikoʻī i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano (Cry proteins) hana i nā mea kanu i mea ʻawaʻawa i nā pepeke kikoʻī - hāʻawi pono nā mea kanu i kā lākou iho insecticide - e hoʻemi ana i ka pono o nā noi kemika. I ka 2015, ʻoi aku ma mua o 80 pākēneka o ka hua palaoa US i lawe ʻia ma kahi o hoʻokahi ʻano Bt. ʻO ka hapa nui o ke kulina i kanu ʻia i kēia manawa ua ʻenekini ʻia me nā proteins Bt Cry he nui, akā ʻo ka noiʻi hou e hōʻike ana ua hiki i ka ʻenekia (i kapa ʻia ka earworm i ke kulina akā ʻo ka bollworm i ka pulupulu) ke ola i nā ʻano ʻenekini i hana ʻia i loko o kahi ʻano pyramided. Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe i ka holo pono ʻole o nā ʻano i manaʻo ʻia e pale aku ai i ka rootworm kānana komohana pū kekahi, e waiho ana i nā mahiʻai e kū ana i nā pilikia nui a koʻikoʻi paha e like me ke kūʻē ʻana, e like me ka mea noiʻi.

"Me ka hoʻohana ākea o nā mea kanu i hana ʻenekini ʻia, ʻo nā mea kolo i hoʻomohala ʻia e kū kūʻē i kēia mau protein ʻo ia ka mea hoʻoweliweli nui i ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka ʻenehana Bt," i kākau ʻo Dilip Venugopal. i ka hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo o nā hopena a ka hui. "ʻO ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā pohō a ka earworm kānana i ka māla māla Bt i hōʻike ʻia ma North Carolina a me Georgia, a ua hiki i ka earworm kānana ke lilo i pest nui. Ke wānana nei mākou e piʻi aʻe ana paha ka pale earworm kānana i nā Cry toxins, a pāhola ʻia. No laila, kiʻekiʻe ka makaʻu o ka hōʻino ʻana i ka hana kulina ma kahi ʻāpana nui o US. ” ʻO Venugopal a ʻepekema a me nā ʻenehana ʻenehana pilikino hoa e hana nei me ka mahele o ka EPA.

Hoʻohui ka noiʻi i nā hōʻike ma hope o 20 mau makahiki o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea kanu i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau make a pale aku i kekahi mau mea ʻino ʻino, ke nalowale nei nā ʻenehana ʻelua. ʻO nā ʻano ʻelua i hoʻohana ākea ʻia o nā ʻano GMO ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana i ka glyphosate, hoʻomohala ʻia i nā soybeans, ka palaoa, ka pulupulu, ka canola a me nā mea kanu ʻē aʻe; a me ka Bt-ʻano kūpaʻa huhū. Akā ma ka liʻiliʻi he 70 miliona mau eka o ka ʻāina mahiʻai o US i lilo i nā nāhelehele kūpale kūpale glyphosate mai ka wā i hoʻolauna ʻia ai nā hua GMO. Pēlā nō hoʻi, ke hāpai nei nā ʻōuli o ke kūʻē ʻana i nā mea kolo i ka ʻenehana Bt i nā hopohopo ma o ke kāʻei mahiʻai no nā makahiki i hala. I ke kauwela i hala, ua paʻi ka ʻepekema i ka noiʻi e hōʻike ana i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka rootworm kulina kūʻē i nā protein Bt, a ua hōʻike ʻia nā pōʻino palaoa e ka poʻe mahiʻai. Ke hoʻohana nei nā mahiʻai i nā mea kanu he nui e hoʻāʻo e kāohi i nā nāhelehele kūpale, a hoʻi i ka hoʻohana insecticide e hakakā i nā mea kūpale kūpaka, i ʻōlelo nā loea mahiʻai.

ʻO Fred Gould, he entomologist ma ke Kulanui ʻo North Carolina State, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Dively ka hana he "haʻawina nui," ʻaʻole maikaʻi ia no ke olakino huaʻai i ka wā e hiki mai ana. A ua ʻōlelo ʻo University of Minnesota Extension Entomologist William Hutchinson ua hōʻike ka haʻawina i kahi pono no ka nānā pono ʻana i ke kūʻē ʻana i nā ʻano e holo mau nei. E like me ka hōʻike ʻana i ka noiʻi, aia kahi maikaʻi maikaʻi loa me nā ʻano i loaʻa nā Vip3A + Cry1Ab ʻelua, kuhikuhi ʻo ia.

