Hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake a me ka momona

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ʻEpekema e pili ana i ke kaupaona loaʻa + nā pilikia pili i ka nui
ʻEpekema ʻenehana
ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

ʻO Aspartame, ka hulu kō a kaulana loa o ka honua, i loaʻa i loko o nā tausani o nā kō-kō, kō-kō a me nā mea i kapa ʻia ʻo “diet” a me nā meaʻai. Eia naʻe nā hōʻike ʻepekema i hōʻike ʻia i loko o kēia pepa pepa e hoʻopili i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona.

E ʻoluʻolu e kaʻana i kēia kumuwaiwai. E ʻike pū i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo, Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi, me ka ʻike e pili ana i nā loiloi i nānā ʻia e nā hoa e pili ana i ka aspartame i ka maʻi ʻaʻai, maʻi maʻi maʻi, maʻi Alzheimer, nā hahau, ka hopu ʻana i nā maʻi, a me nā poʻo hina.

Hoʻoponopono pololei

  • ʻO Aspartame - kālepa ʻia ʻo NutraSweet, Kaulike, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet - ʻo ia ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana ʻia e ka honua. Loaʻa ka kemika i nā meaʻai a me nā mea inu he mau kaukani nā huahana, e like me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, gum-sugar, candy, condiment a me nā wikamina.
  • Ua loaʻa iā FDA wahi a aspartame "palekana no ka heluna lehulehu ma lalo o kekahi mau ʻano." Ua ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema he nui ka Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻae ʻia o ka FDA ma luna o ka ʻikepili kānalua a pono e noʻonoʻo hou ʻia.
  • Ua mālama ʻia he mau hanana he nui i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o mau makahiki aspartame i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

ʻO Aspartame, Kaumaha Loaʻa + Loaʻa e pili ana i nā pilikia 

ʻElima mau loiloi o ka ʻepekema moʻokalaleo e pili ana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻino e hōʻike ʻaʻole hāʻawi lākou i ka lilo ʻana o ke kaupaona, a no ka mea paha he kumu ia e loaʻa ai ke kaumaha.

  • A 2017 meta analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”ike no hoi
    • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
    • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)
  • A 2013 Nā kuʻuna i ka Endocrinology a me Metabolism ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi "hōʻiliʻili ʻia nā hōʻike e hōʻike ana i nā mea kūʻai pinepine pinepine i kēia mau mea kō i kū i ka nui o ka loaʻa o ke kaumaha, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi," a ʻo "ka hoʻohana pinepine ʻana i nā meaʻono ikaika nui ke loaʻa ka hopena hopena o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic. ”2
  • A 2009 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali ʻike ka ʻatikala loiloi i ka "hoʻohui o NNS [nonenutritive sweeteners] i nā papaʻai ʻaʻohe waiwai no ka pohō kaumaha a hoʻemi ʻia paha ka loaʻa o ke kaupaona me ka ʻole o ka palena o ka ikehu. Aia kekahi mau manaʻo hopohopo lōʻihi e pili ana i ka hoʻokomo ʻia ʻana o NNS i ka papaʻai e paipai ai i ka lawe ʻana i ka ikehu a hāʻawi i ka momona. ”3
  • A 2010 ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka hopena o ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hoʻopunipuni i hoʻoholo ʻia, "ʻimi nā noiʻi noiʻi i hiki i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi ke kōkua i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha."4
  • A 2010 Ka Nūpepa International o ka nui o nā keiki Kākoʻo ka ʻatikala loiloi, "ʻO ka ʻikepili mai ka nui, nā noiʻi epidemiologic e kākoʻo i ke ola o kahi hui ma waena o ka inu ʻana me ka mea inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha i nā keiki."5

Hōʻike nā hōʻike Epidemiological e hoʻopili ʻia nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono i ka loaʻa kaumaha. O kahi laʻana:

