Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi

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Moʻolelo Lōʻihi o nā hopohopo
Nā ʻepekema ʻepekema nui ma Aspartame
ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

Nā mea nui e pili ana i ka Diet Soda Chemical 

He aha ka Aspartame?

  • ʻO Aspartame ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni hoʻohana nui ʻia o ka honua. Kūʻai ʻia aku ʻo ia e like me NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet.
  • Aia ʻo Aspartame ma mua o 6,000 huahana, me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, Kool Aid, Crystal Light, Tango a me nā mea inu ʻono noʻeau ʻē aʻe; nā huahana Jell-O manuahi kō ʻole; Trident, Dentyne a me nā mana ʻē aʻe o ka gum-free sugar; nā candies ʻoʻoleʻa kō; nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a ʻaʻ ʻole kō e like me nā ketchup a me nā ʻaʻahu; nā kauka lāʻau a nā keiki, nā wikamina a me nā kulu hā.
  • ʻO Aspartame kahi kemika synthetic i haku ʻia o nā amino acid phenylalanine a me aspartic acid, me kahi ester methyl. Ke hoʻopau ʻia, haki ka methyl ester i methanol, a hiki ke hoʻolilo ʻia i formaldehyde.

Hāpai nā Kūkākūkā he mau makahiki e pili ana iā Aspartame

Ma muli o ka ʻae ʻia ʻana o aspartame ma 1974, ua hāpai nā ʻepekema ʻelua o ka FDA a me nā ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā hopena olakino hiki a me nā hemahema i ka ʻepekema i waiho ʻia i ka FDA e ka mea hana, ʻo GD Searle. (Ua kūʻai ʻo Monsanto iā Searle i ka makahiki 1984).

I ka 1987, ua paʻi ʻo UPI i kahi mau ʻatikala noiʻi na Gregory Gordon e hōʻike nei e pili ana i kēia mau hopohopo, e like me nā noiʻi mua e pili ana i ka aspartame i nā pilikia olakino, ka maikaʻi maikaʻi ʻole o ka noiʻi kālā i loaʻa i ka ʻoihana e alakaʻi ai i kāna ʻae ʻia, a me nā pilina pili puka ma waena o nā luna o FDA a me ka ʻoihana meaʻai. ʻO Gordon's series kahi waiwai nui no kēlā me kēia e ʻimi nei e hoʻomaopopo i ka mōʻaukala o aspartame / NutraSweet:

Flaws i ka loiloi ʻia EFSA

Ma Iulai 2019 pepa ma ka Waihona Palapala Ola, ua hāʻawi nā kānaka noiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Sussex i kahi anamanaʻo kikoʻī o ka loiloi palekana EFSA's 2013 o aspartame a ua ʻike ʻia ua hōʻemi ʻia ka panela me he mea lā ʻaʻole hiki ke hilinaʻi ʻia i kēlā me kēia 73 o nā haʻawina i hōʻike i ka ʻino, a hoʻohana i nā pae lax ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e ʻae he 84% kūpono o nā noi ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi hōʻike o ka hōʻino. "Hāʻawi ʻia i nā hemahema o kā EFSA hōʻike loiloi weliweli o ka aspartame, a me nā hemahema o nā loiloi kūpilikiʻi kūpilikiʻi kūlohelohe mua o aspartame, he mea maʻa mau loa ka hoʻopau ʻana e ʻae ʻia ka palekana," hoʻopau ʻia ke aʻo ʻana.

ike Ka pane a EFSA a me ka ukali e nā mea noiʻi ʻo Erik Paul Millstone lāua ʻo Elizabeth Dawson i ka waihona o ka Health Public, No ke aha i hoʻoliʻiliʻi ai ʻo EFSA i kāna ADI no aspartame a paipai paha e hoʻohana hou ʻole ʻia kāna hoʻohana? Hōʻike hou:

  • "Pono e pāpā ʻia nā mea hoʻonaninani kaulana loa o ka honua, i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā loea. Ua kāhea nā mea loea palekana i ka meaʻai no ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana nui ʻia, aspartame, e pāpā ʻia ma UK a me nā nīnau no ke aha i manaʻo ʻia he ʻoluʻolu ia i ka mua. Nūpepa Mea Hou Meaʻai (11.11.2020) 
  • "'E kāpae ʻia ke kūʻai aku ʻana o aspartame': hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo EFSA no ka bias i ka loiloi palekana," na Katy Askew, Mea Hoʻokele Meaʻai (7.27.2019)

Nā hopena olakino a me nā noi nui  

ʻOiai nā noiʻi he nui, ua kākoʻo kekahi o lākou ʻoihana, ʻaʻohe pilikia me ka aspartame, he nui o nā noiʻi kūʻokoʻa i mālama ʻia i loko o nā makahiki he nui i hoʻopili i ka aspartame i kahi papa inoa lōʻihi o nā pilikia olakino, e like me:

Cancer

I loko o ka noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai piha loa i kēia lā ma aspartame, ʻekolu mau aʻo ola i mālama ʻia e ka Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center o ka Ramazzini Institute, hāʻawi mau i ka hōʻike o ka carcinogenicity i nā rodents i hōʻike ʻia i ka lāʻau.

  • ʻO Aspartame "kahi māhoe carcinogenic multipotential, ʻoiai ma kahi o kēlā me kēia lā o ka… ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o ka lawe ʻia o kēlā me kēia lā," e like me ka 2006 i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka ʻiole ola i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.1
  • Ua loaʻa kahi noiʻi ukali i ka makahiki 2007 i ka piʻi ʻana o ka maʻi maʻi i loko o kekahi o nā ʻiole. "Nā hualoaʻa ... hōʻoia a hoʻokūpaʻa i ka hōʻike hoʻokolohua mua loa o ka [aspartame] multipotential carcinogenicity ma kahi pae ma kahi kokoke i ka ʻai o kēlā me kēia lā no nā kānaka ... ke hoʻomaka ke ola ʻana i ke ola i ka wā o ke fetal life, ua hoʻonui ʻia nā hopena carcinogenic," i kākau nā mea noiʻi. i loko o Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.2
  • ʻO nā hopena o kahi noiʻi ola 2010 "e hōʻoia i ka [aspartame] kahi mea hana carcinogenic i nā pūnaewele he nui i nā rodents, a ua hoʻokomo ʻia kēia hopena i nā ʻano ʻelua, nā ʻiole (kāne a wahine) a me nāʻiole (kāne)," i hōʻike ʻia e ka poʻe noiʻi. Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana.3

Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Harvard ma 2012 i kahi hui maikaʻi ma waena o ka lawe ʻana o aspartame a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka pilikia o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a me nā myeloma he nui i nā kāne, a no ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine. ʻO nā hopena "mālama i ka hopena o kahi hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ma nā maʻi ʻūlū koho" akā "ʻaʻole e ʻae i ka hoʻoholo ʻana ma waho o kahi manawa he wehewehe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.4

I loko o kahi manaʻo 2014 i Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana, ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo Maltoni Center i nā noiʻi i waiho ʻia e GD Searle no ka ʻae ʻia o ka mākeke “ʻaʻole e hāʻawi i ke kākoʻo ʻepekema kūpono no ka palekana [aspartame]. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, nā hopena hou o ke ola ʻana o ke ola kino olaola i nāʻiole a me nāʻiole i paʻi ʻia i loko o nā puke pai i nānā ʻia e nā hoa, a me kahi noiʻi epidemiological e hiki mai ana, e hāʻawi i nā hōʻike kūpaʻa o ka hiki i ka carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ma ke kumu o nā hōʻike e pili ana i nā hopena carcinogenic kūpono… a me ka loiloi hou ʻana i ke kūlana o nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho kūwaho e pono ai e noʻonoʻo ʻia he mea nui o ke olakino lehulehu. "5

Brain hikoko

I ka makahiki 1996, ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi i ka Ka Nupepa o Neuropathology & Neurology Hoʻokolohua ma nā hōʻike epidemiological e pili ana i ka hoʻolauna ʻana o aspartame i ka hoʻonui ʻana i kahi ʻano kūpikipiki o nā tumors lolo malignant. "Hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuwaiwai ʻē aʻe e pili pili ana i nā tumors lolo, ʻo ka aspartame mea hoʻonaninani he moho hoʻohiki e wehewehe i ka piʻi hou ʻana o ka hanana a me ke ʻano o ka maʻi ʻōpū o ka lolo.6

  • Ua haʻi ʻia e Neuros Scientist ʻo Kauka John Olney, ka mea kākau o ke aʻo ʻana 60 mau minuke i ka makahiki 1996: "Ua nui ka piʻi ʻana o ka hanana o nā puʻuwai lolo malignant (i loko o ʻekolu a ʻelima mau makahiki ma hope o ka ʻae ʻia o ka aspartame) ... lawa pono ke kumu e manaʻo ai i ka aspartame e pono e hōʻoia hou ʻia. Pono ʻo FDA e hoʻoponopono hou iā ia, a i kēia manawa, pono e hana ʻo FDA. ”

Ua loaʻa nā ʻike mua i ka aspartame i nā makahiki 1970 i ka ʻike o nā tumors lolo i loko o nā holoholona laboratory, akā ʻo kēlā mau noiʻi ʻaʻole i ukali ʻia.

ʻO ka maʻi Cardiovascular 

A 2017 meta-analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”7 E nānā i kekahi:

  • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
  • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 He pepa 2016 ma Physiology & Hana ua hōʻike ʻia, "aia kahi hui like ʻana ma waena o nā hopena mai ka noiʻi holoholona a me nā helu nui o ka nānā ʻana i nā wā lōʻihi i nā kānaka, i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka hoʻonui nui ʻana o ke kaupaona, adiposity, incidence of obesity, cardiometabolic risk, a me ka make paha ma waena o nā kānaka me ka maʻi mau, hōʻike i kēlā me kēia lā i nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa calorie haʻahaʻa - a pīhoihoi kēia mau hopena. "8

ʻO nā wahine i ʻai i nā mea inu iʻoi aku ma mua o ʻelua mau inu inu i kēlā me kēia lā "ua ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hopena o ka hanana [maʻi maʻi maʻi] ... Ka Buke Helu o ke Olakino Lapaʻau Launa.9

Hahau, Dementia a ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer

ʻO ka poʻe e inu nei i ka soda ʻai i kēlā me kēia lā ʻaneʻane ʻekolu mau manawa e hoʻomohala i ka hahau a me ka dementia e like me ka poʻe i ʻai ia pule i kēlā me kēia pule a ʻoi iki paha. Ua komo kēia i kahi kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ischemic stroke, kahi i ʻauʻa ʻia ai nā kīʻaha koko i loko o ka lolo, a ʻo Alzheimer ka maʻi dementia, ke ʻano maʻamau o ka dementia, i hōʻike ʻia 2017 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Stroke.10

  • E nānā i kekahi: Ke Kula Kaiapuni Kula Nui o Boston o ke aʻo ʻana e ka neurologist ʻo Matthew Pase, "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā ʻo Sodas, nā wai huaʻai a me nā Sodas sweetening ʻona e hoʻopili i ka lolo."
  • "Loulou nā loulou i ka sodaʻai i mea e ʻoi aku ai ke kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ahulau, dementia," na Fred Barbash, ʻO Washington Post (4.21.2017)

I ke kino, ka methyl ester i aspartame metabolize i loko metanola a laila hiki ke hoʻohuli ʻia i formaldehyde, i pili i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer. Ua aʻo ʻia kahi ʻaoʻao ʻelua i ka makahiki 2014 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka maʻiʻo Alzheimer hoʻohui i ka methanol mau loa i ka nalowale hoʻomanaʻo ʻana a me nā ʻōuli o ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer i nāʻiole a me nā mōʻī.

  • "Ua hōʻike ʻia nā ʻiole ʻai like ʻole me ka ethanol [M] me nā ʻōuli AD-like… Ua hoʻohui kēia mau mea i ka nui o nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka formaldehyde i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer] maʻi." (Part 1)11
  • "ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka etanol ka mea i hana i nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe lōʻihi a hoʻomau e pili ana i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer]… Kākoʻo kēia mau hopena i kahi kino e ulu nei i nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka methanol a me kāna metabolite formaldehyde i [ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer]." (Part 2)12

Ka hopu

"Aspartame ʻike ʻia e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka nalu ʻo EEG spike i nā keiki me ka hopu ʻole ʻia. Pono e aʻo hou e hoʻokumu inā loaʻa kēia hopena ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me nā ʻano hopu ʻē aʻe, "e like me kahi noiʻi 1992 i ʻO ke olakino.13

ʻO Aspartame "kahi hana e hāpai ana i ka hopu ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona holoholona i hoʻohana ākea ʻia e ʻike ai i nā mea hoʻohui e pili ana… ka hopena hopu," e like me kahi noi 1987 i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.14

ʻO nā mahele aspartame kiʻekiʻe loa "hiki paha ke hoʻopili i ka likelike o ka hopu ʻana i ka simptomless akā maʻalahi ka poʻe," e like me kahi noiʻi 1985 i ʻO ka Lancet. Hoʻomaopopo ka noiʻi i ʻekolu mau mākua olakino olakino i loaʻa i ka maʻi nui i nā wā ke hoʻopau lākou i nā kaona kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame.15

ʻO Neurotoxicity, Pōʻino lolo a me nā maʻi Mood

Ua hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i nā pilikia pili i ka lawena a me ka noʻonoʻo me ka pilikia o ke aʻo ʻana, ka ʻeha poʻo, ka hopu ʻana, ka migraines, nā ʻano huhū, ka pīhoihoi, ke kaumaha, a me ka hiamoe ʻole, ua kākau nā mea noiʻi o kahi noi 2017 ma ʻO Neuroscience Nutritional. "Pono e hoʻokokoke me ka akahele ma muli o ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka aspartame ma muli o nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino neurobeh behavioral."16

"Ua hoʻololi maoli ka aspartame waha i ka lawena, kūlana anti-oxidant a me morphology o ka hippocampus i nāʻiole; no paha, hoʻonāukiuki paha ia i ka neurogenesis mākua hippocampal, "i hōʻike ʻia i kahi noi 2016 ma ʻO Neurobiology o ke aʻo ʻana a me ka hoʻomanaʻo.17 

"Ma mua, ua hōʻike ʻia hiki i ka ʻai ʻana o aspartame ke hana i nā haunaele neurological a me nā lawena i nā poʻe pilikino. ʻO nā poʻo poʻo, ka hiamoe a me ka hopu ʻana kekahi o nā hopena neurological i loaʻa, "e like me kahi noi 2008 i ka ʻO ka European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. "Hāʻawi ʻia [W] i ke komo ʻana o ka ingartartame ingests i loko o ke pathogenesis o kekahi mau maʻi noʻonoʻo ... a i loko nō hoʻi o ka aʻo ʻana a me ka hana naʻau."18 

"(N) nā hōʻailona Eurological, me ke aʻo ʻana a me nā kaʻina hana hoʻomanaʻo, pili paha i ka kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻawaʻawa o ka mea hoʻomomona [aspartame] metabolites," i ʻōlelo ʻia kahi noiʻi 2006 i ʻĀina noiʻi lāʻau.19

"Hiki iā Aspartame ke hoʻopōʻino i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua," e like me kahi noiʻi mice 2000 i paʻi ʻia ma Nā Palapala Toxicology.20

"(I) ʻike nā makaʻāina me nā maʻi maʻi i ʻano koʻikoʻi loa i kēia mea hoʻoheheʻe ʻino a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kēia heluna kanaka e pono e hoʻonāwaliwali," e like me kahi noi 1993 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka Psychiatry Biological.21

ʻO nā lāʻau kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame "hiki ke hana i nā hoʻololi neurochemical nui i nāʻiole," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noi ma 1984 i Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.22

Ua hōʻike nā hoʻokolohua i ka hōʻino o ka lolo i nāʻiole pēpē ma hope o ka waha o ka aspartate, a e hōʻike ana he "ʻawaʻawa ka aspartate i ka ʻiole pēpē ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa o ka lawe ʻana o ka waha," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ma 1970. Nature.23

He wāwae a me Migraines

"ʻO Aspartame, kahi mea hoʻowalewale dietetic, e hoʻonāukiuki paha i ka ʻeha o ke poʻo i kekahi mau kanaka maʻalahi. Ma aneʻi, wehewehe mākou i ʻekolu mau hihia o nā wahine ʻōpio me ka migraine i hōʻike i ko lākou ʻeha poʻo i hiki ke hoʻonāukiuki ʻia e ka nau ʻana i ka kāpili kō ʻole i loaʻa ka aspartame, "e like me ka pepa 1997 i Puke Pai Headache.24

ʻO kahi hoʻokolokolo hoʻokalakupua e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo i paʻi ʻia ma 1994 i ʻO ke olakino, "Hāʻawi i nā hōʻike i, i waena o nā kānaka me nā maʻi poʻo ponoʻī i hōʻike ʻia iā lākou iho ma hope o ke komo ʻana o ka aspartame, kahi subset o kēia hui e hōʻike hou aku i nā poʻo hina ke hoʻāʻo ʻia ma lalo o nā kūlana i kāohi ʻia. ʻIke ʻia e maʻalahi paha kekahi poʻe i ka maʻi poʻo i hoʻokumu ʻia e aspartame a makemake paha e kaupalena i kā lākou ʻai ʻana. "25

ʻO kahi ana ʻana o nā mea maʻi he 171 ma ka Hale Mīkini Lapaʻau Lapaʻau ʻo Montefiore i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka poʻe maʻi me ka migraine “ua hōʻike ʻia ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he piʻi ʻekolu manawa ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā ʻano ʻeha ʻeha ʻē aʻe ... ”1989 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Puke Pai Headache.26

Hoʻohālikelike kahi hoʻokolokolo kūlike e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo ma ke alapine a me ka ikaika o ka migraines. Puke Pai Headache.27

Hoʻoiho i nā hana hōʻino

ʻO ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o ʻelua mau lawelawe i kēlā me kēia lā o ka soda momona i hoʻopili ʻia "e pili ana me ka hoʻonui pālua he 2 no ka emi ʻana o ka hana hakuʻala ma nā wahine," e like me kahi noi 2011 i ka Ka Nūpepa Lapaʻau o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o Nephrology.28

Loaʻa Kālā, Hoʻonui i ka Appetite a me nā pilikia e pili ana i ka nui

Loulou kekahi mau noiʻi i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona. E ʻike i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo: ʻO ka Diet Soda Chemical i hoʻopili ʻia i ke Kaumaha.