ʻO kahi kuhi hewa nui ka hilinaʻi ʻana i ka ʻōnaehana "puʻuhonua-i-kahi-ʻeke" (RIB) i ʻae i nā mahiʻai e hōʻole i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i kahi ʻāpana o kā lākou māla ma ke ʻano he mau wahi me ka manu ʻole o ke ʻano Bt, kahi hana i hōʻoia e hoʻonāwaliwali i ke kūʻē ʻana. Me ka ʻōnaehana RIB, eia nō naʻe ua loaʻa nā mea noiʻi ua paipai maoli ka poʻe mahiʻai i ke kūpaʻa ʻana ma o ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā mahele haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa o ka Bt toxin i ka ʻai ʻana i nā mea kolo ma kā lākou mau māla, kahi i kōkua i ke kūkulu ʻana i nā kūpaʻa i nā kolo i ka manawa. ʻO nā hui ma hope o nā ʻano Bt ua paipai i ka puʻuhonua-i-kahi-ʻeke. ʻO ka pilikua nui ʻo Monsanto Co., ka mea loaʻa $ 5.8 biliona i ke kūʻai aku ʻana i nā ʻanoʻano kulina a me nā ʻano i ka makahiki i hala, ua hoʻomanaʻo ʻo ia kahi puʻuhonua-i kahi ʻeke he wikiwiki a maʻalahi hoʻi no nā mahiʻai, e ʻae ana iā lākou e kanu i ka ʻanoʻano loea. “Lālani pā i ka lālani pā."

Hāʻawi ka EPA i ka hewa nui no ka pilikia, e like me ka Office of Inspector General (OIG), hoʻohewa i ka ʻoihana i ka makahiki i hala no ka mālama ʻana i nā pilikia kūʻē. Ma waena o nā hana hewa ʻē aʻe, ua hilinaʻi nui ka ʻoihana i ka ʻanoano a me ka ʻenehana kemika e hōʻike iā ia iho i nā pilikia kūʻē, a ʻaʻole i hāʻawi i nā mahiʻai a i nā mea noiʻi paha i kahi ala pololei e hōʻike i nā hanana kūʻē i nā luna hoʻomalu, e like me ka OIG.

He mea hūnā hoʻi ka EPA me ka ʻike i loaʻa mai nā hui hua, mālama i nā hōʻike mālama a me ka nānā ʻana i ka ʻikepili mai ka lehulehu. "ʻO Transparency kahi waiwai nui EPA," i kākau ai ka OIG. "He ʻikepili ko ka EPA a me nā mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka transparency e pili ana i ka mālama ʻana i nā mea kanu ʻenekini e like me Bt corn."

ʻO ka hilinaʻi ʻana i ka ʻoihana e hōʻike ponoʻī i kahi pilikia kūikawā no ka mea aia he hōʻike ʻaʻole makemake e hana pēlā. ʻO kahi hihia Iowa o ke kūpale kūpaka i loaʻa ma 2009 ʻaʻole i hōʻike ʻia e like me ka mea ma mua, e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka OIG. Ke hana nei ka EPA e hoʻoponopono i nā hemahema i kau ʻia e ka OIG e ka waena waena o 2017.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ka EPA "ke hana nei i kahi kālailai o kēia aʻo a me nā ʻike ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ke kūpaʻa ʻana o ka earworm kānana a e hoʻoholo inā hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia nā hoʻolālā hoʻokele kūʻē i kēia manawa." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo EPA ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o kēlā hana, e mālama ia i kahi hālāwai ākea me kahi panela o nā ʻepekema aʻoaʻo ma hope o kēia makahiki.

Akā lōʻihi paha ka lohi. ʻO nā hana mahiʻai i hoʻāʻo ʻia e like me ka hoʻohuli ʻana i nā mea kanu a me ka hui ʻana o nā hoʻolālā ʻē aʻe e pono ai e hakakā i nā pilikia kūʻē. Ke hilinaʻi nei i kekahi ʻano o ke ʻano ʻenehana genetically engineered ma hope o ke kau e pau i ka hopena, e like me nā loea mahiʻai.

"ʻAʻohe mea hiki iā lākou ke hana e pili ana," i ʻōlelo ʻo Dively. "Aia kekahi hōʻike ikaika ikaika e maikaʻi ana ka maikaʻi," wahi a Dively.