  • ka Ke aʻo naʻau o San Antonio "Ua nānā i kahi pilina maikaʻi, hopena pane-maikaʻi ma waena o AS [hana ʻono] me ka inu inu a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha kau lōʻihi." Eia kekahi, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o 21 mau mea inu momona i hana ʻia i kēlā me kēia pule - hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka poʻe i pau ʻole, "pili pū ʻia me ka ʻaneʻane pālua ʻia ʻana o ka momona a ka momona paha."6
  • ʻO kahi aʻo ʻana i ka inu mea inu ma waena o nā keiki a me nā ʻōpio i piha i ka makahiki 6-19 i paʻi ʻia ma International Journal of Food Food and Nutrition ua loaʻa "pili maikaʻi ka BMI me ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu carbonated."7
  • ʻO kahi makahiki he ʻelua mau makahiki o 164 mau keiki i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka Nupepa o ke Kulanuiʻo NutritionʻAmelika ʻike ʻo "Hoʻonui ka nui o ka ʻai soda ka nui o ka nui o ke kaupaona a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ke kaupaona ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau. ʻO ka baseline BMI Z-score a me ka makahiki 2 ka ʻai sodaʻai i wānana ʻia ma 83.1% o ka ʻokoʻa ma ka makahiki 2 BMI Z-helu. ” Ua ʻike pū ʻia ʻo ia ka "ʻai inu soda ka mea inu wale i pili me ka helu 2 BMI Z-helu, a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻai ma nā kumuhana kaumaha a me nā kumuhana i loaʻa ka paona i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuhana kaupaona maʻamau i ʻelua mau makahiki."8
  • ka Ke ulu nei ʻo US i kēia lā ke aʻo ʻana i nā keiki he 10,000 a ʻoi ka nui o 9-14 mau makahiki i loaʻa, no nā keikikāne, ʻo ka lawe ʻana i ka soda soda “e pili nui me nā hana kaupaona.”9
  • Ke aʻoʻo 2016 ma ka Ka Papa Kakauho o kaʻOihana ua hōʻike i ka loaʻa ʻana he ʻehiku mau mea like ʻole e hōʻike ana i nā hui nui me ka momona o ka ʻōpū i nā wahine, me ka lawe ʻana i ka aspartame.10
  • ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau i nā mea hoʻonaninani a me ka makaʻu i ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka loaʻa ʻana o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi maʻi ʻōpio,"11 e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma luna o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism

Hōʻike like kekahi mau ʻano noiʻi ʻē aʻe ʻaʻole hāʻawi nā mea hoʻonanea i ka pohō kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻaʻole kākoʻo nā noiʻi intervenal i ka manaʻo e hana nā mea hoʻonaninani hana i ka pohō kaumaha. Wahi a ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ka loiloi ʻana i nā puke ʻepekema, "ʻo ka ʻae mai nā noiʻi hoʻokolohua e hōʻike nei ʻaʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻoliʻiliʻi i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ke hoʻohana wale ʻia."12

Hōʻike pū kekahi mau noiʻi e hoʻonui nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka makemake, i hiki ke hāpai i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻO kahi laʻana, ka ʻO Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ua ʻike ʻia "ua ʻike ʻia nā hoʻokolohua Preload i ka ʻono o ka ʻono, i hāʻawi ʻia e ke kō a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻonaninani ʻino, hoʻonui i ka makemake o ke kanaka."13

Hōʻike nā haʻawina e pili ana i nā rodents i ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai ʻana i nā meaʻai keu. Wahi a ka ʻO ka loiloi ʻo Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, "Hoʻohui like ʻole ma waena o ka ʻono momona a me ka ʻike caloric hiki ke alakaʻi i ka ʻai nui ʻana a me ke kaulike ikehu maikaʻi." Hoʻohui ʻia, e like me ka ʻatikala like, "nā mea hoʻonanea ʻono, kūpono no ka mea he mea ʻono ia, paipai i ka ʻono a me ka hilinaʻi i ke kō."14

Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka Ka PepaʻAlaʻAmelika o ke Ola Nui ua loaʻa ʻo "ʻO nā mākua kaumaha a momona hoʻi o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e inu i nā mea inu papaʻai ma mua o ka poʻe mākua olakino olakino, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui o nā calorie mai nā meaʻai paʻa - ma nā pāʻina a me nā mea ʻai māmā - ma mua o nā mākua kaupaona a me nā momona i inu i ka SSB a ʻai i ka huina like o ka nui o nā calorie e like me ke kaumaha a me nā mākua ākea e inu SSBs. "15

A 2015 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina o nā mākua ma ka Ka Nupepa o ka Society Geriatric Society loaʻa "I loko o kahi pānaʻi pane pane-pane," ʻo ka "hoʻonui ʻana i ka DSI [kaʻai ʻana i ka soda] me ka piʻi ʻana o ka momona o ka ʻōpū ..."16

ʻO kahi noi nui 2014 i paʻi ʻia ma Nature ʻike i ka "ʻai ʻana o ka NAS i hoʻohana mau ʻia [non-calorical sweetener] hoʻomohala i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka glucose intolerance ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā loli a me nā hana i ka microbiota ʻōpū. pili ka hopena i kā mākou hopena NAS, ka dysbiosis a me nā pono ʻole o ka metabolic ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa iā NAS ua hāʻawi pololei paha i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ke ahulau kikoʻī a lākou i manaʻo ai e hakakā. ”17

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kekahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic, kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi. Wahi a kahi noi 2017 ma Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism, nāʻiole e loaʻa ana i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i loaʻa ka nui o ke kaumaha a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā ʻanoʻai like ʻole nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "hiki ke kāohi ʻia nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka hemahema o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."18