Ke hoʻopili nei kēia ʻepekema i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona ʻana a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona e hāpai i nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kūpono o ke kūʻai ʻana i nā huahana aspartame-i loaʻa he "ʻai" a i ʻole kōkua kōkua kaumaha. I ka makahiki 2015, ua noi ʻo USRTK i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina a FDA e nānā i nā hana kūʻai aku a me nā hoʻolaha ʻana o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika i hoʻopili ʻia i ka loaʻa kaumaha. E ʻike nūhou pili uhi, pane mai FTC, a pane mai FDA.

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic (kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes type 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi) e like me kahi noi ma 2017 i Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism. I kēia noi ʻana, ua loaʻa nā ʻiole i loaʻa i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i ka nui o ke kaupaona a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā papaʻai like nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻo nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e pāpā ʻia e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka nele o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."29

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua pili nā mea inu kō a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hana maikaʻi maikaʻi ma ka hopena T2D ma waena o nā quartiles o ka hoʻohana ʻana no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai, ”i hōʻike ʻia ma ka noi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.31

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”32

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."33

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"34

 Nā Abnormalities o ka hāpaiʻana: hānau mua o ka wā hānau 

Wahi a kahi hui pūʻulu 2010 o 59,334 Denemaka wahine hāpai i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali, "Aia kahi hui ma waena o ka lawe ʻana i nā mea inu momona a me nā wai ʻole noncarbonated a me ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka makaʻi o ka lawe mua ʻana." Ua pau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā o nā mea inu momona momona i hoʻonui ʻia ka makaʻu o ka lawe mua ʻana."35

  • E nānā hoʻi: "Downing Diet Soda i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka hānau mua ʻole," na Anne Harding, Reuters (7.23.2010)

ʻO nā pēpē momona

Hoʻopili ʻia ka inu mea inu me ka mea inu i ka wā o ka hāpai ʻana i ka papa inoa nui o ke kino no nā pēpē, e like me kahi noi 2016 i Nā Jedia Pediatrics. "I ko mākou ʻike, hāʻawi mākou i ka hōʻike kanaka mua loa i ka ʻai ʻana o ka makuahine i nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka wā hāpai e hoʻohuli i ka BMI pēpē," i kākau ai nā mea noiʻi.36

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "ʻO Diet Soda i ka hāpai ʻana e pili ana i nā pēpē momona," na Nicholas Bakalar, New York Times (5.11.2016)

ʻO Menarche mua

ʻO ka National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study i ukali i nā kaikamahine 1988 no 10 mau makahiki e nānā i nā hui e kū nei ma waena o ka ʻai ʻana o ke kō a me nā kō ʻole i caffeine ʻia - a me nā mea inu momona a me nā menarche mua. "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu momona momona caffeine a ʻoluʻolu hoʻi e pili pono me ka makaʻu o nā menarche mua i kahi cohort o ʻAmelika ʻAmelika a me nā kaikamahine Caucasian," i pau i ka noi i paʻi ʻia ma 2015 i Ka Nūpepa o ka ʻAi Lapaʻau ʻAmelika.37

Pōʻino Sperm

"Ua ʻike ʻia kahi hōʻemi nui o ka hana spermame o nā holoholona i mālama ʻia aspartame ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka kaohi a me ka MTX kaohi," e like me kahi noi 2017 i ka Ka Palapala'Ōiwi Aupuni o kaʻIke. "… Hōʻike kēia mau hopena i hiki i nā metabolite aspartame ke lilo i mea kōkua no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ke koʻikoʻi oxidative i ka epididymal sperm."38

ʻO ka hōʻino a me ka make ʻana o Glutathione

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma ʻO Biology Redox ua hōʻike ʻia, "ʻO ka lawelawe pinepine ʻana o aspartame… ua hōʻeha ʻia ka ate a me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia o nā pae hepatic o ka glutathione i hoʻemi ʻia, glutathione oxidized, γ-glutamylcysteine, a me ka hapa nui o nā metabolites o ke ala trans-sulphuration ..."39

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma Nānāʻau Nutrition ʻike ʻia, "Loaʻa i ka inu inu a aspartame paha i hyperglycemia a me hypertriacylglycerolemia… Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hoʻololi cytoarchitecture i ke akepaʻa, e like me ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa, infiltration, nekrosis, a me fibrosis, me ka aspartame. Hōʻike kēia mau ʻike i ka lawe lōʻihi ʻana o ka inu momona a i ʻole aspartame-i hoʻokomo ʻia i ka hōʻino hepatic ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i ka hyperglycemia, ka hōʻiliʻili lipid, a me ke koʻikoʻi oxidative me ke komo pū ʻana o adipocytokines. "40

Ka akahele no nā heluna kanaka maʻalahi

He hōʻike moʻokalaleo 2016 e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi i ka ʻO India Journal of Pharmacology ua hōʻike ʻia, “aia kekahi manaʻo paʻa ʻole nā hōʻike e kākoʻo i ka hapa nui o kā lākou hoʻohana a me kekahi mau noiʻi hou ʻana e hōʻike nei i kēia mau pōmaikaʻi i hoʻokumu mua ʻia ... ʻaʻole paha ia he ʻoiaʻiʻo. " ʻO nā heluna kūpono e like me nā wahine hāpai a lactating, nā keiki, nā diabetic, migraine, a me nā mea maʻi epilepsy "pono ​​e hoʻohana i kēia huahana me ke akahele loa."41

ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana a me nā pūʻulu mua 

Mai ka hoʻomaka, GD Searle (ma hope ʻo Monsanto a me ka NutraSweet Company) hoʻolauna i nā hana PR mehana e kūʻai aku i ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he huahana palekana. I ʻOkakopa 1987, Gregory Gordon i hōʻike ʻia ma UPI:

"Ua uku aku ka NutraSweet Co. a $ 3 miliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki no ka hana 100-kanaka i nā pilina lehulehu e nā keʻena ʻo Chicago o Burson Marsteller, kahi limahana o ka New York PR firm i ʻōlelo ai. Ua ʻōlelo ka limahana ua hoʻolimalima ʻo Burson Marsteller i nā ʻepekema a me nā kauka he nui, he $ 1,000 mau i kēlā me kēia lā, e pale aku i ka mea momona ma nā nīnauele nūhou a me nā kolamu lehulehu. Ua hōʻole ʻo Burson Marsteller e kūkākūkā i kēia mau mea. ”

Hōʻike nā hōʻike hou e pili ana i nā palapala ʻoihana kūloko e hōʻike ana i ka uku ʻana o nā ʻoihana inu e like me Coca-Cola i nā ʻelele o ka ʻaoʻao ʻekolu, e like me nā kauka a me nā ʻepekema, e paipai i kā lākou huahana a hoʻololi i ka hewa ke hoʻopaʻa nā ʻepekema i kā lākou huahana i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

E ʻike i ka hōʻike a Anahad O'Connor i ka New York Times, Candice Choi i ka hui pu Press, a me nā mea i loaʻa mai ka Nānā ʻo USRTK e pili ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻoihana kō a me nā hoʻolaha lobbying.

Nā ʻatikala nūhou e pili ana i nā pāʻina PR ʻoihana soda:

Nā moʻolelo kūkala nūhou e pili ana i aspartame:

Nā Pepa Pono ʻo USRTK

Nā hōʻike ma nā pūʻulu mua a me nā hoʻolaha PR

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

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[2] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. "ʻO ke ola ākea i nā lāʻau haʻahaʻa o ka aspartame e hoʻomaka ana i ke ola prenatal e hoʻonui i nā hopena maʻi ʻaʻai i nāʻiole." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 2007 Sep; 115 (9): 1293-7. PMID: 17805418. (Haawina)

[3] Soffritti M et al. "Hoʻokele ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ka hānai, hoʻomaka prenatally ma o ke ola, hoʻonāukiuki i nā maʻi ʻaʻai o ke akepaʻa a me ka akemāmā i nā ʻiole Swiss kāne." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2010 Kekemapa; 53 (12): 1197-206. PMID: 20886530. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[4] ʻO Schernhammer ES, Bertrand KA, Birmann BM, Sampson L, Willett WC, Feskanich D., "Kaʻai ʻana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻono - a me ka soda i loaʻa i ke kō a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma a me ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec; 96 (6): 1419-28. PMID: 23097267. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[5] Soffritti M1, Padovani M, Tibaldi E, Falcioni L, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F., "Nā hopena carcinogenic o ka aspartame: Ka pono nui no ka loiloi hou ʻana i ka hoʻokele." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2014 ʻAropa; 57 (4): 383-97. hana: 10.1002 / ajim.22296. Epub 2014 Ian 16. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[6] Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN. "Ke hoʻonui nei i nā helu tumo lolo: aia kekahi loulou i aspartame?" ʻO J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Nov; 55 (11): 1115-23. PMID: 8939194. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[7] Azad, Meghan B., et al. Nā meaʻono nonnutritive a me ke olakino cardiometabolic: kahi loiloi ʻōnaehana a me nā aniani-aniani o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi cohort prospective. KEKAHI Lulai 17, 2017 mahuka ana. 189 ʻaʻole. 28 doi: 10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[8] ʻO Fowler SP. Hoʻohana ka mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa-calorie a me ke kaulike ikehu: Nā hopena mai nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i nā holoholona, ​​a me nā noiʻi prospective nui i nā kānaka. ʻO Physiol Behav. 2016 ʻOkakopa 1; 164 (Pt B): 517-23. hana: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2016.04.047. Epub 2016 Apr 26. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[9] Vyas A et al. "Ka inu inu ʻana i ka papaʻai a me ka hopena o nā hanana Cardiovascular: kahi hōʻike mai ka Initiative Health Women." J Gen Intern Med. 2015 ʻApel; 30 (4): 462-8. hana: 10.1007 / s11606-014-3098-0. Epub 2014 Dec 17. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[10] ʻO Matthew P. Pase, PhD; ʻO Jayandra J. Himali, PhD; Alexa S. Beiser, PhD; Hugo J. Aparicio, MD; ʻO Claudia L. Satizabal, PhD; Ramachandran S. Vasan, MD; Sudha Seshadri, MD; Paul F. Jacques, DSc. "ʻO nā mea inu kō a me nā mea ʻono i hana ʻono ʻia a me nā pōʻino o ka maʻi ahulau a me Dementia. Ka Haʻawina Cohort Prospective. ” Hahau. 2017 ʻApelila; STROKEAHA.116.016027 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[11] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o ka methanol (ʻāpana 1): ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka methanol mau loa i alakaʻi ʻia i nā hemahema hoʻomanaʻo a me ka Tau Hyperphosphorylation ma nāʻiole." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[12] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o Methanol (ʻĀpana 2): Nā haʻawina mai ʻehā Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) ʻo Fed Methanol mau." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[13] Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Dooley JM, Gordon K, Jollymore S, Weaver DF. "Hoʻonui ka Aspartame i ka EEG spike-nalu hoʻokuʻu i nā keiki me ka epilepsy absent generalised: kahi papa hoʻomalu makapō makapō." Neurology. 1992 Mei; 42 (5): 1000-3. PMID: 1579221. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[14] Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena neurologic paha o aspartame, kahi mea hoʻohui meaʻai i hoʻohana ākea ʻia." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 1987 Nov; 75: 53-7. PMID: 3319565. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[15] Wurtman RJ. "Aspartame: hiki i ka hopena o ka hopu ʻana i ka susceptibility." Lancet. 1985 Nov 9; 2 (8463): 1060. PMID: 2865529. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[16] Choudhary AK, Lee YY. "Nā hōʻailona Neurophysiological a me aspartame: He aha ka pilina?" Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15: 1-11. hana: 10.1080 / 1028415X.2017.1288340. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[17] Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ, Nwoha PU. "Aspartame a me ka hippocampus: Hōʻike i kahi alakaʻi bi-directional, dose / dependant a me ka neʻe ʻana o ka morphological i nāʻiole." Neurobiol Koʻo Mem. 2017 Mar; 139: 76-88. hana: 10.1016 / j.nlm.2016.12.021. Epub 2016 Dec 31. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[18] ʻO Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naudé H. "Nā hopena a pololei ʻole o nā cellular o ka aspartame ma ka lolo." ʻO Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 62 (4): 451-62. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[19] Tsakiris S, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Simintzi I, Schulpis KH. "Ka hopena o nā metabolite aspartame i ka hana acetylcholinesterase membrane erythrocyte kanaka." ʻO Pharmacol Res. 2006 Ian; 53 (1): 1-5. PMID: 16129618. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[20] Pāka CH mā. "Hoʻopilikia ka glutamate a me ka aspartate i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua." ʻO Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mei 19; 115 (2): 117-25. PMID: 10802387. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[21] Walton RG, Hudak R, Green-Waite R. "Nā hopena maikaʻi ʻole i ka aspartame: ʻaʻa makapō makapō makapō i nā mea maʻi mai kahi lāhui nawaliwali." ʻO J. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Jul 1-15; 34 (1-2): 13-7. PMID: 8373935. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[22] Yokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena o ka aspartame a me ka hoʻokele glucose i ka pae o ka lolo a me ka plasma o nā amino acid kūlike ʻole a me ka lolo 5-hydroxyindoles." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Jul; 40 (1): 1-7. PMID: 6204522. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[23] Olney JW, Ho OL. "Ka poino o ka lolo ma nāʻiole pēpē e pili ana i ka waha o ka Glutamate, Aspartate a i ʻole Cysteine." Kūlohelohe. 1970 Aug 8; 227 (5258): 609-11. PMID: 5464249. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

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[25] Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT Jr, van Belle G, Daling JR, McKnight B. "Hoʻokomo ʻia ka aspartame a me nā poʻo hina: kahi hoʻāʻo crossover randomized." Neurology. 1994ʻOkakopa; 44 (10): 1787-93. PMID: 7936222. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

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[27] Koehler SM, Glaros A. "ʻO ka hopena o ka aspartame i ka maʻi migraine." ʻEha poʻo. 1988 Pepeluali; 28 (1): 10-4. PMID: 3277925. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[28] ʻO Julie Lin lāua ʻo Gary C. Curhan. "ʻO nā hui o ke kō a me ka Soda ʻoluʻolu ʻimi hoʻopunipuni me Albuminuria a me nā hana hakuʻala e hōʻole i nā wahine." ʻO Clin J Am Soc Nefrol. 2011 Ian; 6 (1): 160-166. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[29] Gul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Hoʻohālikelike paha ka pāpā ʻana o ka ʻōpū ʻōpū i ka phalphasease alkal i loko o ka ʻōpū pehea e hāpai ai ka aspartame i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose a me ka momona i nāʻiole. ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Ian; 42 (1): 77-83. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. Epub 2016 Nov 18. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[30] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hoʻokumu nā mea ʻono hana i ka hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441. (Haawina)

[31] ʻO Guy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "ʻO ka inu ʻana i nā mea inu ʻono a me ke kō a me nā ʻano ʻano like ʻole i ʻike ʻia ma ka Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de lʻEduction Nationale – ʻEulopa ʻosplelo Pelekikena Prospective Investigation i ka cohort maʻi ʻaʻai a me Nutr." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2, Ian 2013; hana: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[32] ʻO Suez J et al. "Hoʻokomo nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū." Kūlohelohe. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521). PMID: 25231862. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[33] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Pili ka lawe ʻana o ka aspartame me ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose i kēlā me kēia kanaka me ka momona." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul; 41 (7): 795-8. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. Epub 2016 Mei 24. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[34] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ka Hana Haʻahaʻa Aspartame Hoʻohana ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa iā Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions i ka Diet-Induced Obese Rat. PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (Haawina)

[35] Halldorsson TI, Strøm M, Petersen SB, Olsen SF. "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i nā mea inu momona a me ka makaʻu o ka lawe mua ʻia: kahi noi cohort prospective ma 59,334 mau wahine hāpai Denemaka." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep; 92 (3): 626-33. PMID: 20592133. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[36] Meghan B. Azad, PhD; Atul K. Sharma, MSc, MD; Russell J. de Souza, RD, ScD; et al. "ʻO ka hui ma waena o ka inu ʻana o ka mea inu ʻono no ka wā o ka hāpai ʻana a me ke kino o ke kino o ke keiki." JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170 (7): 662-670. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[37] Mueller NT, Jacobs DR Jr, MacLehose RF, Demerath EW, Kelly SP, Dreyfus JG, Pereira MA. "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana o ka caffeine a me nā mea inu momona i hoʻopili ʻia e pili pū me ka makaʻu o ka menarche mua." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep; 102 (3): 648-54. hana: 10.3945 / ajcn.114.100958. Epub 2015 Jul 15. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[38] ʻO Ashok I, Poornima PS, Wankhar D, Ravindran R, Sheeladevi R. "ʻO ke koʻikoʻi oxidative i hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā pohō ma ka sperm rat and attenuated antioxidant status on konsumsi of aspartame." ʻO Int J Impot Res. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.1038 / ijir.2017.17. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[39] ʻO Finamor I, Pérez S, Bressan CA, Brenner CE, Rius-Pérez S, Brittes PC, Cheiran G, Rocha MI, da Veiga M, Sastre J, Pavanato MA., "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame maʻi mau e hoʻololi i ka trans- ke ala sulphuration, glutathione depletion a me ka hōʻino o ke ake i nāʻiole. " ʻO Redox Biol. 2017 ʻAropa; 11: 701-707. hana: 10.1016 / j.redox.2017.01.019. Epub 2017 Feb 1. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[40] Lebda MA, Tohamy HG, El-Sayed YS. "ʻO ka mea inu palupalu lōhi a me ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame i mea e hōʻino ai i ka hepatic ma o ka disregulation o adipositokine a me ka loli o ka lipid profile a me ke kūlana antioxidant. ʻO Nutr Res. 2017 Apr 19. pii: S0271-5317 (17) 30096-9. hana: 10.1016 / j.nutres.2017.04.002. [Epub ma mua o ka paʻi] (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[41] ʻO Sharma A, ʻo Amarnath S, ʻo Thulasimani M, ʻo Ramaswamy S. "ʻO nā mea hoʻonaninani i hana ʻia ma ke ʻano he hakahaka: palekana paha lākou?" ʻO Indian J Pharmacol 2016; 48: 237-40 (Haawina)

ʻO kekahi o nā hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi US Roundup e hoʻopaʻa inoa ma ke kau inoa ʻana i nā kuʻikahi hoʻoponopono Bayer; $ 160,000 awelike maka

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Hoʻomaka ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi i ka US Roundup litigation e aʻo i nā kikoʻī o kā Bayer AG $ 10 biliona o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i nā maʻi ʻaʻai maoli no lākou pākahi, a makemake ʻole kekahi i ka mea a lākou e ʻike ai.

ʻO Bayer i ʻōlelo ʻia i ka hopena o Iune ua kūkākūkā ʻo ia i nā noho ʻana me nā ʻoihana loio nui he nui i ka ʻaelike e hoʻopau pono ana i ka nui o 100,000 ma mua o ke koi ʻana e kūʻē iā Monsanto, i kūʻai ʻia e Bayer i ka makahiki 2018. ʻO ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi i ka hihia i hoʻopiʻi ʻia ua hoʻomohala lākou i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin mai ka hōʻike ʻana iā Monsanto's Roundup a me nā lāʻau make ʻē aʻe i hana ʻia me kahi kemika i kapa ʻia ʻo glyphosate, a ua uhi ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia.

ʻOiai he mea maikaʻi ka ʻaelike me he nūhou maikaʻi lā no ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi - kekahi i hakakā no nā makahiki he nui me nā maʻi maʻi ʻaʻai a me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i hoʻopiʻi no nā kāne i hala - ua ʻike ka hapanui he hiki iā lākou ke hoʻopau me ka liʻiliʻi o ke kālā, e pili ana i ka nui o kumumea. Eia naʻe, hiki i nā ʻoihana loio ke hoʻopaʻa i nā haneli miliona o ke kālā.

"He lanakila ia no nā ʻoihana loio a me ka pā ʻana i mua o ka poʻe i hōʻeha ʻia" i ʻōlelo ʻia e kekahi mea hoʻopiʻi, ka mea makemake ʻole e kāhea ʻia ka inoa.

ʻ toldlelo ʻia nā mea hoʻopiʻi pono lākou e hoʻoholo i nā pule e hiki mai ana inā e ʻae lākou i nā wahi noho, ʻoiai ʻaʻole lākou e ʻike i ka uku e uku ʻia ai lākou a hiki i ka wā ma hope. Kauoha ka hoʻonā aelike āpau i nā mea hoʻopiʻi ʻaʻole e kamaʻilio ākea e pili ana i nā kikoʻī, e hoʻoweliweli nei iā lākou me nā hoʻopaʻi inā lākou e kūkā kamaʻilio me nā mea ʻē aʻe ma mua o "nā ʻohana pili koke" a i ʻole kahi aʻoaʻo aʻoaʻo kālā.

Ua huhū kēia i kekahi e ʻōlelo nei e noʻonoʻo ana i ka hōʻole ʻana i nā wahi noho e ʻimi ai i nā loio loio e lawelawe i kā lākou mau koi. Ua loiloi kēia mea kākau i nā palapala i hoʻouna ʻia i nā mea hoʻopiʻi he nui.

No ka poʻe e ʻaelike ana, hiki ke uku ʻia i ka lā mua o Pepeluali, ʻoiai ke kaʻina o ka uku ʻana i nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau e hoʻonui ʻia i hoʻokahi makahiki a ʻoi paha. Hoʻouna ʻia nā leka mai nā keʻena loio i kā lākou poʻe Roundup e kiʻi i nā hana ʻelua e pono ai i kēlā me kēia mea i loaʻa i ka maʻi ʻaʻai e hele e loaʻa kahi uku kālā a me ka uku o kēlā mau uku. Hoʻololi nā ʻōlelo o ka ʻaelike mai ka loio i kahi paʻa loio, ʻo ia hoʻi ka hopena o nā mea hoʻopiʻi kū like me nā wahi like ʻole.

ʻO kekahi o nā kuʻikahi ikaika loa ke kūkākūkā ʻia e Ka hale Miller, a ke hoʻohoka nei paha ia i kekahi o nā mea kūʻai aku paʻa. I ke kamaʻilio ʻana i nā mea kūʻai aku, ua ʻōlelo ka firm ua hiki iā ia ke kūkākūkā me $ 849 miliona mai Bayer e uhi i nā ʻōlelo koi o nā mea kūʻai aku he 5,000 a ʻo Roundup. Kuhi ka firm i ka awelika o ka nui o ka uku no kēlā me kēia mea hoʻopiʻi ma kahi o $ 160,000. E hoʻēmi hou ʻia kēlā kālā nui e ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi o nā uku a nā loio.

ʻOiai hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia nā uku a nā loio e ka paʻa a me ka mea hoʻopiʻi, he nui ka poʻe i ka hoʻopiʻi Roundup e hoʻopiʻi nei i ka 30-40 pakeneka i nā uku kūlike ʻole.

I mea e koho ʻia ai no ka hoʻoponopono ʻana, pono i nā mea hoʻopiʻi nā palapala olakino e kākoʻo ana i ka hōʻoia ʻana o kekahi ʻano lymphoma non-Hodgkin a hiki ke hōʻike ʻia ua hōʻike ʻia lākou ma kahi o hoʻokahi makahiki ma mua o kā lākou hōʻoia ʻana.

ʻO ka Miller Firm ka mea ma mua o ka Roundup litigation mai ka hoʻomaka ʻana, e kiʻi ana i ka hapa nui o nā palapala kūloko o Monsanto i kōkua i ka lanakila ʻekolu o nā hoʻokolokolo Roundup i mālama ʻia a hiki i kēia lā. Ua lawelawe ʻo Miller Firm i ʻelua o kēlā mau hoʻokolokolo, me ka lawe ʻana mai i nā loio mai ka hui ʻo Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman o Los Angeles e kōkua me ka hihia o  Dewayne "Lee" Johnson ma hope o ka hoʻokumu ʻana o ka mea hoʻokumu Miller Firm ʻo Mike Miller i kahi ʻeha ma mua o ka hoʻokolokolo. Ua hana like pū nā ʻoihana ʻelua i ka lanakila ʻana i ka hihia o nā hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi kāne kāne a wahine, ʻO Alva lāua ʻo Alberta Pilliod. Ua hāʻawi ʻia ʻo Johnson i $ 289 miliona a ua hāʻawi ʻia nā Pilliods ma mua o $ 2 biliona akā ʻo nā luna hoʻokolokolo i kēlā me kēia hihia i hoʻohaʻahaʻa i nā makana.

Ma mua o kēia mahina, ua hoʻopiʻi ka ʻaha hoʻokolokolo ma Kaleponi hōʻole i kā Monsanto hana e hoʻokahuli i ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo a Johnson, e hoʻoholo ana he "nui" nā hōʻike e pili ana i nā huahana Roundup i kumu i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o Johnson akā hoʻēmi i ka makana a Johnson i $ 20.5 miliona. Ke kali nei nā hoʻopiʻi i nā ʻōlelo hoʻoholo ʻē aʻe ʻelua e kūʻē iā Monsanto.

Hoʻopiʻi Plaintiffs

E hoʻoholo i ka nui o nā loaʻa i kēlā me kēia mea hoʻopiʻi mai ka noho ʻana me Bayer, e helu ka luna ʻaoʻao ʻekolu i kēlā me kēia me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea e hoʻopili ana i ke ʻano o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin i hoʻomohala ʻia e kēlā me kēia mea hoʻopiʻi. ka makahiki o ka mea hoʻopiʻi ma ka hōʻoia; ke koʻikoʻi o ka maʻi ʻaʻai o ke kanaka a me ke ʻano o ka mālama ʻana a lākou i hoʻomanawanui ai; nā kumu pilikia ʻē aʻe; a me ka nui o ka hōʻike i loaʻa iā lākou iā Monsanto herbicides.

ʻO kekahi mea o ka hoʻoponopono i hopu ʻia i nā mea hoʻopiʻi he kiaʻi ke aʻo ʻana ʻo ka poʻe i loaʻa kālā iā Bayer e hoʻohana i kā lākou kālā e uku ai i kahi ʻāpana o nā kumukūʻai o kā lākou mālama ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai i uhi ʻia e Medicare a i ʻole ka ʻinikua pilikino. Me kekahi mau lapaʻau ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai e holo nei i loko o nā haneli he mau tausani a hiki i nā miliona o nā kālā, hiki ke holoi koke i ka uku o ka mea hoʻopiʻi. Ke hoʻopili nei nā ʻoihana loio i nā mea hana a ka ʻaoʻao ʻekolu e kūkākūkā pū me nā ʻoihana ʻinikua e ʻimi i nā uku hoʻemi uku, ua haʻi ʻia nā mea hoʻopiʻi. ʻO ka maʻamau i kēia ʻano o ka litigation nui, hiki ke hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui ʻia kēlā mau lien lapaʻau, i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā loio loio.

Ma kekahi ʻano o ka ʻaelike e hoʻokipa ʻia e nā mea hoʻopiʻi, e kūkulu ʻia nā wahi e hōʻalo ai i ke kuleana ʻauhau, e like me ka ʻike i hāʻawi ʻia i ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi.

Nā Pilikia ma ka Noho ʻole ʻana

Pono i nā keʻena loio e kiʻi i ka hapanui o kā lākou mea hoʻopiʻi e ʻae i nā ʻōlelo o nā noho i mea e holo ai lākou. Wahi a ka ʻike i hāʻawi ʻia i ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi, makemake ʻia nā noho i kēia manawa no ka nui o nā pilikia e pili ana me ka hoʻomau ʻana i ka hoʻomau ʻana i nā hoʻokolokolo hou. Ma waena o nā pilikia i ʻike ʻia:

  • Ua hoʻoweliweli ʻo Bayer e faila no ka panakalupa, a inā i hele ka ʻoihana i kēlā ala, ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā hoʻopiʻi ʻo Roundup a ʻo ka hopena paha he hapa kālā no nā mea hoʻopiʻi.
  • ʻO ka Agency Protection Environmental (EPA) ua hoʻopuka palapala ʻO ʻAukake i hala aku nei e haʻi ana iā Monsanto ʻaʻole e ʻae ka ʻoihana i kahi ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo maʻi ʻaʻai ma Roundup. Kōkua kēlā i ko Monsanto manawa e hiki mai ana i ka lanakila ma ka ʻaha.
  • Hoʻolālā ka ʻaha pili i ka Covid no ka mea ʻaʻole he makahiki hou a ʻoi paha nā hoʻokolokolo Roundup.

ʻAʻole ia he mea maʻamau no ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi i ka hoʻopiʻi nui ʻana e hele i waho me ka hoʻohoka ʻia me nā wahi noho nui i kūkākūkā ʻia no kā lākou mau hihia. ʻO ka puke 2019 “Hoʻolaha Kūlana Mass: Kālā Hoʻolaha Backroom i Multitistrict Litigation"Na Elizabeth Chamblee Burch, ka Fuller E. Callaway Lunahoomalu o ke Kānāwai ma ke Kulanui o Georgia, hana i ka hihia i ka nele o nā kaha a me nā kaulike ma ka hoʻopiʻi nui ʻana i ka hihia i nā mea āpau āpau a koe nā mea hoʻopiʻi.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Burch ma ke ʻano he hihia no ka lāʻau acid-reflux Propulsid, a ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ua ʻike ʻo ia o nā mea hoʻopiʻi 6,012 i komo i loko o ka papahana hoʻonā, 37 wale nō i loaʻa ka loaʻa kālā. ʻAʻole i loaʻa i nā koena nā uku akā ua ʻae e hoʻokuʻu i kā lākou hoʻopiʻi ʻana ma ke ʻano he komo i loko o ka papahana hoʻonā. Ua loaʻa pū kēlā mau mea hoʻopiʻi 37 ma mua o $ 6.5 miliona (ma kahi o $ 175,000 kēlā me kēia ma ka awelika), ʻoiai ua loaʻa i nā keʻena kānāwai alakaʻi no nā mea hoʻopiʻi ka $ 27 miliona, e like me kā Burch,

Ke hoʻokaʻawale nei i ka mea a nā mea hoʻopiʻi paha e hele pū ai a ʻaʻole paha, ua ʻike kekahi o nā mea nānā i ke kānāwai e pili ana i ka Roundup litigation ua loaʻa kahi maikaʻi nui aʻe me ka hōʻike ʻana i nā hana hewa a ka hui e Monsanto.

Ma waena o nā hōʻike i puka aʻe ma o ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana, aia nā palapala Monsanto o loko e hōʻike ana i ka ʻoihana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka paʻi ʻana o nā pepa ʻepekema i hana wahaheʻe ʻia e nā ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa. ke kālā o, a me ka hana pū ʻana me, nā hui mua i hoʻohana ʻia e hoʻāʻo e hōʻino i nā ʻepekema e hōʻike nei i ka hōʻino me nā Monsicides o Monsanto; a me ka laulima ʻana me kekahi mau luna i loko o ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) e pale a hoʻolaha i ke kūlana o Monsanto ʻaʻole nā ​​huahana i loaʻa i ka maʻi ʻaʻai.

Ua neʻe kekahi mau ʻāina a puni ka honua, a ʻo nā aupuni kūloko a me nā ʻāpana kula, e pāpā i nā lāʻau make a glyphosate, a me / a i ʻole nā ​​lāʻau ʻino ʻē aʻe ma muli o nā hōʻike o ka hoʻopiʻi Roundup.

(Ua puka mua ka moʻolelo ma Nā Nūhou Ola Ola.)

Hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake a me ka momona

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ʻEpekema e pili ana i ke kaupaona loaʻa + nā pilikia pili i ka nui
ʻEpekema ʻenehana
ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

ʻO Aspartame, ka hulu kō a kaulana loa o ka honua, i loaʻa i loko o nā tausani o nā kō-kō, kō-kō a me nā mea i kapa ʻia ʻo “diet” a me nā meaʻai. Eia naʻe nā hōʻike ʻepekema i hōʻike ʻia i loko o kēia pepa pepa e hoʻopili i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona.

E ʻoluʻolu e kaʻana i kēia kumuwaiwai. E ʻike pū i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo, Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi, me ka ʻike e pili ana i nā loiloi i nānā ʻia e nā hoa e pili ana i ka aspartame i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, maʻi maʻi maʻi, maʻi Alzheimer, nā hahau, ka hopu ʻana i nā maʻi, a me nā poʻo hina.

Hoʻoponopono pololei

  • ʻO Aspartame - kālepa ʻia ʻo NutraSweet, Kaulike, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet - ʻo ia ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana ʻia e ka honua. Loaʻa ka kemika i nā meaʻai a me nā mea inu he mau kaukani nā huahana, e like me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, gum-sugar, candy, condiment a me nā wikamina.
  • Ua loaʻa iā FDA wahi a aspartame "palekana no ka heluna lehulehu ma lalo o kekahi mau ʻano." Ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema he nui ka Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻae ʻia o ka FDA ma luna o ka ʻikepili kānalua a pono e noʻonoʻo hou ʻia.
  • Ua mālama ʻia he mau hanana he nui i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o mau makahiki aspartame i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

ʻO Aspartame, Kaumaha Loaʻa + Loaʻa e pili ana i nā pilikia 

ʻElima mau loiloi o ka ʻepekema moʻokalaleo e pili ana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻino e hōʻike ʻaʻole hāʻawi lākou i ka lilo ʻana o ke kaupaona, a no ka mea paha he kumu ia e loaʻa ai ke kaumaha.

  • A 2017 meta analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”ike no hoi
    • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
    • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)
  • A 2013 Nā kuʻuna i ka Endocrinology a me Metabolism ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi "hōʻiliʻili ʻia nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana i nā mea kūʻai pinepine pinepine i kēia mau mea kō i kū i ka nui o ka loaʻa o ke kaumaha, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi," a ʻo "ka hoʻohana pinepine ʻana i nā meaʻono ikaika nui ke loaʻa ka hopena hopena o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic. ”2
  • A 2009 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi i ka "hoʻohui o NNS [nonenutritive sweeteners] i nā papaʻai ʻaʻohe waiwai no ka pohō kaumaha a hoʻemi ʻia paha ka loaʻa o ke kaupaona me ka ʻole o ka palena o ka ikehu. Aia kekahi mau manaʻo hopohopo lōʻihi e pili ana i ka hoʻokomo ʻia ʻana o NNS i ka papaʻai e paipai ai i ka lawe ʻana i ka ikehu a hāʻawi i ka momona. ”3
  • A 2010 ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka hopena o ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hoʻopunipuni i hoʻoholo ʻia, "ʻimi nā noiʻi noiʻi i hiki i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi ke kōkua i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha."4
  • A 2010 Ka Nūpepa International o ka nui o nā keiki Kākoʻo ka ʻatikala loiloi, "ʻO ka ʻikepili mai ka nui, nā noiʻi epidemiologic e kākoʻo i ke ola o kahi hui ma waena o ka inu ʻana me ka mea inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha i nā keiki."5

Hōʻike nā hōʻike Epidemiological e hoʻopili ʻia nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono i ka loaʻa kaumaha. O kahi laʻana:

  • ka Ke aʻo naʻau o San Antonio "Ua nānā i kahi pilina maikaʻi, hopena pane-maikaʻi ma waena o AS [hana ʻono] me ka inu inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha kau lōʻihi." Eia kekahi, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o 21 mau mea inu momona i hana ʻia i kēlā me kēia pule - hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka poʻe i pau ʻole, "pili pū ʻia me ka ʻaneʻane pālua ʻia ʻana o ka momona a ka momona paha."6
  • ʻO kahi aʻo ʻana i ka inu mea inu ma waena o nā keiki a me nā ʻōpio i piha i ka makahiki 6-19 i paʻi ʻia ma International Journal of Food Food and Nutrition ua loaʻa "pili maikaʻi ka BMI me ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu carbonated."7
  • ʻO kahi makahiki he ʻelua mau makahiki o 164 mau keiki i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka Nupepa o ke Kulanuiʻo NutritionʻAmelika ʻike ʻo "Hoʻonui ka nui o ka ʻai soda ka nui o ka nui o ke kaupaona a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ke kaupaona ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau. ʻO ka baseline BMI Z-score a me ka makahiki 2 ka ʻai sodaʻai i wānana ʻia ma 83.1% o ka ʻokoʻa ma ka makahiki 2 BMI Z-helu. ” Ua ʻike pū ʻia ʻo ia ka "ʻai inu soda ka mea inu wale i pili me ka helu 2 BMI Z-helu, a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻai ma nā kumuhana kaumaha a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ka paona i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau i ʻelua mau makahiki."8
  • ka Ke ulu nei ʻo US i kēia lā ke aʻo ʻana i nā keiki he 10,000 a ʻoi ka nui o 9-14 mau makahiki i loaʻa, no nā keikikāne, ʻo ka lawe ʻana i ka soda soda “e pili nui me nā hana kaupaona.”9
  • Ke aʻoʻo 2016 ma ka Ka Papa Kakauho o kaʻOihana ua hōʻike i ka loaʻa ʻana he ʻehiku mau mea like ʻole e hōʻike ana i nā hui nui me ka momona o ka ʻōpū i nā wahine, me ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame.10
  • ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau i nā mea hoʻonaninani a me ka makaʻu i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka loaʻa ʻana o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi maʻi ʻōpio,"11 e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma luna o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism

Hōʻike like kekahi mau ʻano noiʻi ʻē aʻe ʻaʻole hāʻawi nā mea hoʻonanea i ka pohō kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻaʻole kākoʻo nā noiʻi intervenal i ka manaʻo e hana nā mea hoʻonaninani hana i ka pohō kaumaha. Wahi a ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke ʻepekema, "ʻo ka ʻae mai nā noiʻi hoʻokolohua e hōʻike nei ʻaʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻoliʻiliʻi i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ke hoʻohana wale ʻia."12

Hōʻike pū kekahi mau noiʻi e hoʻonui nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka makemake, i hiki ke hāpai i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ua ʻike ʻia "ua ʻike ʻia nā hoʻokolohua Preload i ka ʻono o ka ʻono, i hāʻawi ʻia e ke kō a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻonaninani ʻino, hoʻonui i ka makemake o ke kanaka."13

Hōʻike nā haʻawina e pili ana i nā rodents i ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai ʻana i nā meaʻai keu. Wahi a ka ʻO ka loiloi ʻo Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, "Hoʻohui like ʻole ma waena o ka ʻono momona a me ka ʻike caloric hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai nui ʻana a me ke kaulike ikehu maikaʻi." Hoʻohui ʻia, e like me ka ʻatikala like, "nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono, kūpono no ka mea he mea ʻono ia, paipai i ka ʻono a me ka hilinaʻi i ke kō."14

Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka Ka PepaʻAlaʻAmelika o ke Ola Nui ua loaʻa ʻo "ʻO nā mākua kaumaha a momona hoʻi o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e inu i nā mea inu papaʻai ma mua o ka poʻe mākua olakino olakino, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui o nā calorie mai nā meaʻai paʻa - ma nā pāʻina a me nā mea ʻai māmā - ma mua o nā mākua kaupaona a me nā momona i inu i ka SSB a ʻai i ka huina like o ka nui o nā calorie e like me ke kaumaha a me nā mākua ākea e inu SSBs. "15

A 2015 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina o nā mākua ma ka Ka Nupepa o ka Society Geriatric Society loaʻa "I loko o kahi pānaʻi pane pane-pane," ʻo ka "hoʻonui ʻana i ka DSI [kaʻai ʻana i ka soda] me ka piʻi ʻana o ka momona o ka ʻōpū ..."16

ʻO kahi noi nui 2014 i paʻi ʻia ma Nature ʻike i ka "ʻai ʻana o ka NAS i hoʻohana mau ʻia [non-calorical sweetener] hoʻomohala i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka glucose intolerance ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā loli a me nā hana i ka microbiota ʻōpū. pili ka hopena i kā mākou hopena NAS, ka dysbiosis a me nā pono ʻole o ka metabolic ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa iā NAS ua hāʻawi pololei paha i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ke ahulau kikoʻī a lākou i manaʻo ai e hakakā. ”17

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kekahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic, kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi. Wahi a kahi noi 2017 ma Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism, nāʻiole e loaʻa ana i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i loaʻa ka nui o ke kaumaha a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā ʻanoʻai like ʻole nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "hiki ke kāohi ʻia nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka hemahema o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."18

  • E nānā i kekahi: Hoʻokuʻu kaomi lehulehu Mass ma ke aʻo ʻana, “E pale paha ʻo Aspartame, ʻaʻole e paipai, ka pohō ʻana o ke kaupaona ʻana ma ke ālai ʻana i ka hana a ka enzyme ʻōpū”

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.19

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua hoʻohui ʻia nā mea inu ʻono a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hanana maikaʻi ikaika ma ka hopena ʻo T2D ma waena o ka quartile o ka inu no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai," i hōʻike ʻia i ka noiʻi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.20

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”21

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."22

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"23

ʻEpekema ʻenehana

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā loiloi hou i kahi loulou ma waena o nā mea hoʻonanea a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻAʻole ʻelua mau noi kālā i hoʻolako kālā ʻia.

  • A 2014 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali Ua hoʻopau ka meta-analysis "ʻO nā ʻike mai nā noiʻi nānā i hōʻike ʻole i kahi pilina ma waena o LCS [mea hoʻoliʻiliʻi calorie haʻahaʻa] i loaʻa a me ke kaumaha o ke kino a i ʻole ka momona momona a me kahi hui maikaʻi maikaʻi me BMI [body mass index]; Eia nō naʻe, nā ʻikepili mai nā RCT [ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hoʻāʻo hoʻokolohua], e hāʻawi ana i ke kūlana kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe loa o ka hōʻike no ka nānā ʻana i nā hopena hopena o ka LCS e lawe ai, e hōʻike i ka pani ʻana i nā koho LCS no kā lākou mana calorie maʻamau nā hopena i kahi kaupaona hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa. mea hana papaʻai e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ke kūlike me ka pohō a me nā hoʻolālā mālama kaumaha. " "Ua loaʻa i nā mea kākau ke kālā e alakaʻi ai i kēia noiʻi mai ka North American Branch o ka International Life Science Institute (ILSI)."24

ʻO ka International Life Science Institute, kahi nonprofit e hana i ka ʻepekema no ka ʻoihana meaʻai, he mea hoʻopaʻapaʻa i waena o nā poʻe loea olakino lehulehu ma muli o ke kālā kālā ʻana mai nā hui kemika, nā meaʻai a me nā mea lapaʻau a me nā paio kūpono o ka hoihoi, e like me ka 2010 ʻatikala ma Kūlohelohe.25 E nānā pū kekahi: Pono ʻo US e ʻike pepa pono e pili ana i ka International Life Science Institute.

A moʻo o nā moʻolelo i paʻi ʻia ma UPI i ka makahiki 1987 e ka mea noiʻi noiʻi Greg Gordon wehewehe i ke komo ʻana o ILSI i ke kuhikuhi ʻana i ka noiʻi ʻana ma luna o ka aspartame i nā noiʻi e kākoʻo paha i ka palekana o ka mea ʻono.

  • Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka puke pai ʻO Obesity ua hoʻāʻo ka wai e kūʻē i nā mea inu momona no ka papahana hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha he 12 mau pule, ke loaʻa nei "ʻaʻole ʻoi aku ka wai ma mua o nā wai inu NNS [non-nutritive sweetened] no ka pohō kaumaha i ka wā o ka papahana hoʻohaʻahaʻa kaumaha maʻamau āpau." Ua "uku piha ʻia ke aʻo ʻana e ka American Beverage Association,"26 ʻo ia ka pūʻulu lobbying nui no ka ʻoihana soda.

Aia kekahi hōʻike ikaika i ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o nā noi kālā kālā i nā noiʻi biomedical ma mua o ka mea i kālā kūʻokoʻa ʻia. A 2016 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma PLOS Hoʻokahi na Daniele Mandrioli, ʻo Cristin Kearns lāua ʻo Lisa Bero i nānā i ka pilina ma waena o nā hopena noiʻi a me ka makaʻu ʻole o ka hoʻowahāwahā, ke kākoʻo kākoʻo a me nā hakakā kālā a ka mea kākau o ka hoihoi i nā loiloi o nā hopena o nā mea inu momona i hana ʻia ma nā hopena kaupaona.27 Ua hoʻopau nā mea noiʻi, "ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o nā hopena i kākoʻo ʻia e nā ʻoihana mea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni ma mua o nā loiloi i kākoʻo ʻole ʻia e ka ʻoihana ʻē aʻe ... a me nā hopena maikaʻi." ʻAʻole i hōʻike ʻia nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi i 42% o nā loiloi, a me nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi me ka ʻoihana meaʻai (inā i hōʻike ʻia a ʻaʻole paha) i loaʻa nā hopena maikaʻi loa no ka ʻoihana ma mua o nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me ka ʻole nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi. 

A 2007 PLOS ʻImi lāʻau ma ke kākoʻo ʻoihana no ka noiʻi biomedical i ʻike ʻia “ʻO ke kālā ʻoihana o nā ʻepekema ʻepekema e pili ana i ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke hoʻokau i nā hopena ma ke ʻano o nā huahana kākoʻo, me nā hopena koʻikoʻi no ke olakino lehulehu… ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā manawa i nā pono kālā o nā mea kākoʻo ma mua o nā ʻatikala me ka ʻole kālā-pili kālā. ʻO kahi hoihoi nui, ʻaʻole kekahi o nā noi intervensi me nā kākoʻo ʻoihana āpau i hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ”28

ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?

I ʻApelila 2015, ua noi ʻo US Right to Know i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina (FTC) a me ka ʻO kaʻai a me ka lāʻauʻai lāʻau (FDA) e noiʻi i ke kālepa ʻana a me nā hana hoʻolaha o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika e pili ana i ka loaʻa kaumaha.

Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa mākou ʻo ka huaʻōlelo "ʻai" e like me ka hoʻopunipuni, wahaheʻe a alakaʻi hewa ʻole i ka ʻāpana 5 o ke Federal Commission Commission Act a me ka ʻāpana 403 o ka Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Ua hōʻole nā ​​ʻoihana i kēia manawa e hana i ka haʻi ʻana i ka nele o nā kumuwaiwai a me nā mea nui ʻē aʻe (e nānā FDA a FTC nā pane).

"Minamina ia ʻaʻole hana ka FTC e kāohi i nā hoʻopunipuni o ka ʻoihana soda" ʻai ". Loulou nā hōʻike ʻepekema e hoʻopili i nā mea ʻono hana i ke kaupaona, ʻaʻole i ka pohō, "wahi a Gary Ruskin, ka luna hui o US Right to Know "Ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei wau e iho ana ka soda 'diet' i ka mōʻaukala US ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻopunipuni nui loa nā mea kūʻai aku."

Hōʻike hou:

Hoʻokuʻu a me nā pou kaomi ʻo USRTK:

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema 

[1] Azad, Meghan B., et al. Nā meaʻono nonnutritive a me ke olakino cardiometabolic: kahi loiloi ʻōnaehana a me nā aniani-aniani o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi cohort prospective. KEKAHI Lulai 17, 2017 mahuka ana. 189 ʻaʻole. 28 doi: 10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[2] Swithers SE, "Hana nā mea hoʻonaninani i hana i ka hopena Counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā Metabolic Derangement." Nā Trends i Endocrinology a me Metabolism, Iulai 10, 2013. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431-41. PMID: 23850261. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[3] Mattes RD, Popkin BM, "Nonnutritive Sweetener Consump in Human: Effects on Appetite and Food Intake. A me kā lākou putative hana." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ka Nutrical Clinical, Kekemapa 3, 2008. 2009 Ian; 89 (1): 1-14. PMID: 19056571. (Haawina)

[4] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[5] Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI, "Sweeteners Artific: kahi loiloi ʻōnaehana o nā hopena Metabolic i ka wā ʻōpio." Ka Nūpepa' oflelo Hawaiʻi o nā keiki nui, 2010 Aug; 5 (4): 305-12. PMID: 20078374. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[6] Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. "Ke wahie nei i ka maʻi maʻi nui? Hoʻohana ʻia ka inu inu ʻona me ka loaʻa o ke kaupaona lōʻihi. ” Obesity, 2008 Aug; 16 (8): 1894-900. PMID: 18535548. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[7] Forshee RA, Storey ML, "Huina inu inu piha a me nā koho inu inu i waena o nā keiki a me nā ʻōpio." Ka Nūpepa'Āina o ka Science Science a me ka Nutr. 2003 Jul; 54 (4): 297-307. PMID: 12850891. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[8] Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE, "Nā kumu inu inu mea inu ma nā kula haʻahaʻa o ke kula haʻahaʻa i nā makahiki ʻelua mau makahiki." Pai o ka American College of Nutr, 2005 Apr; 24 (2): 93- 8. PMID: 15798075. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[9] Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Kahua AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. "Hoʻololi nā mea inu i hoʻohui ʻia me ke kō a me nā ʻōpio." ʻO Obes Res. 2004 Mei; 12 (5): 778-88. PMID: 15166298. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[10] W Wulaningsih, M Van Hemelrijck, KK Tsilidis, I Tzoulaki, C Patel a me S Rohrmann. "Ke noiʻi ʻana i nā meaʻai a me nā mea ola e like me nā mea e hoʻoholo ai i ka momona o ka ʻōpū: kahi noiʻi ākea." Ka Nūpepa' Obiwi Nui o ka Nūhou (2017) 41, 340–347; doi: 10.1038 / ijo.2016.203; paʻi ʻia ma ka pūnaewele 6 Kekemapa 2016 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[11] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hana nā mea hoʻonaninani i nā hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441.

[12] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[13] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[14] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[15] ʻO Bleich SN, ʻo Wolfson JA, ʻo Vine S, ʻo Wang YC, "Kaʻai ʻana i ka mea inu-inu a me ka ʻai ʻana o Caloric ma waena o nā mākua o ʻAmelika, ma ke ʻano a me ke kaupaona o ke kino." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ke olakino lehulehu, Ianuali 16, 2014. 2014 Malaki; 104 (3): e72-8. PMID: 24432876. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[16] ʻO Fowler S, ʻo Williams K, ʻo Hazuda H, "Hoʻohui ʻia ʻo Diet Soda Intake me nā piʻi lōʻihi i ke kaʻe o ka pūhaka ma kahi hui biethnic o nā ʻelemakule kahiko: Ke aʻo ʻana a San Antonio no ka ʻelemakule." Pai o ka American Geriatrics Society, Malaki 17, 2015. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[17] ʻO Suez J. et al., "Hoʻokalakupua nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻowalewale ʻia e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka Microbiota Gut." Kūlohelohe, Kepakemapa 17, 2014. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521): 181-6. PMID: 25231862 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[18] Gul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Hoʻohālikelike paha ka pāpā ʻana o ka ʻōpū ʻōpū ʻōpū i ka phalphasease alalona pehea e hāpai ai ka aspartame i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose a me ka momona i nāʻiole." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Ian; 42 (1): 77-83. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. Epub 2016 Nov 18. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[19] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hoʻokumu nā mea ʻono hana i ka hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441. (Haawina)

[20] ʻO Guy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "ʻO ka inu ʻana i nā mea inu ʻono a me ke kō a me nā ʻano ʻano like ʻole i ʻike ʻia ma ka Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de lʻEduction Nationale – ʻEulopa ʻosplelo Pelekikena Prospective Investigation i ka cohort maʻi ʻaʻai a me Nutr." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2, Ian 2013; hana: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[21] ʻO Suez J et al. "Hoʻokomo nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū." Kūlohelohe. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521). PMID: 25231862. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[22] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Pili ka lawe ʻana o ka aspartame me ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose i kēlā me kēia kanaka me ka momona." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul; 41 (7): 795-8. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. Epub 2016 Mei 24. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[23] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ka Hana Haʻahaʻa Aspartame Hoʻohana ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa iā Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions i ka Diet-Induced Obese Rat. PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (Haawina)

[24] ʻO Miller PE, Perez V, "ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me ke kaumaha o ke kino a me ka haku mele: kahi Meta-Analysis o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi ʻana o ka poʻe ʻōpio mua." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ka Nutrical Clinical, Iune 18, 2014. 2014 Sep; 100 (3): 765-77. PMID: 24944060. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[25] ʻO Declan Butler, "Hōʻole ka ʻĀina Meaʻai i ka ʻIla Kūʻē. Kūlohelohe, ʻOkakopa 5, 2010. (Haawina)

[26] Peters JC et al., "Nā hopena o ka wai a me nā mea inu ʻono ʻole Nutritive i ka lilo o ke kaupaona i loko o kahi Polokalamu Lapaʻau Līkaumaha 12-Week." ʻO Obesity, 2014 Jun; 22 (6): 1415-21. PMID: 24862170. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[27] Mandrioli D, Kearns C, Bero L. "Ka pilina ma waena o nā hopena noiʻi a me ka hopena o ka bias, ke kākoʻo aʻoaʻo ʻana, a me nā mea hakakā kālā a ka mea kākau kālā o ka hoihoi i nā loiloi o nā hopena o nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia ma nā hopena kaupaona. ” PLOS Hoʻokahi, Kepakemapa 8, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162198

[28] Liʻiliʻi LI, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, Ludwig DS. "Ka pilina ma waena o ke kumu kālā a me ka hopena ma waena o nā ʻatikala ʻepekema e pili ana i ka meaʻai." PLOS Lapaʻau, 2007 Ian; 4 (1): e5. PMID: 17214504. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

Kūkākūkā hou o kahi hoʻonohonoho ma waena o Bayer a me nā maʻi maʻi maʻi Roundup

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Ua kūkala hou ʻia kahi kamaʻilio e pili ana i kahi noho kūpono i kēia pule ma waena o Bayer AG a me nā ʻumi tausani mau maʻi maʻi ʻaʻai e like me ka hoʻolohe ʻana o ka ʻaha i ka pule aʻe.

E like me ka hōʻike ma Bloomberg, ua hōʻea nā loio no Bayer i nā ʻaelike waha me nā loio o US e kū ana ma kahi o 50,000 mau mea hoʻopiʻi e hoʻopiʻi ana iā Monsanto no nā ʻōlelo hoʻopiʻi ʻo Roundup a me nā mea make ʻona ʻo Monsanto ka mea i hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin.

ʻO nā kikoʻī e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia e Bloomberg he mea hoʻololi ʻole ia mai nā ʻae ʻōlelo waha ma waena o Bayer a me nā loio o ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi i hāʻule i ka wā o ka hale o ka hale hoʻokolokolo e pili ana iā Coronavirus. Me nā hale hoʻokolokolo e paʻa mau ana, ua hoʻopaneʻe ʻia nā lā hoʻokolokolo, e lawe ana i ka kaomi ma waho o Bayer.

Akā hoʻomoe ʻia kahi wahi kaomi hou me ka hoʻolohe ʻana o ka pule aʻe i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana o ka hoʻokolokolo mua ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup. Ka Aha Hoopii Koi o Kaleponi Apana Hoopii Mua ua hoʻonoho ʻia e hoʻolohe i nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa waha ma nā hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi i ka hihia o Johnson v Monsanto ma Iune 2.

ʻO kēlā hihia, ka mea i kūʻē i ke kahu ʻāina ʻo Kaleponi ʻo Dewayne "Lee" Johnson e kūʻē iā Monsanto, ua loaʻa he $ 289 miliona makana hōʻino no Johnson i ʻAukake 2018. ʻAʻole i loaʻa i ke kiure wale nō ko Monsanto Roundup a me nā mana e pili ana i ka glyphosate i hōʻike i kahi makaʻu nui i ka poʻe e hoʻohana ana iā lākou, akā aia he "hōʻike maopopo a hōʻoiaʻiʻo" i hana nā luna o Monsanto me ka "hana ʻino a hoʻokaumaha paha" i ka hiki ʻole ke aʻoaʻo pono i nā pilikia.