  • E nānā i kekahi: Hoʻokuʻu kaomi lehulehu Mass ma ke aʻo ʻana, “E pale paha ʻo Aspartame, ʻaʻole e paipai, ka pohō ʻana o ke kaupaona ʻana ma ke ālai ʻana i ka hana a ka enzyme ʻōpū”

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.19

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua hoʻohui ʻia nā mea inu ʻono a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hanana maikaʻi ikaika ma ka hopena ʻo T2D ma waena o ka quartile o ka inu no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai," i hōʻike ʻia i ka noiʻi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.20

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”21

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."22

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"23

ʻEpekema ʻenehana

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā loiloi hou i kahi loulou ma waena o nā mea hoʻonanea a me ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kaumaha. ʻAʻole ʻelua mau noi kālā i hoʻolako kālā ʻia.

  • A 2014 Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali Ua hoʻopau ka meta-analysis "ʻO nā ʻike mai nā noiʻi nānā i hōʻike ʻole i kahi pilina ma waena o LCS [mea hoʻoliʻiliʻi calorie haʻahaʻa] i loaʻa a me ke kaumaha o ke kino a i ʻole ka momona momona a me kahi hui maikaʻi maikaʻi me BMI [body mass index]; Eia nō naʻe, nā ʻikepili mai nā RCT [ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hoʻāʻo hoʻokolohua], e hāʻawi ana i ke kūlana kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe loa o ka hōʻike no ka nānā ʻana i nā hopena hopena o ka LCS e lawe ai, e hōʻike i ka pani ʻana i nā koho LCS no kā lākou mana calorie maʻamau nā hopena i kahi kaupaona hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa. mea hana papaʻai e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ke kūlike me ka pohō a me nā hoʻolālā mālama kaumaha. " "Ua loaʻa i nā mea kākau ke kālā e alakaʻi ai i kēia noiʻi mai ka North American Branch o ka International Life Science Institute (ILSI)."24

ʻO ka International Life Science Institute, kahi nonprofit e hana i ka ʻepekema no ka ʻoihana meaʻai, he mea hoʻopaʻapaʻa i waena o nā poʻe loea olakino lehulehu ma muli o ke kālā kālā ʻana mai nā hui kemika, nā meaʻai a me nā mea lapaʻau a me nā paio kūpono o ka hoihoi, e like me ka 2010 ʻatikala ma Kūlohelohe.25 E nānā pū kekahi: Pono ʻo US e ʻike pepa pono e pili ana i ka International Life Science Institute.

A moʻo o nā moʻolelo i paʻi ʻia ma UPI i ka makahiki 1987 e ka mea noiʻi noiʻi Greg Gordon wehewehe i ke komo ʻana o ILSI i ke kuhikuhi ʻana i ka noiʻi ʻana ma luna o ka aspartame i nā noiʻi e kākoʻo paha i ka palekana o ka mea ʻono.

  • Ke aʻoʻo 2014 ma ka puke pai ʻO Obesity ua hoʻāʻo ka wai e kūʻē i nā mea inu momona no ka papahana hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha he 12 mau pule, ke loaʻa nei "ʻaʻole ʻoi aku ka wai ma mua o nā wai inu NNS [non-nutritive sweetened] no ka pohō kaumaha i ka wā o ka papahana hoʻohaʻahaʻa kaumaha maʻamau āpau." Ua "uku piha ʻia ke aʻo ʻana e ka American Beverage Association,"26 ʻo ia ka pūʻulu lobbying nui no ka ʻoihana soda.

Aia kekahi hōʻike ikaika i ka ʻike ʻia ʻana o nā noi kālā kālā i nā noiʻi biomedical ma mua o ka mea i kālā kūʻokoʻa ʻia. A 2016 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma PLOS Hoʻokahi na Daniele Mandrioli, ʻo Cristin Kearns lāua ʻo Lisa Bero i nānā i ka pilina ma waena o nā hopena noiʻi a me ka makaʻu ʻole o ka hoʻowahāwahā, ke kākoʻo kākoʻo a me nā hakakā kālā a ka mea kākau o ka hoihoi i nā loiloi o nā hopena o nā mea inu momona i hana ʻia ma nā hopena kaupaona.27 Ua hoʻopau nā mea noiʻi, "ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o nā hopena i kākoʻo ʻia e nā ʻoihana mea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni ma mua o nā loiloi i kākoʻo ʻole ʻia e ka ʻoihana ʻē aʻe ... a me nā hopena maikaʻi." ʻAʻole i hōʻike ʻia nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi i 42% o nā loiloi, a me nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi me ka ʻoihana meaʻai (inā i hōʻike ʻia a ʻaʻole paha) i loaʻa nā hopena maikaʻi loa no ka ʻoihana ma mua o nā loiloi i hana ʻia e nā mea kākau me ka ʻole nā hakakā kālā o ka hoihoi. 