ʻO ka luna hoʻokolokolo ma ka hihia ʻo Johnson ma hope ua hoʻohaʻahaʻa i nā pohō i $ 78.5 miliona. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto i ka makana i hoʻemi ʻia, a ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Johnson i ke noi ʻana e hoʻihoʻi i ka makana kiure piha.

In hoʻopiʻi i ka ʻōlelo hoʻoholo, Ua noi ʻo Monsanto i ka ʻaha e hoʻokahuli paha i ka hoʻoholo hoʻokolokolo a komo i kahi hoʻokolokolo no Monsanto a i ʻole hoʻololi a hoʻopiʻi i ka hihia no ka hoʻokolokolo hou. Ma ka liʻiliʻi loa, ua noi ʻo Monsanto i ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi e hōʻemi i ka ʻāpana o ke kiure no "nā uku pohō noneconomic" e hiki mai ana mai $ 33 miliona a $ 1.5 miliona a e kāpae loa i nā uku hoʻopaʻi.

Nā luna kānāwai hoʻokolokolo hāʻawi i kahi hint mua e pili ana i ko lākou hilinaʻi ʻana i ka hihia, e hōʻike ana i nā loio no nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua e mākaukau lākou e kūkākūkā i ka nīnau no nā pohō ma ka hoʻolohe ʻana i Iune 2. Ua lawe nā loio a ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi iā ia ma ke ʻano he hōʻailona hōʻoluʻolu ʻaʻole paha e hoʻolālā nā luna kānāwai e kauoha i kahi hoʻokolokolo hou.

Ma lalo o nā ʻōlelo o ka hoʻoponopono i kūkākūkā ʻia no nā mahina i hala iho nei, e uku ʻo Bayer i kahi $ 10 biliona e hōʻoki i nā hihia i mālama ʻia e kekahi mau ʻoihana nui, akā ʻaʻole ia e ʻae e kau i nā lepili hōʻailona ma kāna mauʻu nāhelehele glyphosate. nā mea pepehi kanaka, e like me ke koi a kekahi o nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi.

ʻAʻole uhi ka hoʻonā i nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau me nā hoʻopiʻi e kali nei. ʻAʻole hoʻi e uhi iā Johnson a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻopiʻi ʻekolu i lanakila i kā lākou mau koi i ka hoʻokolokolo. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻo Monsanto lāua ʻo Bayer i nā nalo hoʻokolokolo āpau.

ʻO nā loio i nā ʻoihana nui e pili ana i ka hihia i hōʻole e kūkākūkā i ke kūlana o kēia manawa.

Ua hōʻole nā ​​luna o Bayer aia kekahi ʻike ʻepekema e hoʻopili ana i nā lāʻau make i nā glyphosate i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, akā ke hoʻokikina nei nā mea hoʻopukapuka i kahi hoʻonā e hoʻonā i ka hihia. He mea maikaʻi ia Bayer e hoʻoponopono i nā hihia ma mua o ka hoʻoholo ʻino ʻana e ka ʻaha hoʻopiʻi, i hiki ai ke hōʻeha hou i nā mea kuleana o ka ʻoihana. Ua kūʻai ʻo Bayer iā Monsanto i ka mahina ʻo Iune o 2018. Ma hope o ka lilo ʻana o ka hoʻāʻo ʻo Johnson i ʻAukake 2018, ua hāʻule ke kumukūʻai o ka hui a ua hoʻomau ʻia ma lalo o ke kaomi.

Plaintiffs huhu

ʻO nā hoʻopiʻi mua i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup i waiho ʻia i ka hopena o 2015, ʻo ia hoʻi he nui nā mea hoʻopiʻi e kali ana i nā makahiki no ka hoʻonā ʻana. Ua make kekahi mau mea hoʻopiʻi ʻoiai lākou e kali nei, me kā lākou mau hihia i kēia manawa e halihali ʻia e nā ʻohana ʻohana huhū no ka holomua ʻole o ka lawe ʻana i nā hihia i ka hopena.

Ke hana nei kekahi mau mea hoʻopiʻi i nā leka uila i kuhikuhi ʻia i nā luna o Bayer, e kāhea ana iā lākou e ʻae i nā wahi noho a e hana i nā loli e aʻoaʻo aku i nā mea kūʻai aku e pili ana i ka pilikia o ka maʻi ʻaʻai e pili ana i nā gicphosate-based herbicides e like me Roundup.

ʻO Vincent Tricomi, 68, kekahi o ia ʻano hoʻopiʻi. I loko o ke wikiō āna i hana ai, āna i kaʻana like ai me US Right to Know, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ua hala he 12 mau maʻi chemotherapy a he ʻelima mau haukapila e noho hakakā ana i kāna maʻi ʻaʻai. Ma hope o ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi kala kala manawa ʻole, ua hoʻi hou ka maʻi ʻaʻai ma mua o kēia makahiki, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

"He nui nā mea e like me aʻu e ʻehaʻeha nei a pono ke kōkua," wahi a Tricomi. E nānā i kāna memo wikiō ma lalo:

Kūkākūkā Wahine Kūʻokoʻa: Mālama ʻo Koch-Funded Group i Pesticide, ʻaila, ʻoihana paka

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ka ʻAha Kūkākūkā Wahine Kūʻokoʻa he hui waiwai ʻole kēlā nā hoapili me Monsanto, pale aku i nā mea make ʻino i nā meaʻai a me nā huahana mea kūʻai aku, a hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā kānāwai e kāohi ana i ka mana o nā ʻoihana. Hāʻawi kālā nui ʻia e nā ʻaoʻao ʻēheu ʻākau e hoʻohuli i ka ʻepekema ʻepekema hōʻole, IMF ua hoʻomaka i ka 1991 ma ke ʻano he hoʻāʻo e pale aku i kēia manawa ʻo ka Lunakanawai o ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Kiʻi (a ʻo ka loio ʻo Monsanto mua). ʻO Clarence Thomas i kona alo ʻana i nā uku hoʻomāinoino kolohe. I ka 2018, ka hui pū kekahi hoʻopakele ʻO ka luna kānāwai kiʻekiʻe o ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Brett Kavanaugh i mua o nā hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi kolohe, a ua wehewehe ʻia ʻo Kavanaugh ma ke ʻano he "Poʻokela wahine."

E nānā: “E hālāwai me nā 'Feminists' e hana nei i nā hana maʻemaʻe ʻole ʻo Koch Brothers, ” na Joan Walsh, ka Lahui 

me he puu dala o $ 2 miliona paha i kēlā me kēia makahiki, ua ʻōlelo ka Independent Women's Forum i kēia manawa ke hana nei no nā kulekele e "hoʻonui i ke kūʻokoʻa." Hoʻokomo ʻia kāna mau papahana me ka lobbying a me ke kākoʻo ʻana no ka hoʻopau ʻia ʻana o nā huahana ʻona, a me ka pale ʻana i ka hewa no ke olakino a me nā mea e pili ana i ka nohona mai nā hui haumia a i nā kuleana pilikino. I ka 2017, ka hui gala makahiki ma Wakinekona DC, ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻolauleʻa ai i ka lālā o ka papa IWF ʻo Kellyanne Conway ma ke ʻano he poʻokela o nā wahine, i kākoʻo ʻia e nā hui kemika a me nā paka.

E heluhelu hou aʻe e pili ana i ka gala a me nā mea kākoʻo iā HuffPost,ʻO nā politika o ka infertility a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai, ”Na Stacy Malkan. 

ʻO ke kālā e nā piliona piliona a me nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe

ʻO ka hapa nui o nā mea hāʻawi i ʻike ʻia o ka Independent Women Forum he mau kāne, e like me Lisa Graves i hōʻike ʻia no ka Center for Media and Democracy. Ua loaʻa iā IWF ma kahi o $ 15 miliona mai nā ʻaoʻao ʻēheu ʻākau e hāpai ana i ka deregulation a me ka hoʻokuʻu manuahi ʻana o nā ʻoihana, e like me ʻikepili i hōʻiliʻili ʻia e Greenpeace USA. ʻO nā mea kōkua nui o IWF, me $ 5 miliona ka nui o nā makana, ʻo Donors Trust a me Donors Capital Funds, ka malu kālā "kālāʻeleʻele" kālā pili pū me nā aila mogul ʻO Charles lāua ʻo David Koch. Kuhi kēia mau kālā i nā kālā mai nā mea hāʻawi inoa ʻole, me nā ʻoihana, i nā hui ʻaoʻao ʻekolu e ʻoluʻolu no nā pono ʻoihana.

ʻO ka mea leʻaleʻa kiʻekiʻe o IWF: kālā ʻeleʻele mai nā mea hāʻawi ʻole i hōʻike ʻia

Ua hāʻawi pololei nā kumu ʻohana Koch ma mua o $ 844,115 a me nā mea kālā ʻē aʻe i hui pū ʻia me Sarah Hoʻokumuʻo Scaife, ka ʻO Bradley Foundation, ka Randolph Foundation (kahi lālā o ka ʻO Richardson Foundation), A Hilinaʻi Searle Freedom - nā mea alakaʻi kālā āpau o hōʻole-ʻepekema hōʻole hooikaika a hooikaika i pale i nā pesticides a mālama iā lākou i ka ʻole. 

ExxonMobil a ʻO Philip Morris ua loaʻa kālā iā IWF, a ʻo ka ʻoihana paka i kapa ʻia ʻo IWF i kahi papa inoa o “nā kūmole ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe"A me"ka poʻe mahalo i ko mākou manaʻo. ” Ua hāʻawi ʻo Rush Limbaugh ma kahi o ka hapahā o miliona kālā i ka IWF, a “pale iā ia i nā manawa a pau e hoʻouka i kahi sexist tirade, "E like me kahi ʻatikala na Eli Clifton ma The Nation.

Nā alakaʻi o IWF

ʻO Heather Richardson Higgins, Lunahoomalu o ka Papa IWF a me CEO o ka Independent Women's Voice, ka ʻaoʻao lobby o IWF, i paʻa i nā kūlana kiʻekiʻe i nā kumu ʻēheu ʻākau, e like me ka ʻO Randolph Foundation, ka Kumukanawai ʻo Smith Richardson a me ka Pākaukau Poepoe Philanthropy.

ʻO Kellyanne Conway, ʻO ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka White House a me ka luna hoʻolaha o Trump mua, he Lālā lālā o IWF. Nā Luna Hoʻokele Emeritae komo pū ʻO Lynne V.Cheney, wahine a Dick Cheney a ʻO Kimberly O.Dennis, pelekikena o ka papa kuhikuhi o Hilinaʻi Kākoʻo a pelekikena a me CEO o Hilinaʻi Searle Freedom.

ʻO Nancy M. Pfotenhauer, Ua haʻalele ʻo Koch Industries i kahi mea lobbyist o Koch Industries ma mua pelekikena o IWF i 2001 a ua lawelawe ʻo ia ma hope ma ke ʻano he Hope Pelekikena o ka Papa Hoʻokele o IWF. He moʻolelo lōʻihi kona hāpai i ka ikehu haumia a me ka hoʻokau ʻana no ka hoʻopau hou ʻia o nā ʻoihana haumia.

ʻO ka papahana a IWF e ukali pono nei i ka papa kuhikuhi lobbying a me ka leka ʻana i ka pono no ka paka, aila a me nā pono ʻenehana. Eia kekahi mau laʻana:

Hōʻole i ka ʻepekema aniau

A 2019 tweet a me ka ʻatikala mai ka Independent Women Forum mahalo iā Pelekikena Trump "pragmatism" i ka hana ʻole ʻana e kāohi i ka huliau. 

Uliuli malu wehewehe ʻo IWF ma ke ʻano he "Koch Industries Climate Denial Group" ua "hoʻolaha i nā hewa e pili ana i ka ʻepekema aniau a hoʻokau i ka hana a ka poʻe hōʻole i ke aniau." 

Ua hōʻike ʻo Jane Mayer i ʻO ka New Yorker i ka makahiki 2010: "Ua hāʻawi aku nā hoahānau (Koch) i ke kālā i nā hui pohihihi hou aku, e like me ka Independent Women Forum, ke kūʻē nei i ka hōʻike ʻana o ka hoʻomehana honua ma ke ʻano he ʻepekema ma nā kula aupuni o ʻAmelika. A hiki i ka 2008, ua holo ʻia ka hui e Nancy Pfotenhauer, kahi lobbyist ma mua no Koch Industries. ʻO Mary Beth Jarvis, he pelekikena hope o kahi hui Koch, aia ma ka papa o kēia hui. "

Kūʻē i ke aʻo ʻana i ka ʻepekema aniau i nā kula

ka Denver Post ua hōʻike ʻia i ka makahiki 2010 ʻo IWF "manaʻo ʻo ka hoʻomehana honua ka 'ʻepekema junk' a ke aʻo nei ia mea he mea pono ʻole e makaʻu i nā keiki kula." Ma o kahi papahana i kapa ʻia ʻo "Balanced Education for All," ua kūʻē ʻo IWF i ka ʻepekema ʻepekema aniau i nā kula, kahi o ka hui i weheweheia me "Indoctrination hoʻomehana honua hoʻomākalakala."

ʻO Pelekikena IWF Carrie Lucas kākauʻia e pili ana ʻo ka "skepticism e ulu nei e pili ana i ka huliau" a hoʻopaʻapaʻa "hiki i ka lehulehu ke uku nui no ka hysteria."

Pāhana me Monsanto

I kahi noi 21 ʻApelila 2016 iā Monsanto, Ua noi ʻo IWF iā Monsanto e hāʻawi kālā $ 43,300 no nā hanana "Super Women of Science" i hoʻolālā ʻia e hōʻoki i ke kākoʻo politika no Proposition 65, kahi kānāwai Kaleponi e pāpā ana i nā ʻoihana mai ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i nā kemika weliweli i nā waikahe a koi iā lākou e hoʻomaopopo i nā mea kūʻai aku e pili ana i nā hōʻike kemikona ʻawahia. ʻO nā hanana i hāpai ʻia he ʻāpana ia o ka papahana "Culture of Alarmism" a IWF i hana ʻia "e debunk media hype e pili ana i nā pilikia a ʻAmelika e kū ai mai nā huahana a mākou e hoʻohana ai, nā meaʻai a mākou e ʻai ai a me ke kaiapuni e pili ana i ko mākou mau ʻohana." 

I Pepeluali 2017, ua hui pū ʻo Monsanto me IWF ma kahi hanana i kapa ʻia ʻo “ʻAi a me ka Makaʻu: Pehea e ʻike ai i nā ʻoiaʻiʻo i kēia lā Culture of Alarmism,” a me Podcast IWF ua kūkākūkā kēlā mahina "Pehea ʻo Monsanto e Vilified e Activists."

Hoʻopiʻi ʻo IWF i nā wahi kamaʻilio a Monsanto a me ka ʻoihana kemika: ke hoʻolaha nei i nā GMO a me nā pesticides, e hoʻouka nei i ka ʻokanika a me nā makuahine e koho ana i ka meaʻai meaola, a me ke kūʻē ʻana i ka transparency i nā lepili meaʻai. ʻO nā laʻana me:

  • Lapuwale ke kānāwai lepili GMO a Vermont. (ʻO ka Spectator)
  • ʻO ka lepili GMO Sinister ka mea e hoʻonui ai i nā kumukūʻai kūʻai. (IMF)
  • ʻO ka anti-GMO hype ka mea hoʻoweliweli maoli i ke ola o nā ʻohana. (ʻO ka'ōiwi kūkā)
  • Pono nā makuwahine kūpono e hoʻi i hope i ka hilahila a ka makuahine a me ka lawehala ʻana i ka haʻi ʻana i nā meaʻai meaola. (Podcast IWF)
  • Kino, lapuwale, kiʻekiʻe a ʻimi nā poʻe loiloi GMO e hōʻole i ka poʻe nele. (New York Post)

ʻO ka papahana "Culture of Alarmism", mai ka inoa i kapa ʻia ʻo "Project for Progress and Innovation," e Julie Gunlock, nāna i kākau i nā blog pinepine e hoʻopaʻapaʻa ana i nā pale olakino lehulehu a pale ʻana i nā hui. Ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ka hōʻole ʻana a FDA e hoʻolaha i nā e-cigareki ma ke ʻano he "kahi pilikia olakino lehulehu.

Nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa 'Philips Morris PR'

I ʻAukake 2017, IWF lobbied FDA e ʻae iā Philip Morris ' ʻO nā uahi paka IQOS, e hoʻopaʻapaʻa nei e pono i nā wahine nā huahana no nā kumu olaola like ʻole e kōkua iā lākou e haʻalele i ka puhipaka maʻamau ʻana.

"ʻIke loa, ʻaʻole makemake ka FDA e hoʻopaʻi i nā wahine, no kā lākou kāne wale nō. Eia nō naʻe, ʻo ia ka mea e hiki mai ana inā palena nā wahine i nā huahana hoʻomaha puhipaka i hiki ʻole i ka biologically ke hāʻawi iā lākou i ke kōkua e pono ai e haʻalele i nā kūpaka maʻamau, ”i kākau ʻo IWF.

I ka pane ʻana i ka leka IWF, ʻo Stanton Glantz, PhD, Polofesa o ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma ka UCSF Center for Tobako Control Research and Education, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia: "ʻO Philip Morris PR maʻamau kēia. ʻAʻohe hōʻoia kūʻokoʻa i ka ʻoi aku o ka palekana o ka IQOS ma mua o ka pīpaka a i ʻole kōkua lākou i ka poʻe e haʻalele i ka puhipaka. "

ʻO ka hoʻokūkū hoʻokūkū hoʻokūkū hoʻokūkū hoʻokūkū ʻoihana.

Hoʻopilikia ʻo IWF i ka US Food and Drug Administration ma ke ʻano he “nannies o ke aupuni,” e laʻana me ka wehewehe ʻana i ka ʻoihana ʻo “mea ʻai Marxists"A me"pau ʻole i ke kāohi”No ka hoʻopuka ʻana alakaʻi kōkua manawaleʻa i nā mea hana meaʻai e ʻoki i nā pae sodium.

Ua hoʻāʻo kahi hanana IWF Iune 2017 e hoʻokau i ka makaʻu e pili ana i ke alakaʻi olakino lehulehu

I ka 2012, ua hoʻokumu ʻo IWF i kahi “Nā Wahine no ke Kuokoa ʻAi"Papahana e" hoʻokau i ka moku nanny a paipai i ke kuleana pilikino "no nā koho meaʻai. ʻO ka papa kuhikuhi e pili ana i ke kūʻē ʻana i nā "rula ʻai, soda a me nā ʻauhau meaʻai māmā, nā ʻepekema junk a me nā meaʻai a me nā makaʻi home-huahana, nā ʻike hewa e pili ana i ka momona a me ka pōloli, a me nā papahana meaʻai pekelala ʻē aʻe, me nā ʻaina awakea o ke kula."

Ma ka momona, hoʻāʻo ʻo IWF e hoʻohuli i ka nānā mai ka kuleana ʻoihana a i nā koho pilikino. I kēia ninaninau me Thom Hartmann, Hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo IWF ʻo Julie Gunlock i ka hewa ʻole o nā hui no ka pilikia momona o ʻAmelika akā akā “ke hana hewa nei nā kānaka a manaʻo wau e nānā pono ana nā mākua.” ʻO ka hopena, i ʻōlelo ʻo ia, no ka kuke ʻana o nā mākua i nā mea hou aku, keu hoʻi nā mākua ʻilihuna ʻoiai he pilikia ʻoi loa ko lākou me ka momona.

Hoʻouka i nā mākuahine no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hōʻemi i nā hōʻike pesticide

Hoʻokomo ʻo IWF i ka leka ʻana o ka ʻoihana, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hana huna, i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e kipaku aku i nā makuahine e hopohopo nei e pili ana i nā pesticides; ʻO kahi hiʻohiʻona nui loa kēia 2014 New York Post Haawina, "Tyranny o ka Organic Mommy Mafia" na Naomi Schafer Riley. Ma lalo o ke ʻano o ka namunamu e pili ana i ka "hilahila makuahine," ʻo Riley - ʻo wai ia ʻO IWF hoa akā ʻaʻole i hōʻike i kēlā i ka poʻe heluhelu - hoʻāʻo e hoʻohilahila a hōʻino i nā makuahine i koho i ka meaʻai meaola. Ua ʻimi holoʻokoʻa ʻia ka ʻatikala a Riley e nā ʻoihana mua o ka ʻoihana a me nā kumuwaiwai āna i hōʻike wahaheʻe ai he kūʻokoʻa, e like me Nānā ʻIkepili, kahi hui mua o Monsanto; ka Alliance no ka meaʻai a me ka mahiʻai a me Julie Gunlock o ka "Culture of Alarmism Project" o ka IWF, ka mea i ʻike ʻole ʻia i loko o ka ʻatikala ma ke ʻano he limahana o IWF. No ka mea hou aʻe e pili ana i kēia kumuhana, e ʻike i ka “Ka hōʻeha ma nā meaola: Ke nānā ʻole i ka ʻepekema e hana i ka hihia no ka mahiʻai kemika”(FAIR, 2014).

Nā hoa me nā hui ʻenehana kemika mua

Nā hoa IWF me nā hui ʻoihana ʻē aʻe e like me ka ʻAha ʻAmelika no ka ʻepekema a me ke olakino, kahi pale pale nui o nā kemika ʻino i hala i kākoʻo kālā ʻia e Monsanto a Syngenta, a me kekahi kemika, lāʻau lapaʻau a me ka paka nā hui a me nā hui ʻoihana.

  • I ka Pepeluali 2017 Podcast IWF, Ua "hoʻopau ʻo ACSH a me IWF" i kā alarmism a Rachel Carson no nā kemika ʻino.
  • ʻO ACSH he "hope loa" o IWF's "moʻomeheu o ka leka alarmism”Ke kūʻē nei i nā hana e hemo i nā kemika weliweli mai nā huahana mea kūʻai aku.
  • ʻO nā hanana IWF e hoʻouka nei i nā makuahine e hopohopo nei e pili ana i nā mea make ʻino, e like me kēia "makua makua hazmat" ka hopena, Hoʻolaha ʻO Josh Bloom o ACSH a me ka ʻoihana kemika mea kākau pili lehulehu ʻO Trevor Butterworth.

No ka heluhelu hou ana

ʻO ke kuʻina, "Koch Brothers Operatives hoʻopiha i nā kūlana keʻokeʻo kiʻekiʻe," na Lee Fang (4/4/2017)

ʻO ka Nation, "E hui i nā" Feminists "Hana i nā Hana Maikaʻi Koch Brothers", na Joan Walsh (8/18/2016)

Ke kikowaena no Media a me Demokalaka, "ʻO nā mea kōkua i ʻike nui ʻia o ka Forum Wahine Kūʻokoʻa he mau kāne," na Lisa Graves (8/24/2016)

Ke kikowaena no Media a me Demokalaka, "Hōʻoia: Ua hānau ʻia ka Forum Women-ʻole-Kūʻokoʻa i ka pale ʻana iā Clarence Thomas a me ka ʻĀkau Hema," na Lisa Graves lāua ʻo Calvin Sloan (4/21/2016)

Slate, "Bias Confirmation: Pehea ʻo" Women for Judge Thomas "i lilo i hale mana conservative," na Barbara Spindel (4/7/2016)

Truthout, "Hoʻohana ka Forum Wahine Kūʻokoʻa i nā Mana Kuhihewa e Pahu aku ai i ka ʻaoʻao ʻaoʻao ʻākau," na Lisa Graves, ʻo Calvin Sloan lāua ʻo Kim Haddow (8/19/2016)

Ma loko o Philanthropy,"ʻO ke kālā ma hope o nā pūʻulu wahine conservative e hakakā nei i ke kaua moʻomeheu," na Philip Rojc (9/13/2016)

ʻO ka Nation, "Kuhi ʻo wai ka pūʻulu wahine ʻo Rush Limbaugh i hāʻawi i nā haneli he mau kaukani kālā? Kaha: ʻo ia ka mea pale iā ia i nā manawa a pau e lele i loko o kahi moe kolohe, "na Eli Clifton (6/12/2014)

ʻO ka New Yorker, "The Koch Brothers Covert Operations," na Jane Mayer (8/30/2010)

Oxford University Press, "Ka Pono Hana wahine: Conservative Women and American Politics," na Ronnee Schreiber (2008)

Ma loko o Philanthropy, "E nānā ʻO wai ke kālā i kēia Pūʻulu Wahine Conservative Top," na Joan Shipps (11/26/2014)

ʻO ke kūpono a me ke kūpono i ka hōʻikeʻana, "Pono nā Wahine Conservative no Media Mainstream; Ua Loaa Loa ka Media i Kekahi Wahine e Aloha, "na Laura Flanders (3/1/1996)

i kau mua ʻia ʻOkakopa 6, 2018 a hōʻano hou ʻia i Pepeluali 2020

I ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup, hakakā ʻo Monsanto e hūnā i ka hana PR

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Ke hoʻomau nei ʻo Monsanto i ke kaua ʻana i nā hoʻopiʻi kū kānāwai e pili ana i ka makaʻu o kāna lāʻau hoʻohana Roundup i hoʻohana nui ʻia, ke hoʻāʻo nei ka ʻoihana e ālai i nā kauoha e hoʻohuli i nā moʻolelo kūloko e pili ana i kāna hana me nā pilina lehulehu a me nā mea kūkākūkā kūkākūkā kūkākūkā.

i ka moʻo o nā faila i ka Aha Kaapuni ʻo St. Louis, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Monsanto ʻaʻole pono ia e hoʻokō i nā noi ʻike e pili ana i kekahi mau hana i waena o ia a me ka pilina pili aupuni ākea. FleishmanHillard, ʻoiai ka mea i loaʻa i kahi haku kūikawā ʻike iā Monsanto e hāʻawi i kēlā mau palapala. Ke ʻōlelo nei ʻo Monsanto pono e noʻonoʻo ʻia kāna kamaʻilio ʻana me FleishmanHillard he "kuleana nui", e like me nā kamaʻilio a ka loio a me ka mea kūʻai aku, ʻaʻole pono e hana ʻo Monsanto iā lākou ma ke ʻano he mea i loaʻa i nā loio e kū ana i nā maʻi maʻi ʻaʻai e hoʻopiʻi ana iā Monsanto.

Ua lilo ʻo FleishmanHillard i keʻena no ka moʻoukala a Monsanto no ka "hana kūlana ʻoihana inoa" ma 2013, a ua pili nui kāna mau limahana me ka hui, e hana ana "ma nā keʻena ʻo Monsanto kokoke i kēlā me kēia lā" a loaʻa "ke komo i nā waihona pūnaewele o ka ʻike pilikino pilikino ʻole," wahi a ka hui. "ʻO ka pili ʻana o kekahi o kēia mau kamaʻilio i ka hana ʻana i nā leka lehulehu ʻaʻole ia e hoʻonele iā lākou i ka pono," i ʻōlelo ʻo Monsanto i loko o kāna faila.

Ua hana ʻo FleishmanHillard i ʻelua mau papahana no Monsanto ma ʻEulopa e pili ana i ka hoʻopaʻa inoa hou ʻana o
glyphosate a hana pū me nā loio Monsanto ma kahi "papahana kikoʻī no ka noiʻi jure." ʻO ke ʻano o ka hana i hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana pili aupuni "koi i nā kamaʻilio kūpono" me ke kākāʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a Monsanto, i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka ʻoihana.

Ma mua o kēia makahiki ua ʻōlelo ʻo Monsanto nona ʻo Bayer AG e hoʻopau ana i ka pilina o Monsanto me FleishmanHillard ma hope ua kū ka nūhou ke komo nei ka ʻoihana pili lehulehu i kahi papahana hōʻiliʻili ʻikepili no ʻEulopa holoʻokoʻa no Monsanto, e kuhikuhi ana i nā mea nūpepa, nā luna politika a me nā mea ʻē aʻe e hoʻāʻo e hoʻohuli i ke kulekele pesticide.

Ua kū ʻo Monsanto i kahi kūlana like e pili ana i nā kamaʻilio e pili ana i kāna hana me ka ʻoihana hoʻokele kiʻi ʻoihana Kūkākūkā FTI, a Monsanto i hoʻolimalima ai i Iune 2016. "ʻO ka loaʻa ʻole o kahi loio ma kahi palapala kūikawā ʻaʻole ia e hāʻawi aunoa i kēlā palapala i ka hoʻopiʻi kūʻē," wahi a Monsanto i kāna faila ʻana.

Ma mua o kēia makahiki, he limahana FTI kekahi hopu ʻia e hoʻohālike ana kahi mea kākau moʻolelo ma kekahi o nā hoʻokolohua maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup, e hoʻāʻo nei e hōʻike i nā laina moʻolelo no nā mea kūkala nūhou ʻē aʻe e alualu i ka mea i makemake ʻia ʻo Monsanto.

Makemake pū ka ʻoihana e hōʻalo i ka hāʻawi ʻana i nā palapala e pili ana i kona pilina me ka hui ʻo Scotts Miracle-Gro, ke kūʻai aku nei a me ke kūʻai aku ʻana i ka lawn Roundup a Monsanto a me nā huahana māla mai ka makahiki 1998.

ʻOi aku ma mua o 40,000 i loaʻa i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a i ʻole nā ​​lālā o ko lākou ʻohana i kēia manawa e hoʻopiʻi nei iā Monsanto e hoʻopiʻi nei i ka hōʻike ʻana i ka laina o nā lāʻau ʻo Roundup no kā lākou mau maʻi, e like me kā Bayer. Hoʻopiʻi nā hoʻopiʻi i ke kū ʻana i nā lāʻau make a Monsanto ka mea i hoʻomohala i nā lympoma non-Hodgkin a ʻoiai ua ʻike ʻo Monsanto e pili ana i nā pilikia maʻi ʻaʻai, ʻaʻole ia i aʻoaʻo aku i ka poʻe kūʻai aku.

ʻO Bayer ua mālama ʻia kahi kāhea kūkā kamaʻilio me nā mea hoʻopukapuka kālā Pōʻakolu e kūkākūkā i kāna hopena hapakolu a me ka hoʻohou i nā mea kuleana ma ka hoʻopiʻi Roundup. Ke haʻi nei i kahi leo hōʻoluʻolu, ua ʻōlelo ʻo CEO ʻo Bayer Werner Baumann ʻoiai e pūʻiwa paha nā mea hoʻopukapuka i ka nui o nā hoʻopiʻi, akā "ʻaʻole ia he mea kupanaha." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia ua hoʻolilo nā loio o ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i nā kālā he ʻumi miliona e hoʻolaha ana no nā mea kūʻai aku.

"ʻO kēia hoʻonui ʻana i ka nui o nā hoʻopiʻi ʻaʻole e hoʻololi i ko mākou kūpaʻa i ka ʻike palekana o ka glyphosate a ʻaʻole loa ia he hiʻohiʻona o nā pono o kēia hoʻopiʻi ʻana," i ʻōlelo ʻo Baumann. Ke hoʻomaka nei nā hoʻopiʻi hoʻopiʻi ma hope o ka lilo ʻana o ka ʻoihana i nā hoʻokolokolo mua ʻekolu, a ʻo ka ʻoihana "kūkulu" e hana i ka mediation, e like me Baumann. E ʻae wale ʻo Bayer i kahi hoʻonohonoho i "kūpono kālā" a lawe mai i "ka pani kūpono i ka hoʻopiʻi nui ʻana," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

ʻOiai ʻo ka hui e pili ana iā ia ma ke ʻano he "glyphosate" litigation, ua ʻōlelo ka mea hoʻopiʻi ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia kā lākou maʻi maʻi maʻi i ka hōʻike wale ʻana i ka glyphosate wale nō, akā i ka hōʻike ʻia ʻana i nā huahana formulated-glyphosate i hoʻokumu ʻia e Monsanto.

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā noiʻi ʻepekema he nui nā mea ʻona ma mua o ka glyphosate e lākou iho. ʻAʻole koi ka US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i nā hana palekana lōʻihi lōʻihi e pili ana i nā formup Roundup i loko o nā makahiki he 40 a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā huahana ma ka mākeke, a ua loaʻa nā kamaʻilio kūloko ma waena o nā ʻepekema Monsanto e nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi. kūkākūkā nā ʻepekema i ka nele o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana o ka carcinogenicity no nā huahana Roundup.

Ua hoʻolohi ʻia nā hoʻokolohua he nui i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no kēia hāʻule ma St. Louis, Missouri a hiki i kēia makahiki aʻe.

Ka Ikepili Unappetizing mai ka FDA

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I ka mahina i hala ua paʻi ka Food & Drug Administration i kāna loiloi hou makahiki o nā pae o nā koena pesticide e hoʻohaumia i nā hua a me nā mea ʻai a me nā meaʻai ʻē aʻe a mākou ʻAmelika e kau maʻa mau ai i kā mākou papa ʻaina awakea. Hoʻohui ka ʻikepili hou i ka ulu ʻana o ka hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e pili ana i ka hopena o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai - a i ʻole ʻole - i nā maʻi, nā maʻi a me nā pilikia hānau.

Ma kahi o 55 ʻaoʻao o ka ʻikepili, nā pakuhi a me nā pakuhi, ka hōʻike a ka FDA “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” hōʻike i kahi hiʻohiʻona hiʻohiʻona ʻole o ke kekelē a nā mea mahiʻai US i hilinaʻi ai i nā insecticides synthetic, fungicides a me nā herbicides i ka ulu ʻana i kā mākou meaʻai.

ʻIke mākou, e laʻa, i ka heluhelu ʻana i ka hōʻike hou loa, ua loaʻa nā līlū o nā pesticides ma 84 pakeneka o nā huahana home o nā huaʻai, a me 53 pākēneka o nā mea kanu, a me 42 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 73 pākēneka o nā mea ʻai i helu wale ʻia ma ke ʻano " ʻē aʻe. ” Ua huki ʻia nā laʻana mai ka ʻāina holoʻokoʻa, e laʻa me Kaleponi, Texas, Kansas, New York a me Wisconsin.

Ma kahi o ka 94 pākēneka o nā hua waina, ka wai hua waina a me nā hua puaʻa i hoʻāʻo maikaʻi no nā koena pesticide e like me 99 pakeneka o nā strawberry, 88 pakeneka o nā ʻāpala a me nā wai ʻāpala, a me 33 pākēneka o nā huahana laiki, e like me ka ʻike o ka FDA.

Ua hōʻike maoli nā huaʻai a me nā lau i lawe ʻia i ka heluna haʻahaʻa o nā pesticides, me 52 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 46 pākēneka o nā mea kanu mai nā ʻāina ʻē e hoʻāʻo maikaʻi ana i nā pesticides. Ua hele mai kēlā mau laʻana mai nā ʻāina he 40 a ʻoi, me Mekiko, Kina, ʻInia a me Kanada.

Ua aʻo pū mākou no ka laʻana hou ʻana i hōʻike ʻia, ma waena o nā haneli he nui o nā pesticides ʻokoʻa, ua loaʻa i ka FDA nā hiʻona o ka DDT insecticide lōʻihi loa ʻia i loko o nā laʻana meaʻai, a me chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D a me glyphosate. Pili ʻo DDT i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o ka umauma, infertility a me ka hāʻule ʻole ʻana, ʻoiai ʻo chlorpyrifos - kekahi insecticide - ua hōʻike ʻepekema ʻia e hana i nā pilikia neurodevelopmental i nā keiki ʻōpio.

He mea weliweli loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos i koi aku ai ka European Food Safety Authority i kahi pāpā o ʻEulopa e ʻike ai aia aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. ʻO nā mea kanu lāʻau make 2,4-D a me glyphosate pili pū ʻia i nā maʻi ʻino a me nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe.

Thailand iho nei i ʻōlelo ʻia e pāpā ana glyphosate a me chlorpyrifos ma muli o nā pilikia ʻepekema i hoʻokumu ʻia o kēia mau pesticides.

ʻOiai ka laha o nā pesticides i loaʻa i nā meaʻai o US, ʻo ka FDA, me ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a me ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA), ke ʻōlelo nei ʻaʻole he mea hopohopo nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai. Ma waena o ka lobbying kaumaha e ka ʻoihana ahupuaʻa ua kākoʻo maoli ka EPA i ka hoʻomau mau ʻana o ka glyphosate a me ka chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Hoʻolālā nā luna hoʻomalu i nā huaʻōlelo a nā luna hoʻomalu o Monsanto a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ka ʻoihana kemika ma ke koi ʻana i nā koena pesticide ʻaʻole ia he mea hoʻoweliweli i ke olakino o ke kanaka ke hāʻule nā ​​pae o kēlā me kēia ʻano koena ma lalo o kahi pae "ahonui" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka EPA.