A 2007 PLOS ʻImi lāʻau ma ke kākoʻo ʻoihana no ka noiʻi biomedical i ʻike ʻia “ʻO ke kālā ʻoihana o nā ʻepekema ʻepekema e pili ana i ka meaʻai e hiki ai ke hoʻokau i nā hopena ma ke ʻano o nā huahana kākoʻo, me nā hopena koʻikoʻi no ke olakino lehulehu… ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā manawa i nā pono kālā o nā mea kākoʻo ma mua o nā ʻatikala me ka ʻole kālā-pili kālā. ʻO kahi hoihoi nui, ʻaʻole kekahi o nā noi intervensi me nā kākoʻo ʻoihana āpau i hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ”28

ʻO ka "Diet" Ke Kūʻai hoʻopunipuni hoʻopunipuni?

I ʻApelila 2015, ua noi ʻo US Right to Know i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina (FTC) a me ka ʻO kaʻai a me ka lāʻauʻai lāʻau (FDA) e noiʻi i ke kālepa ʻana a me nā hana hoʻolaha o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika e pili ana i ka loaʻa kaumaha.

Ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa mākou ʻo ka huaʻōlelo "ʻai" e like me ka hoʻopunipuni, wahaheʻe a alakaʻi hewa ʻole i ka ʻāpana 5 o ke Federal Commission Commission Act a me ka ʻāpana 403 o ka Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Ua hōʻole nā ​​ʻoihana i kēia manawa e hana i ka haʻi ʻana i ka nele o nā kumuwaiwai a me nā mea nui ʻē aʻe (e nānā FDA a FTC nā pane).

"Minamina ia ʻaʻole hana ka FTC e kāohi i nā hoʻopunipuni o ka ʻoihana soda" ʻai ". Loulou nā hōʻike ʻepekema e hoʻopili i nā mea ʻono hana i ke kaupaona, ʻaʻole i ka pohō, "wahi a Gary Ruskin, ka luna hui o US Right to Know "Ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei wau e iho ana ka soda 'diet' i ka mōʻaukala US ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻopunipuni nui loa nā mea kūʻai aku."

Hōʻike hou:

Hoʻokuʻu a me nā pou kaomi ʻo USRTK:

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema 

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[2] Swithers SE, "Hana nā mea hoʻonaninani i hana i ka hopena Counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā Metabolic Derangement." Nā Trends i Endocrinology a me Metabolism, Iulai 10, 2013. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431-41. PMID: 23850261. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[3] Mattes RD, Popkin BM, "Nonnutritive Sweetener Consump in Human: Effects on Appetite and Food Intake. A me kā lākou putative hana." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ka Nutrical Clinical, Kekemapa 3, 2008. 2009 Ian; 89 (1): 1-14. PMID: 19056571. (Haawina)

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[8] Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE, "Nā kumu inu inu mea inu ma nā kula haʻahaʻa o ke kula haʻahaʻa i nā makahiki ʻelua mau makahiki." Pai o ka American College of Nutr, 2005 Apr; 24 (2): 93- 8. PMID: 15798075. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[9] Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Kahua AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. "Hoʻololi nā mea inu i hoʻohui ʻia me ke kō a me nā ʻōpio." ʻO Obes Res. 2004 Mei; 12 (5): 778-88. PMID: 15166298. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[10] W Wulaningsih, M Van Hemelrijck, KK Tsilidis, I Tzoulaki, C Patel a me S Rohrmann. "Ke noiʻi ʻana i nā meaʻai a me nā mea ola e like me nā mea e hoʻoholo ai i ka momona o ka ʻōpū: kahi noiʻi ākea." Ka Nūpepa' Obiwi Nui o ka Nūhou (2017) 41, 340–347; doi: 10.1038 / ijo.2016.203; paʻi ʻia ma ka pūnaewele 6 Kekemapa 2016 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[11] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hana nā mea hoʻonaninani i nā hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441.

[12] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[13] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[14] Yang Q, "Loaʻa ke kaupaona e ka 'hele ʻana i ka papaʻai?' ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a me ka Neurobiology o ke kuko kō. ” Yale Pai no Biology a me Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. PMID: 20589192. (Haawina)