I ke kālailai hou loa ʻana a ka FDA, he 3.8 pakeneka o nā meaʻai home wale nō i koe nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he kiʻekiʻe kū ʻole i ke kānāwai, a i ʻole "violative." No nā meaʻai i lawe ʻia mai, he 10.4 ka pākēneka o nā meaʻai i laana ʻia i hōʻino ʻia, e like me ka FDA.

ʻO ka mea a ka FDA i ʻōlelo ʻole ai, a he aha nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho e hōʻalo pinepine ai i ka haʻi ʻana i ka lehulehu, ʻo ka piʻi ʻana o nā pae hoʻomanawanui no kekahi mau pesticides ua piʻi aʻe i loko o nā makahiki e like me nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides e noi ana i nā palena kānāwai kiʻekiʻe a kiʻekiʻe. Ua ʻae ka EPA i kekahi mau hoʻonui i ʻae ʻia no nā koena glyphosate i ka meaʻai, e like paha. Pēlā nō hoʻi, hoʻoholo pinepine ka ʻoihana i ka hoʻoholo e pono ʻole e hoʻokō i kahi koi kū kānāwai e ʻōlelo ana i ka EPA "e hoʻopili i kahi palena he ʻumi mau palekana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki" i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā pae kū kānāwai no nā koena pesticide. Ua hoʻokahuli ka EPA i kēlā koi i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā hoʻomanawanui pesticide he nui, e ʻōlelo ana ʻaʻole pono kēlā me kēia palena o ka palekana e pale ai i nā keiki.

Ke laina lalo: ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka EPA i hoʻonohonoho i ka "hoʻomanawanui" i ʻae ʻia e like me ka palena o ke kānāwai, ʻo ka haʻahaʻa ka manawa e hōʻike ai nā luna hoʻomalu i nā koena "violative" i kā mākou meaʻai. ʻO ka hopena, ʻae mau ka US i nā kiʻekiʻe o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai ma mua o nā lāhui i hoʻomohala ʻia. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka palena kānāwai no ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele glyphosate ma ka ʻāpala he 0.2 mau ʻāpana no ka miliona (ppm) ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa akā ʻo ka hapalua wale nō o kēlā pae - 0.1 ppm - ʻae ʻia i ka ʻāpala i ka European Union. Pēlā nō, ʻae ka US i nā koena o glyphosate ma ke kulina ma 5 ppm, ʻoiai e ʻae ʻo EU i 1 ppm wale nō.

Ke piʻi nei nā palena o ke kānāwai no nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai, hoʻonui nui nā ʻepekema i ka hoʻāla ʻana e pili ana i nā pilikia o ka hoʻohana mau ʻana o nā koena, a me ka nele o ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i nā hopena kumulative kūpono o ka ʻai ʻana i kahi lūlū a me nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu me kēlā me kēia pāʻina. .

He kime o ka ʻepekema ʻo Harvard ke kāhea nei no noiʻi hohonu e pili ana i nā loulou hiki i waena o ka maʻi a me ka ʻai ʻana o ka pesticide i ko lākou manaʻo he ʻoi aku ma mua o 90 pākēneka o ka poʻe ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i nā koena pesticide i ko lākou mimi a me ke koko ma muli o ka ʻai ʻana o nā meaʻai pesticide-laced. A like pili iā Harvard ua ʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻana o ka pesticide pesticide i loko o kahi pae "ʻano" me nā pilikia e hāpai ana nā wahine a me ka hānau ʻana i nā pēpē ola.

Ua loaʻa nā noiʻi hou i nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe i pili i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papaʻai i nā pesticides, me ka glyphosate.  ʻO Glyphosate ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia i ka honua a ʻo ia ka mea hana i ka Monsanto's Roundup branded a me nā huahana hoʻomake nāhelehele ʻē aʻe.

ʻOihana Pesticide Push Back

Akā i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo, ke hoʻihoʻi nei nā ʻaoʻao ʻoihana mahiʻai i hope. I kēia mahina he hui o ʻekolu mau kānaka noiʻi me nā pilina pili lōʻihi i nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides mahiʻai i hoʻokuʻu i kahi hōʻike e ʻoluʻolu i nā hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a hōʻemi i ka noiʻi ʻepekema.

ʻO ka hōʻike, i hoʻopuka ʻia ʻOkakopa 21, i ʻōlelo ʻia "ʻaʻohe hōʻike ʻepekema pololei a lāʻau lapaʻau paha e hōʻike ana i ka hōʻike maʻamau ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku i nā koena pesticide e waiho ana i kahi olakino olakino. Hōʻike ka ʻikepili koena pesticide a me nā kuhi hōʻike e hōʻike ʻia nā mea kūʻai aku i nā pae o nā koena pesticide i nui nā kauoha o ka nui ma lalo o nā mea e pili ana i ka olakino olakino. "

ʻAʻole he mea kupanaha, pili paʻa nā mea kākau ʻekolu o ka hōʻike i ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO Steve Savage kekahi o nā mea kākau o ka hōʻike, kahi ʻoihana mahiʻai Point a limahana DuPont mua. ʻO Carol Burns kekahi, he ʻepekema mua no Dow Chemical a me ke kākāʻōlelo no Cortevia Agriscience, kahi wili o DowDuPont. ʻO ke kolu o ka mea kākau ʻo Carl Winter, ka luna o ka ʻOihana ʻEpekema Meaʻai a me ʻenehana ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi ma Davis. Ua loaʻa i ke kula nui $ 2 miliona o ka makahiki mai ka ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ka mea noiʻi kulanui, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia ka pololei o kēlā kiʻi.

Ua lawe pololei nā mea kākau i kā lākou hōʻike i ka ʻahaʻōlelo, e paʻa ana ʻekolu mau hōʻike ʻokoʻa i Wakinekona, DC, i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻolaha i kā lākou leka o ka palekana pesticide no ka hoʻohana ʻana ma "nā moʻolelo palekana meaʻai pāpāho, a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe kūʻai e pili ana i nā meaʻai e pono ai nā mea kūʻai (a i ʻole pono ʻole) ke hoʻohana."

Ua mālama ʻia nā kau pesticide ma nā keʻena o nā keʻena no nā lālā o ka ʻAhaʻōlelo a me he mea lā, ma ke keʻena nui no ʻO America CropLife, ka lobbyist no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. 

 

Ka Ikepili Unappetizing mai ka FDA

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I ka mahina i hala ua paʻi ka Food & Drug Administration i kāna loiloi hou makahiki o nā pae o nā koena pesticide e hoʻohaumia i nā hua a me nā mea ʻai a me nā meaʻai ʻē aʻe a mākou ʻAmelika e kau maʻa mau ai i kā mākou papa ʻaina awakea. Hoʻohui ka ʻikepili hou i ka ulu ʻana o ka hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻepekema e pili ana i ka hopena o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai - a i ʻole ʻole - i nā maʻi, nā maʻi a me nā pilikia hānau.

Ma kahi o 55 ʻaoʻao o ka ʻikepili, nā pakuhi a me nā pakuhi, ka hōʻike a ka FDA “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” hōʻike i kahi hiʻohiʻona hiʻohiʻona ʻole o ke kekelē a nā mea mahiʻai US i hilinaʻi ai i nā insecticides synthetic, fungicides a me nā herbicides i ka ulu ʻana i kā mākou meaʻai.

ʻIke mākou, e laʻa, i ka heluhelu ʻana i ka hōʻike hou loa, ua loaʻa nā līlū o nā pesticides ma 84 pakeneka o nā huahana home o nā huaʻai, a me 53 pākēneka o nā mea kanu, a me 42 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 73 pākēneka o nā mea ʻai i helu wale ʻia ma ke ʻano " ʻē aʻe. ” Ua huki ʻia nā laʻana mai ka ʻāina holoʻokoʻa, e laʻa me Kaleponi, Texas, Kansas, New York a me Wisconsin.

Ma kahi o ka 94 pākēneka o nā hua waina, ka wai hua waina a me nā hua puaʻa i hoʻāʻo maikaʻi no nā koena pesticide e like me 99 pakeneka o nā strawberry, 88 pakeneka o nā ʻāpala a me nā wai ʻāpala, a me 33 pākēneka o nā huahana laiki, e like me ka ʻike o ka FDA.

Ua hōʻike maoli nā huaʻai a me nā lau i lawe ʻia i ka heluna haʻahaʻa o nā pesticides, me 52 pākēneka o nā huaʻai a me 46 pākēneka o nā mea kanu mai nā ʻāina ʻē e hoʻāʻo maikaʻi ana i nā pesticides. Ua hele mai kēlā mau laʻana mai nā ʻāina he 40 a ʻoi, me Mekiko, Kina, ʻInia a me Kanada.

Ua aʻo pū mākou no ka laʻana hou ʻana i hōʻike ʻia, ma waena o nā haneli he nui o nā pesticides ʻokoʻa, ua loaʻa i ka FDA nā hiʻona o ka DDT insecticide lōʻihi loa ʻia i loko o nā laʻana meaʻai, a me chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D a me glyphosate. Pili ʻo DDT i ka maʻi ʻaʻai o ka umauma, infertility a me ka hāʻule ʻole ʻana, ʻoiai ʻo chlorpyrifos - kekahi insecticide - ua hōʻike ʻepekema ʻia e hana i nā pilikia neurodevelopmental i nā keiki ʻōpio.

He mea weliweli loa ʻo Chlorpyrifos i koi aku ai ka European Food Safety Authority i kahi pāpā o ʻEulopa e ʻike ai aia aia ʻaʻohe pae palekana. ʻO nā mea kanu lāʻau make 2,4-D a me glyphosate pili pū ʻia i nā maʻi ʻino a me nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe.

Thailand iho nei i ʻōlelo ʻia e pāpā ana glyphosate a me chlorpyrifos ma muli o nā pilikia ʻepekema i hoʻokumu ʻia o kēia mau pesticides.

ʻOiai ka laha o nā pesticides i loaʻa i nā meaʻai o US, ʻo ka FDA, me ka Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a me ka US Department of Agriculture (USDA), ke ʻōlelo nei ʻaʻole he mea hopohopo nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai. Ma waena o ka lobbying kaumaha e ka ʻoihana ahupuaʻa ua kākoʻo maoli ka EPA i ka hoʻomau mau ʻana o ka glyphosate a me ka chlorpyrifos i ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai.

Hoʻolālā nā luna hoʻomalu i nā huaʻōlelo a nā luna hoʻomalu o Monsanto a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i ka ʻoihana kemika ma ke koi ʻana i nā koena pesticide ʻaʻole ia he mea hoʻoweliweli i ke olakino o ke kanaka ke hāʻule nā ​​pae o kēlā me kēia ʻano koena ma lalo o kahi pae "ahonui" i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka EPA.

I ke kālailai hou loa ʻana a ka FDA, he 3.8 pakeneka o nā meaʻai home wale nō i koe nā pae i manaʻo ʻia he kiʻekiʻe kū ʻole i ke kānāwai, a i ʻole "violative." No nā meaʻai i lawe ʻia mai, he 10.4 ka pākēneka o nā meaʻai i laana ʻia i hōʻino ʻia, e like me ka FDA.

ʻO ka mea a ka FDA i ʻōlelo ʻole ai, a he aha nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho e hōʻalo pinepine ai i ka haʻi ʻana i ka lehulehu, ʻo ka piʻi ʻana o nā pae hoʻomanawanui no kekahi mau pesticides ua piʻi aʻe i loko o nā makahiki e like me nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides e noi ana i nā palena kānāwai kiʻekiʻe a kiʻekiʻe. Ua ʻae ka EPA i kekahi mau hoʻonui i ʻae ʻia no nā koena glyphosate i ka meaʻai, e like paha. Pēlā nō hoʻi, hoʻoholo pinepine ka ʻoihana i ka hoʻoholo e pono ʻole e hoʻokō i kahi koi kū kānāwai e ʻōlelo ana i ka EPA "e hoʻopili i kahi palena he ʻumi mau palekana o nā pēpē a me nā keiki" i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā pae kū kānāwai no nā koena pesticide. Ua hoʻokahuli ka EPA i kēlā koi i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā hoʻomanawanui pesticide he nui, e ʻōlelo ana ʻaʻole pono kēlā me kēia palena o ka palekana e pale ai i nā keiki.

Ke laina lalo: ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka EPA i hoʻonohonoho i ka "hoʻomanawanui" i ʻae ʻia e like me ka palena o ke kānāwai, ʻo ka haʻahaʻa ka manawa e hōʻike ai nā luna hoʻomalu i nā koena "violative" i kā mākou meaʻai. ʻO ka hopena, ʻae mau ka US i nā kiʻekiʻe o nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai ma mua o nā lāhui i hoʻomohala ʻia. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka palena kānāwai no ka mea pepehi kanaka nāhelehele glyphosate ma ka ʻāpala he 0.2 mau ʻāpana no ka miliona (ppm) ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa akā ʻo ka hapalua wale nō o kēlā pae - 0.1 ppm - ʻae ʻia i ka ʻāpala i ka European Union. Pēlā nō, ʻae ka US i nā koena o glyphosate ma ke kulina ma 5 ppm, ʻoiai e ʻae ʻo EU i 1 ppm wale nō.

Ke piʻi nei nā palena o ke kānāwai no nā koena pesticide i ka meaʻai, hoʻonui nui nā ʻepekema i ka hoʻāla ʻana e pili ana i nā pilikia o ka hoʻohana mau ʻana o nā koena, a me ka nele o ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i nā hopena kumulative kūpono o ka ʻai ʻana i kahi lūlū a me nā mea hoʻomake mauʻu me kēlā me kēia pāʻina. .

He kime o ka ʻepekema ʻo Harvard ke kāhea nei no noiʻi hohonu e pili ana i nā loulou hiki i waena o ka maʻi a me ka ʻai ʻana o ka pesticide i ko lākou manaʻo he ʻoi aku ma mua o 90 pākēneka o ka poʻe ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i nā koena pesticide i ko lākou mimi a me ke koko ma muli o ka ʻai ʻana o nā meaʻai pesticide-laced. A like pili iā Harvard ua ʻike ʻia ka hōʻike ʻana o ka pesticide pesticide i loko o kahi pae "ʻano" me nā pilikia e hāpai ana nā wahine a me ka hānau ʻana i nā pēpē ola.

Ua loaʻa nā noiʻi hou i nā pilikia olakino ʻē aʻe i pili i ka hōʻike ʻana i nā papaʻai i nā pesticides, me ka glyphosate.  ʻO Glyphosate ka lāʻau make i hoʻohana nui ʻia i ka honua a ʻo ia ka mea hana i ka Monsanto's Roundup branded a me nā huahana hoʻomake nāhelehele ʻē aʻe.

ʻOihana Pesticide Push Back

Akā i ka piʻi ʻana o ka hopohopo, ke hoʻihoʻi nei nā ʻaoʻao ʻoihana mahiʻai i hope. I kēia mahina he hui o ʻekolu mau kānaka noiʻi me nā pilina pili lōʻihi i nā ʻoihana e kūʻai aku i nā pesticides mahiʻai i hoʻokuʻu i kahi hōʻike e ʻoluʻolu i nā hopohopo o nā mea kūʻai aku a hōʻemi i ka noiʻi ʻepekema.

ʻO ka hōʻike, i hoʻopuka ʻia ʻOkakopa 21, i ʻōlelo ʻia "ʻaʻohe hōʻike ʻepekema pololei a lāʻau lapaʻau paha e hōʻike ana i ka hōʻike maʻamau ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku i nā koena pesticide e waiho ana i kahi olakino olakino. Hōʻike ka ʻikepili koena pesticide a me nā kuhi hōʻike e hōʻike ʻia nā mea kūʻai aku i nā pae o nā koena pesticide i nui nā kauoha o ka nui ma lalo o nā mea e pili ana i ka olakino olakino. "

ʻAʻole he mea kupanaha, pili paʻa nā mea kākau ʻekolu o ka hōʻike i ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. ʻO Steve Savage kekahi o nā mea kākau o ka hōʻike, kahi ʻoihana mahiʻai Point a limahana DuPont mua. ʻO Carol Burns kekahi, he ʻepekema mua no Dow Chemical a me ke kākāʻōlelo no Cortevia Agriscience, kahi wili o DowDuPont. ʻO ke kolu o ka mea kākau ʻo Carl Winter, ka luna o ka ʻOihana ʻEpekema Meaʻai a me ʻenehana ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi ma Davis. Ua loaʻa i ke kula nui $ 2 miliona o ka makahiki mai ka ʻoihana mahiʻai, e like me ka mea noiʻi kulanui, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia ka pololei o kēlā kiʻi.

Ua lawe pololei nā mea kākau i kā lākou hōʻike i ka ʻahaʻōlelo, e paʻa ana ʻekolu mau hōʻike ʻokoʻa i Wakinekona, DC, i hoʻolālā ʻia e hoʻolaha i kā lākou leka o ka palekana pesticide no ka hoʻohana ʻana ma "nā moʻolelo palekana meaʻai pāpāho, a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a ka poʻe kūʻai e pili ana i nā meaʻai e pono ai nā mea kūʻai (a i ʻole pono ʻole) ke hoʻohana."

Ua mālama ʻia nā kau pesticide ma nā keʻena o nā keʻena no nā lālā o ka ʻAhaʻōlelo a me he mea lā, ma ke keʻena nui no ʻO America CropLife, ka lobbyist no ka ʻoihana mahiʻai. 

 

Hōʻike Hōʻailona Gene i nā Mishaps Pono no ka nānā ʻo FDA

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ʻO ka ʻimi a kahi hui Midwestern e ʻenekini genetically i nā bipi wahine waiū mua ʻole o ka honua i hōʻeha i kēia kauwela i ka wā i loaʻa ai i ka US Food and Drug Administration nā genes hou aʻe i nā bipi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma laila. ʻO nā hewa i loaʻa iā FDA - akā ua hala ka hui - e hōʻike i ka mea nui o ka nānā ʻana o ke aupuni i nā meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia i nā manawa i ka wā e hoʻokau nei nā hui ʻoihana i ka hana.

Nā bipi me nā pepeiaohao: kahi hana no ka hoʻoponopono gen?

ʻO nā mea hana puaʻa, no ka laʻana, "e ʻōlelo ke aupuni pekelala e hoʻomāmā i nā rula e pili ana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hoʻoponopono gen i nā holoholona," i ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻolohi ana i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala. ka Wall Street Journal i hōʻike ʻia i ka pule i hala. Makemake nā mea hana e neʻe ka nānā ʻana mai ka FDA a i ka US Department of Agriculture, kahi ʻae ʻae i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono gen e kanu a kūʻai aku me ka nānā ʻole o ka hoʻokele.

Akā hoʻolālā ka FDA e koi aku i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā meaʻai meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻāno, e like me ka hana ʻana no nā lāʻau hou. E hōʻoia nā rula i ka palekana o nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe no nā holoholona a me nā mea kūʻai aku, a kōkua i nā mea kūʻai aku e ʻoluʻolu me ka ʻenehana, i haʻi ʻia e kahi haʻi ʻōlelo a ka FDA i ka Pai.

Ka loaʻa ʻana o ka FDA o nā gen keu i loko o ka bipi ʻole, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe i hōʻike ʻia nā pilikia e pili ana kūpuna hou ʻenehana ʻenehana, hoʻoikaika i ka hihia no ka nānā aupuni ʻana, a loaʻa i nā hui ʻoihana e ʻākoakoa e kāohi i ka pili pili aupuni.

Ua hala nā gen genes Recombinetics

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā mea noiʻi ma ka hui ʻo Minnesota Recombinetics, Inc. i kahi pepa 2016 ua hana lākou i nā bipi i koho mua ʻia (hornless) me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi ʻenehana hoʻoponopono gen i kapa ʻia ʻo TALENS e hoʻololi i ke kaʻina o nā ʻāpana i nā bipi. Ua hōʻike ka poʻe noiʻi ʻaʻole loaʻa nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia. Ua kākau lākou, "manuahi kā mākou holoholona i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu."

Akā i ka manawa i nānā hou ai nā mea noiʻi o FDA i ka DNA i kēia kauwela, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kaʻina genome i kau ʻia ma ka pūnaewele e Recombinetics, ua loaʻa iā lākou nā hopena hopena ʻole. ʻElua mau bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia i hāpai i nā kope o ka plasmid bacterial holoʻokoʻa i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hoʻoponopono, me nā genes ʻelua antibiotic resistence i loko o kēlā me kēia cell o ko lākou kino. ʻAʻole hana maʻamau nā gen i ka pipi.

Hāʻawi kēia "hoʻopiʻi i nā pilikia o ka biosafety i hāʻawi ʻia aia ka ikaika nui o ka honua e kaupalena i ka hoʻolaha ʻana o nā ʻāpana e hāʻawi ana i ka pale antibiotic," kākau ʻo Jonathan Latham, PhD, i Nūhou ʻEpekema Kūʻokoʻa. Hāpai pū kekahi i nā nīnau e pili ana i ka hemahema o ka pololei o nā hana hoʻoponopono gen a hāʻawi i ke kaupaona i nā hoʻopaʻapaʻa no ka nānā aupuni. Ua hoʻopau ʻia nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohua i nā bipi kau ʻole ma Brazil ma hope o ka hopena o nā hopena i waho i ka hopena, ua hōʻike ʻo Wired, no ka mea hiki i nā mea hoʻokele ma laila noonoo hou ʻole i nā bipi non-GMO.

Ua ʻōlelo nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo FDA kā lākou loaʻa "kahi mea nui i kahi makapō hiki ke loaʻa i nā ʻano loiloi hoʻoponopono genome maʻamau," a ʻōlelo lākou manaʻo lākou he "hōʻike ʻole ʻia a nānā ʻole ʻia paha" nā hewa hoʻopili "i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻoponopono genome. Ua ʻike lākou i kekahi mau laʻana ʻē aʻe o nā hoʻololi i manaʻo ʻole ʻia - a 2017 hoʻopaʻa ʻiole i loaʻa nā hoʻopau holoi a me nā hoʻokomo ʻana i loko o ka genome iole i hoʻoponopono ʻia, a he 2018 like i hōʻike i ka hōʻino ʻia o DNA i nā laina pūnaewele kanaka.

No laila pehea i hala ai nā mea noiʻi Recombinetics i ka hoʻohui ʻole ʻana o DNA?

“ʻAʻole mākou i nānā”

"ʻAʻole ia he mea i manaʻo ʻia, a ʻaʻole mākou i ʻimi," wahi a Tad Sonstegard, ka CEO o Recombinetics 'ahupuaʻa ʻo Acceligen, e like me MIT Technology Review. ʻO kahi kikoʻī piha hou "pono ​​e hana ʻia," i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. ʻO ka nūpepa Wired Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Sonstegard e wehewehe ana, “ʻAʻole mākou e ʻimi ana i nā hoʻohui plasmid. Loaʻa iā mākou. "

He wahi maopopo ia e nānā ai, wahi a Michael Hansen, PhD, ʻepekema ʻlelo, Advocacy, o Consumers Reports. "Inā i kiʻi ʻia kekahi DNA mai ka plasmid bacterial i hoʻohana ʻia i ke kaʻina hana hoʻoponopono a lawe ʻia kekahi o nā mea mua āu e ʻimi ai inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike i nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," i ʻōlelo ʻo Hansen.

I kona manaʻo, ʻo kaʻoiaʻiʻo o ka hala ʻana o Recombinetics i ka pilikia e hōʻike nei, “ʻaʻole lākou i hana i ke kiaʻi kūpono. ʻO ia ke kumu e pono ai iā mākou ke kiaʻi aupuni, ”me nā koina no nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke, i ʻōlelo ʻo ia.

Latham, he biologist a me ka ʻenekini ʻenekini ma mua, kuhikuhi pū kekahi i nā ʻike hou mai Iapana i manaʻoʻiʻo ʻo ia ka hopena ma mua o nā ʻike a ka FDA, a ʻoi aku ka nui o nā hopena no ka ʻāina hoʻokele. Ma kahi noi 2019, Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Kepanī ua loaʻa i nā genome ʻiole i hoʻoponopono ʻia ka DNA mai ka genome E. coli, a me ka DNA kao a me ka bovine. ʻO kēia DNA hele hewa i hele mai mai nā mea hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono gen, ka hana lawe i hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā hoʻoponopono.

ʻO kēia mau mea i loaʻa he "maʻalahi loa: keʻoki ʻana i ka DNA i loko o nā pūnaewele, me ka nānā ʻole i ke ʻano kikoʻī o ka hoʻoponopono gen, predisposes genome e loaʻa iā DNA makemake ʻole ʻia,", kākau ʻo Latham i Nūhou ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia i nā mea i loaʻa ʻia “imply, ma ka liʻiliʻi loa, ka pono no nā hana ikaika e pale aku ai i ka hoʻohaumia ʻia e ka DNA hele hewa, a me ka nānā pono ʻana o nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō a me nā mea i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻānō. A, e like me ka ʻōlelo a ka hihia Recombinetics, eia nā pono e hui ʻole paha nā mea hoʻomohala. "

ʻO ke kaʻina kūpono aʻe

Loaʻa iā Recombinetics "Kūʻē kūpikū ʻole" i ka nānā ʻana a FDA āpau a lobbied ka Hoʻokele Trump e huki i nā mana hoʻomalu mai ka ʻaoʻao palekana palekana meaʻai, e like me ka MIT Technology Review. A i ka wā i ʻōlelo ai ʻo Recombinetics i ka makahiki 2016 ʻo kāna mau bipi kauō ʻole i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻanona he "manuahi nā hopena i waho o ka pahuhopu," ua hoʻohana koke ʻia ka loaʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano he mea hana lobby i ka hoʻouka kaua e kūʻē ana iā FDA.

i ka commentary i holo pū me ka noiʻi o ka ʻoihana, ʻelima mau kānaka noiʻi o ke kula nui i hoʻopaʻapaʻa i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke no nā holoholona meaʻai i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela a koʻikoʻi a pono ʻole. ʻO kekahi o nā mea kākau, ʻO Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, he loea hoʻolōʻihi holoholona ma UC Davis a me kahi loio alakaʻi no ka hoʻopau kino ʻana, ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ka hoʻolālā a FDA e koi ai i nā loiloi palekana palekana ma mua o ka mākeke. me he "pupule lā."

"ʻO nā hopena o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka ʻaneʻi e like like me nā hana kūlohelohe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i kā lākou ʻōlelo hoʻopuka. ʻO kēlā me kēia "hopena hopena ʻē aʻe hiki ke hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia e ka hoʻolālā akahele a me ka hoʻāʻo nui ʻana," i ʻōlelo lākou, me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana "ʻaʻole i loaʻa i nā kānaka noiʻi mai Recombinetics" i kā lākou pipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā ʻenela.

Ua ʻōlelo pū kekahi lākou, me ka pololei ʻole e like me ka mea i lilo, ua lawe ʻia ka bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e nā gen i ka DNA like "i hoʻopau ʻia e nā kānaka ma kahi o 1,000 mau makahiki." ʻO ka "ʻanuʻu kūpono e hiki mai ana," i kākau ai lākou, e hoʻolaha aku i ke kaʻina genome i hoʻoponopono ʻia "i nā heluna waiū o ka honua."

ʻO ka hoʻokaʻawale ma waena o ka wikiwiki e kūʻai aku i nā meaʻai i hana ʻia me nā genetically engineered, a me ka pono no ka hana pono e hoʻomaopopo i nā hopena i waho o nā manipulate a me nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino a me ke kaiapuni. No ka hapanui o nā meaʻai GMO, mālama nā ʻoihana i nā loiloi palekana me nā mea āpau, me ka nānā liʻiliʻi a ʻaʻohe paha o ke aupuni. Akā he aha ka hoʻoikaika e nānā ai nā ʻoihana i nā pilikia?

Hoʻi i 1998, i kahi ninaninau me Michael Pollan no ka New York Times, ʻO Monsanto ka luna hoʻokele kamaʻilio i kēlā manawa i kuhihewa i kāna loiloi ʻana i kahi e waiho ai nā makemake o ka ʻoihana: ”ʻAʻole pono ʻo Monsanto e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka palekana o ka meaʻai biotech. ʻO kā mākou hoihoi i ke kūʻai aku e like me ka hiki. ʻO ka hōʻoia ʻana i kona palekana ka hana a ka FDA. ”

Ka heluhelu hou

Pono e hoʻoponopono pololei i ka Gene e ola i kāna hoʻohiki - na David Edgell, Ke kamaʻilio (10.7.19)

Hoʻohui me ka manaʻo ʻole o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka Gene i ka bovine DNA, DNA kao, a me ka DNA koʻohune - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, ʻepekema Kūʻokoʻa Independent (9.23.19)

Loaʻa i kahi bipi i hoʻoponopono ʻia e ka Gene kekahi koʻikoʻi nui i kā lākou DNA - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (8.28.19)

ʻIke ʻo FDA i nā genes resistic antibiotic i manaʻo ʻole ʻia i loko o nā bipi dehorned 'Gene-hoʻoponopono' - na Jonathan Latham, PhD, a me Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

ʻAʻole wale ka hopohopo o nā pahuhopu i hopohopo wale ʻia i nā mea kanu hoʻoponopono kūʻē - Nānā GM (7.10.19)

No ke aha e kuhi hewa ai ka "ʻikela mole" no CRISPR - na Elinor Hortle, ke kamaʻilio (7.4.19)

Hoʻokumu ʻo CRISPR i nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia ma ke kahua i manaʻo ʻia no ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻikepili - Nānā GM (4.16.19)

Hoʻokumu ka CRISPR i ka wili i waho i nā hoʻololi i makemake ʻole ʻia ma DNA - Nānā GM (3.13.19)

Hoʻonohonoho kumu CRISPR, ʻike ʻia no ka kikoʻī, pā i kahi snag me nā hoʻololi hoʻololi ʻē aʻe - na Sharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Nā alelo nui a me nā vertebra keu: nā hopena i manaʻo ʻole ʻia o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā ʻiʻo holoholona - Na Preetika Rana lāua ʻo Lucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

ʻO ka hōʻino ʻia DNA kūpono mai CRISPR i 'hoʻowahāwahā nui ʻia,' ʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi - na Sharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Hiki iā CRISPR hoʻoponopono ke hiki ke hōʻino i nā genome - Nānā Hana Hana MIT (7.16.2018)

ʻO kahi pale hou koʻikoʻi no CRISPR: Hoʻonohonoho nā hunaola i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, ʻelua mau ʻike i loaʻa - na Sharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Makemake nā hoʻoponopono o ka ʻĀina Farmland i nā bipi ʻole me nā pepeiaohao, puaʻa ʻaʻohe huelo, a me ka ʻoihana me ka ʻole o nā lula - na Antonio Regalado, Nānā ʻIkepili MIT (3.12.18)

Hōʻike: e hoʻonui nā holoholona i hoʻoponopono ʻia i ka Gene i ka mahi ʻana i nā hale hana a me ka pilikia o ke aniau, hiki ke hōʻeha i ke olakino kanaka - Nā Hoa o ka Honua (9.17.19)

Mākaukau paha ʻoe no ka nalu hou o nā meaʻai hana ʻenekini? - na Stacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

Hana ʻo Monsanto i kahi koho hou e ālai iā St. Louis Trial

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Ma mua o hoʻokahi mahina ka mamao o ka hoʻokolokolo ʻehā Roundup cancer e hoʻowalewale i nā mea maʻi ʻaʻai e kūʻē i ka pilikua mua o Monsanto Co., mau nā loio no nā ʻaoʻao kūʻē e hakakā pehea, i ka manawa a ma hea kahi e hihia ai - a i ʻole pono ʻole. lohe ʻia.

ʻO nā loio no Monsanto a no kāna mea Kelemania ʻo Bayer AG, hoouna letaast hebedoma i ka luna kānāwai nui ma ka ʻAha Hoʻokolokolo Kaapuni ʻo St. Louis e ʻimi nei i ka hana e wāwahi ai i ka hui o nā mea hoʻopiʻi i nā hui liʻiliʻi a hoʻolohi i ka lā hoʻokolokolo o ʻOkakopa 15 i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no 14 nā mea hoʻopiʻi i hui ʻia ma lalo o ka hihia. ʻO Winston V. Monsanto.

ʻO ka mea hoʻopiʻi alakaʻi Walter Winston a me 13 poʻe ʻē aʻe a puni ka ʻāina i hoʻonoho ʻia no ka hoʻokolokolo ma ka ʻaha ʻo St. Louis City akā ua kūʻē ʻo Monsanto i kahi no nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau koe ʻo Winston a ma hope o nā mahina o ka hakakā ʻana ma waena o nā loio no nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua, ka luna kānāwai o ka Aha Kaapuni ʻo St. Louis. Ua hoʻololi ʻo Michael Mullen i nā mea hoʻopiʻi āpau koe ʻo Winston i St. Louis County ma a Kauoha 13 Sept.  Ua hoʻoholo kahi ʻaha hoʻokolokolo kiʻekiʻe ma Missouri i ka hoʻomaka mua o kēia makahiki he kūpono ʻole no nā loio o ka mea hoʻopiʻi no ka heleuma i nā mea hoʻopiʻi mai waho o ka wahi i kahi mea i loaʻa kahi kūpono e lawe ai i ka hoʻopiʻi ma St.

Ke hana nei nā loio hoʻopiʻi e mālama pū ana i nā mea hoʻopiʻi he 14 a ma ke ala no ka hoʻokolokolo ma ka lā 15 ʻOkakopa, e ʻimi ana i ka ʻae ʻia no ka luna kānāwai ʻo Mullen e lawe i kahi hana manawa ʻole i ke kalana no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hihia Roundup. Akā ua kūʻē ʻo Monsanto i kēlā hoʻāʻo, kāhea ʻana iā ia he "noi kupaianaha" i ka leka a ka hui i ka lā 19 Kepakemapa i ka luna kānāwai ʻo St. Louis County ʻo Gloria Clark Reno.

Ua haʻi ka ʻoihana i nā loio o ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi "iā lākou wale nō ka hewa no ke kūlana a lākou e kū nei i kēia manawa. I ka manawa a lākou i waiho ai i kā lākou mau koi, ʻaʻole kūpono kahi i loko o ke kūlanakauhale o St. Louis. hopena. ”

Hoʻohui pū kekahi, ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa nā loio a Monsanto i kā lākou leka i kēlā me kēia hoʻokolokolo ʻaʻole pono ma mua o ʻelua mau mea hoʻopiʻi. ʻO Monsanto o kahi hoʻokolokolo kūpono. ”

ʻO ka hoʻopiʻi Winston, i hoʻopiʻi ʻia ma Malaki o 2018, ʻo ia ka hoʻokolokolo mua loa e noho ai ma ka wahi o St. Ua hoʻolohi ʻia nā hoʻokolokolo ʻelua i hoʻonoho ʻia e hoʻomaka ma St. Louis i ʻAukake a me Kepakemapa.

Ma mua o ke kūʻai aku ʻana iā Bayer i ka makahiki i hala, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Monsanto ma ka wahi kaiāulu o Creve Coeur a ʻo ia kekahi o nā luna hana ma St. ʻO nā hoʻāʻo ʻana o ka maʻi ʻaʻai maʻi Roundup i hoʻonohonoho ʻia no ka wahi o St. Louis i ʻAukake a me Kepakemapa i hoʻopaneʻe ʻia a ʻelua a hiki i kēia makahiki aʻe. ʻO ka e hoʻi kaua ana i hope ma kahi a kahi e hoʻokolokolo ai ʻo Winston a i ʻole ʻaʻole e hana ʻia ma kahi o hoʻokahi makahiki a ʻoi paha.

ʻO ka poʻe hoʻopiʻi ma ka hihia Winston i waena o 18,000 mau kānaka ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e hoʻopiʻi nei iā Monsanto e ʻōlelo nei i ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o nā lāʻau ʻoihana glyphosate i hoʻokumu iā lākou e hoʻomohala i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a ua hūnā ʻo Monsanto i nā pilikia e pili pū ana me kāna mea hoʻomake i ka nāhelehele. Ekolu kau kiure i nā hoʻokolokolo ʻekolu ma luna o nā hoʻopiʻi like i loaʻa i ka makemake o nā mea hoʻopiʻi a kauoha i nā uku hoʻopaʻi nui e kūʻē iā Monsanto.

Ke kūkākūkā nei ʻo Bayer a me nā loio no ka mea hoʻopiʻi hiki ke hoʻonohonoho global  o ka hihia. Ke hana nei ʻo Bayer me kahi kumukūʻai o ke kaumaha a me nā mea hoʻopukapuka hōʻino ʻole mai ka manawa ʻo Aug. 10, 2018 i hoʻoholo ai ke kiure i ka hoʻokolokolo mua ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai Roundup. Ua hāʻawi ka jure i kahu mālama ʻāina ʻo Kaleponi Dewayne "Lee" Johnson $ 289 miliona a ua ʻike ʻo Monsanto i hana me ka hana ʻino i ka kāohi ʻana i ka ʻike e pili ana i nā pilikia o kāna lāʻau make.