[15] ʻO Bleich SN, ʻo Wolfson JA, ʻo Vine S, ʻo Wang YC, "Kaʻai ʻana i ka mea inu-inu a me ka ʻai ʻana o Caloric ma waena o nā mākua o ʻAmelika, ma ke ʻano a me ke kaupaona o ke kino." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ke olakino lehulehu, Ianuali 16, 2014. 2014 Malaki; 104 (3): e72-8. PMID: 24432876. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[16] ʻO Fowler S, ʻo Williams K, ʻo Hazuda H, "Hoʻohui ʻia ʻo Diet Soda Intake me nā piʻi lōʻihi i ke kaʻe o ka pūhaka ma kahi hui biethnic o nā ʻelemakule kahiko: Ke aʻo ʻana a San Antonio no ka ʻelemakule." Pai o ka American Geriatrics Society, Malaki 17, 2015. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[17] ʻO Suez J. et al., "Hoʻokalakupua nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻowalewale ʻia e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka Microbiota Gut." Kūlohelohe, Kepakemapa 17, 2014. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521): 181-6. PMID: 25231862 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[18] Gul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Hoʻohālikelike paha ka pāpā ʻana o ka ʻōpū ʻōpū ʻōpū i ka phalphasease alalona pehea e hāpai ai ka aspartame i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose a me ka momona i nāʻiole." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Ian; 42 (1): 77-83. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. Epub 2016 Nov 18. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[19] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hoʻokumu nā mea ʻono hana i ka hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441. (Haawina)

[20] ʻO Guy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "ʻO ka inu ʻana i nā mea inu ʻono a me ke kō a me nā ʻano ʻano like ʻole i ʻike ʻia ma ka Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de lʻEduction Nationale – ʻEulopa ʻosplelo Pelekikena Prospective Investigation i ka cohort maʻi ʻaʻai a me Nutr." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2, Ian 2013; hana: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo/Haawina)

[21] ʻO Suez J et al. "Hoʻokomo nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose e ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū." Kūlohelohe. 2014 ʻOkakopa 9; 514 (7521). PMID: 25231862. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[22] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Pili ka lawe ʻana o ka aspartame me ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose i kēlā me kēia kanaka me ka momona." ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul; 41 (7): 795-8. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. Epub 2016 Mei 24. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[23] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ka Hana Haʻahaʻa Aspartame Hoʻohana ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa iā Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions i ka Diet-Induced Obese Rat. PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (Haawina)

[24] ʻO Miller PE, Perez V, "ʻO nā mea hoʻonanea haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me ke kaumaha o ke kino a me ka haku mele: kahi Meta-Analysis o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi ʻana o ka poʻe ʻōpio mua." Ka Nūpepa ʻAmelika o ka Nutrical Clinical, Iune 18, 2014. 2014 Sep; 100 (3): 765-77. PMID: 24944060. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[25] ʻO Declan Butler, "Hōʻole ka ʻĀina Meaʻai i ka ʻIla Kūʻē. Kūlohelohe, ʻOkakopa 5, 2010. (Haawina)

[26] Peters JC et al., "Nā hopena o ka wai a me nā mea inu ʻono ʻole Nutritive i ka lilo o ke kaupaona i loko o kahi Polokalamu Lapaʻau Līkaumaha 12-Week." ʻO Obesity, 2014 Jun; 22 (6): 1415-21. PMID: 24862170. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[27] Mandrioli D, Kearns C, Bero L. "Ka pilina ma waena o nā hopena noiʻi a me ka hopena o ka bias, ke kākoʻo aʻoaʻo ʻana, a me nā mea hakakā kālā a ka mea kākau kālā o ka hoihoi i nā loiloi o nā hopena o nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia ma nā hopena kaupaona. ” PLOS Hoʻokahi, Kepakemapa 8, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162198

[28] Liʻiliʻi LI, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, Ludwig DS. "Ka pilina ma waena o ke kumu kālā a me ka hopena ma waena o nā ʻatikala ʻepekema e pili ana i ka meaʻai." PLOS Lapaʻau, 2007 Ian; 4 (1): e5. PMID: 17214504. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

ʻIke ʻia ka ʻinu inu mea hoaaloha ma loko o ke keʻena olakino o US

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Ua paʻi mua ʻia kēia ʻatikala e Huffington Post

Na Carey Gillam 

He makahiki ʻino ia no Big Soda, nā mea kūʻai aku o kēlā mau mea inu momona momona a nā keiki (a me nā mākua) i makemake ai e chug.

He hoʻoholo i Iune 16 e nā alakaʻi o ke kūlanakauhale ma Piladelapia e hoʻokau i kahi "ʻauhau soda" ma ke ʻano he mea e hoʻonāwaliwali ai i ka inu ʻana i nā mea inu i ʻike ʻia he maikaʻi ʻole ka mea hou loa i kahi lono maikaʻi ʻole no nā ʻoihana e like me Coca-Cola a me PepsiCo, ka mea i ʻike i ka kūʻai aku ʻana o nā mea inu momona e emi mau ana. Ua kipaku nā mea hoʻopukapuka hopohopo i nā ʻāpana i kēlā mau ʻoihana ma lalo o ka neʻe ʻana o ka Piladelapia no ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā mea akā nā hōʻike hou loa e hoʻopili ana nā mea kūʻai, nā luna ʻaha ʻōlelo a me nā loea olakino i nā mea inu momona i ka nui o nā pilikia olakino, e like me ka momona a me ka maʻi kōkō ʻelua.

I ka makahiki aku nei Ua hoʻoholo ʻo Kapalakiko i kahi kānāwai e koi ana i nā hoʻolaha no nā mea inu kō e hoʻopili i nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e pili ana i nā hopena olakino maikaʻi ʻole e pili ana me nā huahana.

Ua hele mai kahi hōʻeha koʻikoʻi i Iune i ka wā i hala aku nei ka Luna Hoʻokele o ka World Health (WHO) Luna Nui ʻo Margaret Chan wahi a ke kūʻai aku ʻana i nā mea inu momona piha kō he mea kōkua nui i ka piʻi ʻana o ke keiki momona a puni ka honua, keu hoʻi i nā ʻāina kūkulu. Ua hoʻolaha ʻo WHO i kahi kulekele kō hou i Malaki 2015, a ua ʻōlelo ʻo Chan i nā kapu no ka inu ʻana i ka wai momona.

Ua hoʻokō ʻia ʻo Mekiko kāna ʻauhau soda ponoʻī i ka 2014, a me nā kūlanakauhale he nui ma ka US a me ka honua holoʻokoʻa e noʻonoʻo nei i kēia mau kapu a i ʻole disincentives, e like me nā ʻauhau i hoʻohui ʻia, ʻoiai ua hana ʻē aʻe kekahi. Ua hoʻopili ka ʻauhau soda Mekiko me ke kulu o ke kūʻai soda. e like me ka noiʻi i paʻi ʻia ma mua o kēia makahiki.

ʻAʻohe mea kupanaha ka ʻoihana inu mea inu, e ʻohiʻohi i mau piliona kālā ma kēlā me kēia makahiki mai nā kūʻai inu momona, e makaʻu - a e hakakā kūʻē ana - i kēia ʻano loli.

Akā he mea kupaianaha kekahi o nā wahi i ʻimi ai ka ʻoihana inu, a ua loaʻa kekahi kōkua - mai kahi luna kiʻekiʻe me nā Centers for Disease Control and Prevent, nona ka ʻaoʻao e pale aku i ka momona, ka maʻi kō, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. pilikia olakino.

Nā kamaʻilio leka uila i loaʻa mai iā US Right to Know ma o ka mokuʻāina Freedom o ka ʻikepili noi ʻana i ka kikoʻī pehea e hiki ai i kahi mea inu mea inu a me ka mea kōkua ʻoihana meaʻai i ka makahiki i hala ke noi a me ka hoʻokomo a me ke alakaʻi mai iā Dr. Barbara Bowman, ka luna o ka CDC's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevent, pehea e kamaʻilio ai i ka World Health Organization nā hana i hōʻeha i ka hana inu.

Alakaʻi ʻo Bowman i kahi ʻāpana CDC i uku ʻia me ka hāʻawi ʻana i "alakaʻi olakino lehulehu" a hana pū me nā mokuʻāina e hāpai i ka noiʻi a nā hāʻawi e pale a mālama i nā kumu pilikia e pili ana i ka momona, diabetes, maʻi puʻuwai a me ka hahau. 

Akā nā leka uila ma waena o Bowman lāua ʻo Alex Malaspina, he alakaʻi ʻepekema Coca-Cola ma mua a alakaʻi i ka ʻenehana International Life Institute (ILSI) i hoʻolako kālā ʻia, hōʻike ʻia ua hauʻoli ʻo Bowman e kōkua i ka ʻoihana inu e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka politika. Ka Hui Ola Ola Honua.

ʻO nā leka uila mai ka 2015 kikoʻī e pili ana iā Malaspina, e hōʻike ana i nā makemake o Coca-Cola a me ka ʻoihana meaʻai, i kī ʻia iā Bowman e hoʻopiʻi e hāʻawi ana ka World Health Organization i kahi poʻohiwi anu i ka hui kemika a me ka meaʻai i hoʻolako kālā ʻia i kapa ʻia ʻo ILSI, a Malaspina hoʻokumu ʻia i ka makahiki 1978. Aia i loko o nā leka uila nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka hopohopo e pili ana i kā Coca-Cola hou Coca-Cola Life, ʻono loa ʻia me stevia, a me nā loiloi i ka nui o ke kō ma mua o ka palena o nā lā i koi ʻia e WHO.

Aia nā leka uila e pili ana i ke kāhea a WHO no ka hoʻoponopono hou aku e pili ana i nā mea inu momona sugary, e ʻōlelo ana ua kōkua lākou i ka piʻi ʻana o ka nui momona ma waena o nā keiki, a hoʻopiʻi no nā ʻōlelo a Chan.

"He mau manaʻo pehea e hiki ai iā mākou ke kamaʻilio me WHO?" Kākau ʻo Malaspina i ka lā 26 Iune 2015, leka uila iā Bowman. Ua hāʻawi ʻo ia iā ia i kahi kaula leka uila e hoʻopili ana i nā luna kiʻekiʻe mai Coca-Cola a me ILSI a hōʻike i ka hopohopo e pili ana i nā hōʻike maikaʻi ʻole e pili ana i nā huahana me ka nui o ke kō, a me nā hoʻolālā ʻauhau soda momona ma Europe. I loko o ke kaula leka uila, ua ʻōlelo ʻo Malaspina hiki i nā hana a ka WHO ke loaʻa nā "hopena maikaʻi ʻole ma ka pae honua."

"He koʻikoʻi ka hoʻoweliweli i kā mākou ʻoihana," kākau ʻo Malaspina i ka kaulahao leka uila āna i hoʻouna ai iā Bowman. Ma ke kaulahao leka uila ʻo Coca-Cola Luna Nui a me nā luna kūkā kamaʻilio ʻo Clyde Tuggle a ʻo Coca-Cola hoʻi ka luna ʻenehana ʻo Ed Hays.

ʻ tellslelo pololei ʻo ia iā Bowman i nā luna ma WHO "ʻaʻole makemake e hana pū me ka ʻoihana." A ʻōlelo: “Pono e hana ʻia kekahi mea.”

Pane aku ʻo Bowman i kekahi me Gates a i ʻole "Bloomberg people" hiki i nā pili pili kokoke i hiki ke wehe i ka puka ma WHO. Hōʻike pū kekahi ʻo ia e hoʻāʻo i kekahi ma ka papahana PEPFAR, kahi papahana i kākoʻo ʻia e ke aupuni US e loaʻa ai nā lāʻau HIV / AIDS ma o ka ʻĀpana ʻo Sahara ʻApelika. ʻLelo aku ʻo ia iā ia, "ʻO wai ke kī o ka pūnaewele." Kākau ʻo ia e pili ana ʻo ia i ka hui pū ʻana. "

Ma kahi aʻe Iune 27, 2015 leka uila, Mahalo ʻo Malaspina iā ia no nā "alakaʻi maikaʻi loa" a ʻōlelo "makemake mākou iā WHO e hoʻomaka e hana hou me ILSI ... a no WHO e noʻonoʻo ʻole i nā mea momona wale nō ke kumu o ka momona nui akā e noʻonoʻo pū hoʻi i nā loli ke kaila o ke ola i loaʻa. e hana ʻia a puni ka Universe. ” Hāʻawi ʻo ia iā ia e hui koke lāua ʻo Bowman no ka ʻaina awakea.

ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo e kamaʻilio nei kahi luna olakino kiʻekiʻe o US ma kēia ala me kahi alakaʻi ʻoihana inu mea kūpono ʻole, e like me kā Marion Nestle, ka mea kākau o ka puke "Soda Politics" a he polopeka no ka mālama pono, hoʻopaʻa haʻawina meaʻai, a me ke olakino lehulehu ma ke Kulanui o New York.

"Hōʻike kēia mau leka uila iā ILSI, Coca-Cola, a me nā mea noiʻi i kākoʻo kālā ʻia e Coca-Cola i kahi 'in' me kahi luna CDC koʻikoʻi," i ʻōlelo ʻo Nestle. "Makemake paha ka luna i ke kōkua ʻana i kēia mau pūʻulu e hoʻonohonoho i nā kūʻē iā" ʻai iki i ke kō "a me" hōʻike i ka waihona kālā ʻoihana ". ʻO ke kono i ka ʻaina awakea e hōʻike ana i kahi pilina ʻoluʻolu ... ʻO kēia hiʻohiʻona o ka hakakā o ka hoihoi ke kumu e pono ai nā kulekele no ka hoʻopili ʻana me nā ʻoihana no nā luna pekelala. "

Akā ua haʻi aku ka mea haʻi ʻōlelo CDC, ʻo Kathy Harben, i nā leka uila ʻaʻole no ka hakakā a pilikia paha.

"ʻAʻole ia he mea maʻamau ke hoʻopili aku ʻo CDC me nā poʻe ma nā ʻaoʻao āpau o kahi pilikia." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Harben.

ʻO Robert Lustig, Polofesa o Pediatrics ma ka Division of Endocrinology ma ke Kulanui o Kaleponi, San Francisco, ua ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo ILSI kahi "hui mua no ka ʻoihana meaʻai." Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Lustig ua ʻike ʻo ia he "hoihoi" ia ʻaʻole e kū ka CDC i ke kaohi ʻana i ka ʻai kō, ʻoiai ka hopohopo o ka WHO e pili ana i nā loulou i ka maʻi. Alakaʻi ʻo Lustig i kā UCSF polokalamu WAIWAI (Nānā ʻImi no ke olakino ʻōpio a me ke keiki), a he mea hoʻokumu pū o ka Institute non-profit Institute for Responsible Nutr.

ʻAʻole ʻo Bowman a me Malaspina i pane i nā noi no ka manaʻo.

Hōʻike nā pānaʻi leka uila ua hana ʻo Bowman ma mua o ka pane wale ʻana i nā nīnau mai Malaspina. Ua hoʻokumu ʻo ia i nā leka uila a me nā ʻike i hoʻouna ʻia i loaʻa iā ia mai nā hui ʻē aʻe. ʻO nā leka uila a Bowman me Malaspina i loaʻa a hoʻouna ʻia ma o kāna moʻokāki leka pilikino, ʻoiai ma ka liʻiliʻi o kekahi o nā kamaʻilio, ua hāʻawi ʻo Bowman i ka ʻike mai kāna leka uila CDC i kāna moʻokāki leka pilikino ma mua o ka hāʻawi ʻana iā Malaspina.

I kahi leka uila Pepeluali 2015 mai ʻo Bowman a i Malaspina ua kaʻana like ʻo ia i kahi leka uila i loaʻa iā ia mai kahi luna o ka USDA me ke ʻano o ke kumuhana “NO KOU REVIEW: Nā Manaʻo Manaʻo o Dec 8 Public Private Partnership Meeting.” ʻO ka leka uila mai a David Klurfeld, ke alakaʻi o ka papahana aupuni no ka hānai kanaka ma ka USDA's Agricultural Research Service, ua hoʻopuka ʻia kahi ʻatikala mai ka puke pai olakino BMJ e koi ana i ka pono no ka lehulehu / nā pilikino pilikino, a ua hoʻopili ʻia kahi ʻōlelo e pili ana i kahi "kaha ikaika o ka hemolele i ka lehulehu o Beritania. ke olakino. " ʻ tellslelo ʻo Bowman iā Malaspina: “He hoihoi paha kēia. E nānā pono i nā leka a ka BMJ. "

I loko o kahi leka uila 18 Malaki 2015 mai ʻo Bowman a i Malaspina ua hoʻouna ʻo ia i kahi leka uila e pili ana i kahi ʻōlelo pili i ka kulekele hou e kāohi ai i ka ʻai kō ma ka honua i loaʻa iā ia mai ka World Cancer Research Fund International. A laila hāʻawi ʻo Malaspina i nā kamaʻilio me nā luna o Coca-Cola a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.

I kahi leka uila Malaki 2015, Ua hoʻouna ʻo Bowman iā Malaspina i kekahi mau hōʻuluʻulu o nā hōʻike a CDC a ʻōlelo ʻo ia e mahalo ʻo ia i kāna "manaʻo a me nā ʻōlelo."

ʻO Bowman, ka mea e paʻa ana i kahi PhD i ka meaʻai a me ka biologyolaola kanaka, ua hana ʻo ia ma ka CDC mai 1992, a ua paʻa i kekahi mau alakaʻi alakaʻi kiʻekiʻe ma laila. Ua koho ʻia ʻo ia i alakaʻi o ka Division no Heart Disease a me ka Stroke Prevent i ka National Center for Chronic Disease Prevent and Health Promotional ma CDC i Pepeluali 2013.

He lōʻihi nō hoʻi ka hana a Malaspina ma kāna ʻano loea. Ua hoʻokumu ka mea kahiko ʻo Coca-Cola i ka ILSI ma 1978 me ke kōkua mai Coca-Cola, Pepsi a me nā mea pāʻani ʻoihana ʻē aʻe a holo aku ia a hiki i ka makahiki 1991. He pilina lōʻihi a lohi hoʻi ko ILSI me ka World Health Organization, e hana pū ana me kekahi manawa me kāna ʻOihana a me nā ʻoihana Mahiai (FAO) a me ka WHO International Agency no ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai a me ka papahana o ka honua e pili ana i ka palekana Chemical.

Akā kahi hōʻike e kahi kākāʻōlelo iā WHO ua ʻike ʻo ILSI e hoʻokomo ana iā WHO a me FAO me nā ʻepekema, kālā a me nā noiʻi e loaʻa ai ka makemake no nā huahana ʻoihana a me nā hoʻolālā. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo ILSI  e hoʻāʻo nei e hoʻohaʻahaʻa iā WHO nā hana kaohi paka ma ka ʻaoʻao o ka ʻoihana paka.

Ua haʻalele mamao ʻo WHO iā ia iho mai ILSI. Akā ua hū hou nā nīnau e pili ana i ka mana ILSI i kēia pūnāwai ke hui pū nā ʻepekema me ka ILSI i kahi loiloi i ka controversial herbicide glyphosate, e hoʻopuka nei i kahi hoʻoholo i makemake ʻia iā Monsanto Co. a me ka ʻoihana pesticide.

ʻO Carey Gillam kahi mea kākau moʻolelo kahiko a me ka luna noiʻi no US Right to Know, kahi hui aʻo mea kūʻai waiwai ʻole. Hahai iā ia ma Twitter @CareyGillam